CLASSIFICATION OF MINERALS
1. PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS (MACROMINERALS)
2. TRACE ELEMENTS (MICROMINERALS)
1. PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS
-Constitute about 60-80% of body’s inorganic materials.
-It required in amounts greater than 100 mg/day.
2. TRACE ELEMENTS
-Required in amount in amount less than 100 mg/day.
-Subdivided into three categories
a. Essential Trace elements
b. Possibly Essential Trace Elements
c. Non Essential trace Elements
- Most abundant among all minerals in body
- Total content about 1-1.5 kg in adult person
- As much as 99% of it present in bones and teeth.
- 1% of calcium found outside the skeletal tissue performs a wide variety of
1. Development of bones and teeth
-Osteoblast are responsible for Bone formation.
- Osteoclast are responsible for Bone demineralization.
2. Muscle contraction
-Ca ions interact with troponin C to trigger muscle contraction.
Several reactions in the cascade of blood clotting process depends on Ca ions
( Factor IV)
4.Nerve impulse transmission
- Ca ions is necessary for the transmission of nerve impulse.
5.Membrane integrity & permeability
-Ca ions influence the membrane structure.
6.Activation of enzymes
-Ca ions are needed for direct activation of enzymes such as-
8.Release of Hormone
-The release of certain hormone from endocrine glands is facilitated by Ca.
-Ca ions regulates microfilament & microtubule mediated process such as
ADULT MAN- 800 mg/day
During Pregnancy & Lactation- 1500mg/day
=ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM IN GI TRACT=
-Mostly absorbed in Duodenum by energy dependent process.
Factor Promoting Ca Absorption
1. Vit D-(Through its active form calcitriol)
Vitamin D (active form) Increased synthesis of Ca Binding protein in intestinal
Increased Ca Absorption
PTH increased Ca Absorption through increased synthesis of
calcitriol (active form of vitamin D).
3. Low pH in intestinal lumen is favoring Ca absorption.
Lactose increased Ca uptake by intestinal cell
5. Lysine & Arginine increased Ca absorption.
Factors inhibiting Ca Absorption
1.Phytate & Oxalate
-Forms insoluble salt of calcium and interfere with Ca absorption.
- High content of dietary phosphate result in formation of insoluble
calcium phosphate and prevent Ca uptake
3.Free fatty acid
-The free fatty acids react with calcium to form insoluble Ca soap.
4.High pH in intestinal lumen
-Alkaline condition in intestinal lumen is unfavorable for Ca absorption.
5.High content of dietary fiber
- High content of fiber in diet interfere with Ca absorption.
=CIRCULATING FRACTIONS OF CALCIUM
=Plasma Calcium Level=
Normal level of Total Ca = 9-11 mg/dl
Normal level of ionized Ca = 5mg/dl (ACTIVE Ca)
Normal level of bound Ca = 4-5mg/dl
= HORMONAL REGULATION OF PLASMA Ca LEVEL=
-Major Hormonal factors maintaining homeostasis of Ca are
1. Calcitriol or 1,25 DHCC
1.Calcitriol or 1,25 DHCC
- The physiologically active form of vitamin D called calcitriol or 1,25 DHCC
Calcitriol increased synthesis of specific Ca binding protein in
Increased intestinal absorption of Ca & Phosphate
Increased Blood Ca level
Calcitriol increased calcium uptake by Osteoblast of bone
Promotes Calcification, mineralization and remodeling of bone
2. PTH (Parathyroid hormone)
-PTH hormone secreted by two pairs of Parathyroid glands.
-PTH (mol wt 95000) is a single chain polypeptide containing 84 amino acid.
Pre-Pro PTH Pro-PTH Active PTH Secreted in blood
-Low level of Ca ion concentration promoted release of PTH from parathyroid
gland (Negative Feedback).
-Prime function of PTH-
Increased serum Ca level
Three site of action of PTH-
- A. Bone
- B. Kidney
- C. Intestine
A. Action on Bone by PTH
- PTH causes decalcification or demineralization of bone.
- This process is carried out by Osteoclast.
B. Action on Kidney by PTH
- PTH increased Ca reabsorption by Renal tubules
Increased Blood Calcium level
-This is the most rapid action of PTH to increased blood Ca level
Increased blood Ca level
C. Action on Intestine by PTH
PTH increased synthesis of Calcitriol
Increased intestinal absorption of Ca
Increased blood Ca level
-Calcitonin is secreted by parafollicular cell of thyroid gland.
-Opposite action of PTH.
-Calcitonin thus promote calcification by increasing the activity of Osteoblast.
-Calcitonin decreased bone resorption & increased excretion of Ca through
Decreased blood Calcium level
HOMEOSTASIS OF CALCIUM by PTH and CALCITONIN
= Diseased state=
1.Serum Ca level increased.
2. Hypercalcemia is associated with hyperparathyroidism which is caused by
increased activity of parathyroid gland.
3.Increased Alkaline Phosphatase activity.
4.Increased urinary excretion of Ca & P.
5.Formation of urinary calculi.
-Clinical symptom of Hypercalcemia-
*Loss of appetite
*Increased myocardial contractility
-Fall of serum Ca below 7 mg/dl causing TETANY.
-The clinical sign & symptoms of Tetany includes
- Neuromuscular irritability
-Hypocalcemia is mostly due to Hypoparathyroidism which may happen
after accidental surgical removal of parathyroid gland or due to an
- Hypocalcemia is very serious and life threatening condition.
-Defective calcification of bone.
-Causes due to
*Low level of Vit D in body due to dietary deficiency of Ca
-Serum Ca or P may be low or normal
-Increased activity of Alkaline Phosphatase is characteristic feature of
-Demineralization of bone resulting in the progressive loss of bone mass.
-Elderly people over age of sixty in both sexes are at risk but most
predominantly occur in postmenopausal women.
-It results frequent bone fracture in elderly.
-Occurs due to less ability of formation of Calcitriol from Vit D in elderly.
Deficiency of sex hormone in postmenopausal women.
-Estrogen administration along with calcium supplementation in
combination with Vitamin D to postmenopausal women reduce the risk of
-Higher dietary intake of Ca (about 1.5 g/day) is recommended for elderly
=FACTORS INCREASING THE RISK OF OSTEOPOROSIS=
-Chief cation of extra cellular fluid
-About 50% of body sodium presence in Bone, 40% in extra cellular fluid &
10% in soft tissue.
Normal individual- 5-10 gm/day as NaCl(10gm NaCl= 4gm Na)
Hypertensive- Not more than 1gm/day
= BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTION=
1. Regulate Acid-Base balance in association with Cl- and Bicarbonate.
2. Maintain Osmotic pressure & fluid balance.
3. Necessary for normal muscle irritability and cell permeability.
4. Promotes intestinal absorption of Glucose, Galactose & Amino Acid.
=PLASMA SODIUM LEVEL=
-Normal serum level (Present as extra cellular cations) = 135-145meq/L
-Blood cellular level= 35meq/L
-Absorbed mainly on GI Tract
-Less than 2% normally found in feces
-Kidney is the major source of excretion
-800mg/day filtered through glomeruli
-99% of this reabsorbed by renal tubules by active process controlled by
-Through skin in case of extreme sweating. However there is individual
variation in sodium loss through sweat.
-This condition is characterized by an elevation in the serum sodium level.
-The symptom include increased blood volume and blood pressure.
-Hyperactivity of Adrenal cortex (CUSHING’S SYNDROME)
-Prolonged use of Cortisone, ACTH, Sex Hormones
-Loss of water from the body (In Dehydration).
- Serum sodium levels falls below the normal level
-Hypernatremia Occurs due to
-Occur due to -Diarrhea
-Chronic Renal Disease
-Adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's DESEASE)
-Edema occurred due to water retention along with hypernatremia.
-Total contain about 3-5 gm in an adult individual.
-70% presence in erythrocytes of blood as a constitute of hemoglobin ,5%
in myoglobin in muscles.
-Heme is the most predominant iron containing substance.
-Constituents of several proteins & enzymes like
-Certain other proteins contain ‘non- heme’ iron like
=ABSORPTION, TRANSPORT & STORAGE=
-In normal individual 10% of dietary iron is usually absorbed.
-Dietary iron mainly absorbed in stomach and duodenum.
-Iron mainly found in foods in ferric form (Fe+++) which bound to protein
and organic acids.
-Iron in ferrous form is soluble and readily absorbed.
=ABSORPTION, TRANSPORT & STORAGE=
LUMEN OF GIT MUCOSAL CELL OF
Fe+++( Ferric form)
BONE MARROW (Hb)
OTHER TISSUE (Cyts)
=STORAGE OF IRON
As Ferritin= Liver
Hold 25% of Fe by weight
-Hold 35% Fe by weight.
-Hemosiderin accumulates in the body particularly in Liver and spleen
when supply of iron is excess than body demand.
-Hemoglobin & Myoglobin required Fe for transport of O2 & CO2
-Cytochrome required iron for electron transport chain & oxidative
-Fe associated for effective immunocompetence of our body
IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
-This is the most prevalent nutritional disorder worldwide.
-Mostly occurred in growing children, adolescent girls, pregnant & lactating
-Characterized by Microcytic Hypochromic anemia with reduced blood Hb
level (<12 g /dl.)
-Sluggish metabolic activity
-Loss of Appetite etc
-Due to excessive Fe in the body
-In repeated blood transfusion
-Patient of Hemolytic anemia
-Patient of Hemophilia
-Excessive Fe deposited as Ferritin & Hemosiderin.
-Due to high intake of Fe.
-Iron is deposited in tissue like Liver, Spleen, Pancreases, Skin.
Bronzed pigmentation of skin
-Hemochromatosis causes a condition known as Bronze Diabetes.
-Adult male person contained about 1kg of phosphorus and found in every
cell of the body.
-Mostly combined with Ca to deposit in bone & teeth(80%).
-About 10% of body P is found in muscle & blood in association with
protein, carbohydrate & lipid.
-Remaining 10% is widely distributed in various chemical compounds.
=SERUM PHOSPHORUS LEVEL=
-In whole Blood- 40mg/dl
-Serum level- 3-4mg/dl
- Serum Phosphate
-Free Form 40%
-Complex form with Ca, Mg, Na, K ions is about 50%
-Absorption mostly from Jejunum.
-Calcitriol increased absorption of P among with Ca.
-Acidity in intestinal lumen increased absorption of P.
-Urinary excretion about 500mg/day.
-Renal Threshold 2mg/dl.
-Reabsorption of phosphate by renal tubules is inhibited by PTH.
-Phosphorus is essential for development of Bone and teeth.
-It play a central role for formation & Utilization of high energy phosphate
compound like ATP.
-Required for formation of Phospholipids, phosphoprotein, Nucleic acid.
-As phosphate buffer for maintenance of pH of blood (around 7.4) & cell.
-Body contain about 20 gm of Mg.
-70% presence in bone in combination of Ca & P.
-30% in soft tissues & body fluids.
-Adult Male= 350mg/day
-Adult Female= 300mg/day
= SERUM LEVEL=
NORMAL LEVEL= 2-3mg /dl
-Combination with other ions-10%
-Required for formation of Bone & Teeth.
-Mg ion serve as cofactor for several enzymes requiring ATP like
-For proper neuromuscular function, Low Mg level leads to neuromuscular
Mg Deficiency causes
Low level of Mg observed in
- Potassium is a principle intracellular cation.
-90% Absorption in GI Tract.
-Very little loss through feces, however a subject with diarrhea a
good proportion of potassium lost in feces.
-Potassium maintain intracellular osmotic pressure.
-It is required for the regulation of acid base balance & water
balance in the cell.
-Potassium is required for transmission of nerve impulse.
-Extra cellular K ions influence cardiac muscle activities.
=NORMAL VALUE IN SERUM- 3.5-5 mmol/L
Serum Potassium concentration is maintained within a narrow range.
-Increased serum potassium level is called Hyperkalemia.
-Addison’s Disease (Adrenocortical insufficiency)
-Decreased serum potassium level is called Hypokalemia.
-Over activity of adrenal cortex (Cushing
-Prolonged cortisone therapy
-Intravenous administration of potassium free fluid.
-Prolonged Diarrhea & vomiting
-Prolonged administration of Insulin
-Body contain about 100mg copper
Adult= 2-3 mg/day
Infants & Children= 0.5-2 mg/day
= PLASMA LEVEL=
Normal level in plasma= 100-200 mg/dl
-95% bound to Cerulloplasmin
-5% loosely held to Albumin
-Essential component of several enzymes like
-For synthesis of Hb ( Cu is a important component of ALA Synthase
needed for heme synthesis)
-Cerulloplasmin act as Ferroxidase, involved conversion of iron from ferrous to
-For synthesis of Melanin & Phospholipids
-For development of Bone & Nervous System
-Due to defect of intestinal absorption of Cu.
-Symptoms of Menke’s Disease are
-Decreased copper in plasma & urine
-Depigmentation of hair.
1. COPPER DEFICIENCY
Severe deficiency of copper causes
-Demineralization of Bone and
-Demyelination of nervous tissue
-Fragility of arteries
-Hypo pigmentation of skin
-Graying of hair
3. WILSON’S DISEASE OR HEPATOLENTICULAR DEGENERATION
=This disorder of abnormal copper metabolism is characteristics by the
-Copper deposited in liver & lenticular nucleus of brain leads to Hepatic
cirrhosis & brain necrosis.
-Low level of copper & ceruloplasmin in plasma
-Increased excretion of copper in urine.
-Copper deposition in kidney causes renal damage
-Intestinal absorption of copper is very high , about 4-6 times higher
=Probable cause of Wilson's disease.
1. A failure to synthesis of ceruloplasmin or an impairment in the
binding capacity of copper to ceruloplasmin or both
Copper is free in plasma which easily enter into tissue (liver, brain, kidney)
Binds with protein & get deposited.
2.Reduced intestinal excretion of copper may be also responsible
As a result
=Total body contains 20mg of iodine
=80%presence in Thyroid gland
=Muscle, Salivary gland & Ovaries also contain some amount of iodine
-Absorb as Iodide in small intestine.
-Normally 30% of Dietary iodine is taken by intestinal cell.
-80% body iodide stored as Iodothyroglobulin in thyroid gland. This protein
contains Thyroxin, Diiodotyrosine & Triiodothyronine in different proportion.
-Excretion mainly through Kidney.
-Required for synthesis of Thyroid hormone namely Thyroxin(T4) and
The disorder of iodine metabolism are
-Normal concentration of plasma iodine is 4-10 mg/dl.
-Most of it present as Protein Bound Iodine (PBI) and represent the iodine
contained in circulating thyroid hormones.
-RBC donot contain any iodine.
-The total content of Zinc in an adult body is about 2 gm.
-Prostate Gland is very rich in Zn ( 100 mg/dl).
-Zn is mainly an intracellular element
-Normal serum concentration of Zn is about 100mg/dl.
-Zinc deficiency is associated with
*Poor wound healing
*loss of taste sensation
*Loss of appetite
-Congenital malformation of fetus if deficiency in intrauterine life.
-Psychiatric disorder like
*Other psychiatric disorders
-The manifestation of Zn toxicity are
-Fluuorine is mainly found in bone & teeth
DIETARY REQUIREMENTS AND SOURCES
-Daily requirment is less than 2ppm
-drinking water is the main sources
-Fluoride prevents the development of Dental carries
( It forms a protective layer of acid resistant fluoroapatite with
Hydroxyapatite of the enamel and prevents the tooth decay by bacterial
-Fluoride is necessary for the proper development of bone.
-Fluoride inhibits the activities of certain enzymes
*Fluoroacetate inhibits Acotinase ( of TCA cycle)
*Sodium Fluoride inhibits Enolase ( of Glycolysis)