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Calcium

Role of a macro mineral -Calcium in human body

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CALCIUM
PRESENTED BY :
SANJALI EKATPURE
MSc
Symbiosis School of Biological Sciences
 CALCIUM :
 Symbol: Ca
 Atomic number: 20
 Atomic weight: 40
 History: It was in 1808, a British scientist Sir
Humphry Davy isolated calcium from a
mixture of lime and mercuric oxide.
 Applications: used in food preservatives,
cement, paints, insecticides etc.
Introduction -
calcium is a major mineral in human body.
 Almost 99% of calcium is present in the hard
tissues of the body –namely the bones and
teeth.
 The rest is distributed in blood and soft tissues ,
such as muscles , the liver and the heart.
 Normal blood plasma calcium is 9 – 11mg/dl.
 Calcium is stored in the form of hydroxyapatite
Ca10[PO4]6[OH]2.
 Men accumulate more skeletal calcium
[1200mg] than women [1000mg].
Functions :
 BONE FORMATION : calcium comprises 39.9 %
of the weight of bone mineral .there is about
1kg of calcium in the adult skeleton as a
complex crystalline material with phosphate
.the mineral is laid down on an organic matrix
– collagen.
 There are two types of bones –dense cortical
bone [80%of skeleton ] and spongy trabecular
bone [20%of skeleton ].
 The turnover of bone is controlled by the
activities of its bone cells –
 1 Osteoclasts – resorption of bone.
 2 osteoblasts – bone formation.
 3 osteocytes – communication with each other.
 Skeleton is constantly being resorbed and
replaced.
 The peak bone mass is achieved during 18 -20
yrs. of age.
Tooth formation: The enamel and dentine of tooth contain
calcium in the form of hudroxyapatite . These crystals are dense in
teeth than bones ,present along a protein called keratin.
The calcification of deciduous teeth begins by the time fetus is 20
weeks old and is completed shortly before they erupt at about 6
months.
Growth: Important part of bones, teeth and normal functioning of
every cell in the body.
Cofactor and regulator of biochemical reactions :
1.Blood clotting – It catalyses the conversion of the protein
prothrombin into thrombin which acts as an enzyme for formation
of insoluble blood clot.
2. Contraction of muscles – Free calcium ions are released by the
initiation of nerve impulses . This is the internal trigger which leads to
shortening of myofibrils and so to contraction of muscles .
3. Calcium as intracellular messenger – It acts as a second
messenger for action of hormones e.g. epinephrine in liver
glycogenolysis.
4. Release of hormones – It facilitates the release of hormones like
insulin ,PTH and calcitonin.
5. Action on heart – it acts on myocardium and prolongs systole .
6. Membrane integrity and permeability – Calcium influences the
membrane structure and transport of water and several ions across it .
7. Activation of enzymes- such as pancreatic lipase ,ATPase and
succinate dehydrogenase .

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Calcium

  • 1. CALCIUM PRESENTED BY : SANJALI EKATPURE MSc Symbiosis School of Biological Sciences
  • 2.  CALCIUM :  Symbol: Ca  Atomic number: 20  Atomic weight: 40  History: It was in 1808, a British scientist Sir Humphry Davy isolated calcium from a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide.  Applications: used in food preservatives, cement, paints, insecticides etc.
  • 3. Introduction - calcium is a major mineral in human body.  Almost 99% of calcium is present in the hard tissues of the body –namely the bones and teeth.  The rest is distributed in blood and soft tissues , such as muscles , the liver and the heart.  Normal blood plasma calcium is 9 – 11mg/dl.  Calcium is stored in the form of hydroxyapatite Ca10[PO4]6[OH]2.  Men accumulate more skeletal calcium [1200mg] than women [1000mg].
  • 4. Functions :  BONE FORMATION : calcium comprises 39.9 % of the weight of bone mineral .there is about 1kg of calcium in the adult skeleton as a complex crystalline material with phosphate .the mineral is laid down on an organic matrix – collagen.  There are two types of bones –dense cortical bone [80%of skeleton ] and spongy trabecular bone [20%of skeleton ].  The turnover of bone is controlled by the activities of its bone cells –  1 Osteoclasts – resorption of bone.  2 osteoblasts – bone formation.  3 osteocytes – communication with each other.  Skeleton is constantly being resorbed and replaced.  The peak bone mass is achieved during 18 -20 yrs. of age.
  • 5. Tooth formation: The enamel and dentine of tooth contain calcium in the form of hudroxyapatite . These crystals are dense in teeth than bones ,present along a protein called keratin. The calcification of deciduous teeth begins by the time fetus is 20 weeks old and is completed shortly before they erupt at about 6 months. Growth: Important part of bones, teeth and normal functioning of every cell in the body. Cofactor and regulator of biochemical reactions : 1.Blood clotting – It catalyses the conversion of the protein prothrombin into thrombin which acts as an enzyme for formation of insoluble blood clot.
  • 6. 2. Contraction of muscles – Free calcium ions are released by the initiation of nerve impulses . This is the internal trigger which leads to shortening of myofibrils and so to contraction of muscles . 3. Calcium as intracellular messenger – It acts as a second messenger for action of hormones e.g. epinephrine in liver glycogenolysis. 4. Release of hormones – It facilitates the release of hormones like insulin ,PTH and calcitonin. 5. Action on heart – it acts on myocardium and prolongs systole . 6. Membrane integrity and permeability – Calcium influences the membrane structure and transport of water and several ions across it . 7. Activation of enzymes- such as pancreatic lipase ,ATPase and succinate dehydrogenase .
  • 7. ABSORPTION : Calcium is absorbed by two distinct mechanisms, passive and active . 1 The active process requires energy stored within ATP, presence of vitamin D and a mediator protein – calbindin. 2 It is more efficient in the duodenum and proximal jejunum where the PH is more acidic. However absorption is greater in the ileum where the residual time is greatest. 3 The passive process is a simple diffusion of calcium down its concentration gradient ,requiring no energy expenditure. 4 30 -40 % of dietary calcium is absorbed by adults. Growing children, pregnant and lactating women absorb 50-60% of calcium. 5 Estrogen enhances calcium absorption and hence absorption declines after menopause.
  • 8. FACTORS AFFECTING CALCIUM ABSORPTION VITAMIN D Acidity of digestive mass LactoseProtein and phosphorus. Need for calcium
  • 9. Factors inhibiting calcium absorption : * • Oxalic acid • Phytic acid * • Steatorrhoea • Emotional instability * • Increased gastrointestinal motility. • Lack of exercise • Ageing * • Caffeine • Drugs
  • 10. Metabolism Once calcium is absorbed , it is transported to the blood and released into the fluids of body tissues. This is taken up by cells from the extracellular fluid. As blood is filtered through kidneys about 99% of calcium is reabsorbed into blood. 1% excreted in urine [normally 100-200mg /day] Hormonal control : The balance of calcium is controlled by the action of parathyroid hormone,1,25,dihydroxy cholecalciferol and calcitonin. Parathyroid hormone –decreased plasma free calcium triggers the release of parathyroid hormone. It helps in many ways in maintaining normal calcium levels.
  • 11. Plasma calcium Parathyroid Bone resorption Carbonic acid to dissolute the bone Calcium absorption Parathormone Intestinal wall liver Kidney Phosphate execretion Ionic phosphate absorption Active form of vitamin D 1,25(OH)2 D3 Reabsorption of calcium 1,25, DHCC
  • 12. Calcitonin - Elevated plasma calcium levels ,release calcitonin from the thyroid glands. It inhibits the release of calcium and phosphorus into the blood from bones. Vitamin D - In calcium deficiency, the most active form of vitamin D – 1-25,[OH]2 D3 causes enhanced intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption. Cytokines - May have a central role in normal bone remodeling.
  • 13. Plasma calcium Thyroid Calcitonin Bone Calcium and phosphorus resorbtion Formation of bone Blood Plasma calcium
  • 14. Abnormality :- Osteoporosis It is a condition associated with loss in bone density and bone mass, primarily found in middle age and elderly women . According to NIN studies, women of low socio-economic group have thinner bones due to their poor nutritional status and poor reproductive health. Risk factors- gender, body size, family history, disease, effect of drugs, alcohol, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, inappropriate diet etc. Diagnosis – duel energy X –ray absorptiometer [DEXA] measures the bone density. The test is not expensive and not invasive.
  • 16. BONE DISORDERS : Children with vitamin D deficiency develop rickets ,and adults osteomalecia. They do not calcify bone normally and their bones contain osteoid [unmineralised bone]. HYPOCALCEMIA : When ionic calcium is reduced ,nerve and muscles become readily excitable leading to a clinical condition – TETANY. Also associated with premenstrual syndrome – low calcium diets exhibit increased negative effects ,greater pain ,more water retention and poorer concentration. Recent studies show that low calcium intake [100mg/day] is associated with increased blood pressure.
  • 17. HYPERCALCEMIA : Elevated plasma calcium levels occur in adults due to hyperparathyroidism or excessive doses of vit D. Gastrointestinal symptoms like anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain occur. Hardening of soft tissues especially of kidneys is fatal . BIOCHEMICAL TESTS FOR CALCIUM DETECTION : 1 Plasma calcium level 2 vitamin D level 3 Recent studies by cardiologists suggest coronary calcium scans, to check calcium in arteries of heart .It looks for calcium in plaques of the coronary artery [cardiac calcium score ].
  • 18. Effect of weight bearing exercise on bone  Exercise  Walking 1 mile /day with vit D supplement .  running , aerobic dancing , brisk walking 300 min /week  Walking , aerobic dancing 60 min -3 times / week  Walking , jogging , stair climbing .  effect  Whole body BMD   lumbar BMD  Spinal BMD stabilized  Lumbar BMD
  • 19. ICMR – RDA’s for calcium - 2010 Group  Man  Woman  Pregnant woman  Lactating woman  Infants 0-12 months  Children 1-9 years  Boys and girls 10 - 17 years Calcium / day  600  600  1200  1200  500  600  800
  • 21. SOURCES CALCIUM is present in both animal and plant foods. Milk is the best source of calcium. Vit D, lactose and the ratio of 1.2 : 1 for ca : p, makes it most favorable for bone formation . Other sources include whole and skim milk powder ,cheese and crabs . Green leafy vegetables like amaranth , fenugreek , drumstick leaves , colocasia leaves are good sources of calcium . But their content of iron competes for site of absorption in the intestine . Most cereals and pulses contain some calcium –ragi being exceptionally rich source of calcium .
  • 22. Sources of calcium RICH SOURCES  JAGGERY 1638  POPPY SEEDS 1584  SESAME SEEDS 1450  SKIMMED MILK POWDER 1370  CHEESE 792  CAULIFLOWER GREENS 626  DRUMSTICK LEAVES 440  RAGI 344  BENGAL GRAM LEAVES 340  BUFFALO MILK 210  CURDS 149  COW’S MILK 120
  • 23. RECENT HEALTH PROBLEMS IN INDIA : Include maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality due to calcium deficiency preeclampsia [low socioeconomic group] Osteoporosis in elderly women. Hypertension and cardiac disorders. SUPPLEMENTS : are prescribed for women above the age of 40 yrs. [along with exercise ], men above 55yrs and pregnant and lactating women. NATIONAL INSTISTUTE OF HEALTH suggests not more than 600 mg calcium supplement per day along with meals. Different combinations are used depending upon health conditions – calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, calcium phosphate, calcium lactate etc. If any iron or thyroxin supplements are taken , calcium supplements to deliberately be taken separately.
  • 24. References : 1. who.guideline.calcium supplementation . 2. httpl//india.gov.in 3’ Jim Mann and A.Stewart Truswell ,Essentials of human nutrition , third edition. 4. Krause “s Food and nutrition care process ,13th edition 5. B Srilaxmi, Nutrition science, fifth edition.
  • 25. Decreased blood calcium level Increased blood calcium level Intestine BoneBone Normal blood calcium level Parathyroid Kidney Thyroid Parathormone 1,25-Dihydroxy- cholecalciferol Calcitonin Resortion and release of calcium Absorption of calcium Deposition of calcium