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How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
How to perform a commercial water audit
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How to perform a commercial water audit

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How to perform a Commercial Water Audit

How to perform a Commercial Water Audit

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  • 1. How to Perform a Commercial Water Audit Instructor: Troy Aichele “Before they bought it, they did an audit”
  • 2. Objectives Identify skills necessary to perform a Commercial Water Audit Using tools given in class, learn how to perform your own Commercial Water Audit by identifying water saving opportunities Learn how to estimate Payback Periods for recommended Water Saving concepts Learn how to write a Commercial Water Audit Report2
  • 3. Plan for the Day Water Audit: Who, What, When, Where and Why Case Studies How to Perform a Water Audit How to Calculate Water Audit Payback Periods How to Write a Water Audit Report Tips, Strategies, and Lessons Learned Final Questions / Evaluations3
  • 4. Water Audits Who, What, When, Where and Why? 5 Minutes4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. 8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. 10
  • 11. The Cost of Water and Sewer / 100 Gallons Olympia, WA: $1.00 San Diego, CA: $1.38 Boston, MA: $1.05 El Paso, TX: $0.60 Omaha, NE: $0.53 Geneva, Switzerland: $1.95 Glasgow, UK: $2.86 Las Vegas, NV: $0.80Source: “The World’s Water 2008-2009” by Peter H. Gleick11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. Utility Rate Trends… Utility Rate Trends 10 % 10%$9.00$8.00$7.00$6.00$5.00$4.00$3.00$2.00 Water Peak$1.00 Water $/CCF $- Waste Sewer $/CCF 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 200913 Year
  • 14. Utility Rate Trends… 10 % 10%$9.00 Chicago (Water and Sewer Rates) Utility Rate Trends$8.00 15% in 2008$7.00$6.00 15% in 2009$5.00 14% in 2010$4.00$3.00 •USA average for 2007 was 6.1%$2.00 (Source: NUS Consulting) Water Peak$1.00 Water $/CCF $- Waste Sewer $/CCF 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 200914 Year
  • 15. 15
  • 16. Utility Rate Trend Impacts16
  • 17. U.S. average Water Footprint per person per day: 70-100 GPD17
  • 18. 19
  • 19. Increase in Waste Water Treatment Capacities (Brightwater)20 Cost: $1.84 Billion
  • 20. Drought / OveruseThe U.S. EPA reports at least 36 states are anticipating local,regional or statewide water shortages by 2013—even under non-drought conditions21
  • 21. 22
  • 22. 24
  • 23. 25
  • 24. 26
  • 25. 27
  • 26. 28
  • 27. Sewer mining is the process of tapping into a sewer (either beforeor after the sewage treatment plant) and extracting sewage, whichis then treated and used as recycled water. Some sewer miningby-products may be acceptable for return to the sewerage system.Recycled water is treated so it’s safe to use. Recycled waterproduced from a sewer mining operation is commonly used toirrigate sports fields, parks and golf courses. It can also be used insome commercial buildings and industrial sites. New Water Sources:Sewer mining reduces the stress on waterways by capturing some Sewer Miningof the nutrients that would otherwise be discharged from sewagetreatment plants. The demand for drinking water can besignificantly reduced, by replacing it with recycled water madeavailable through sewer mining processes. 29
  • 28. 30
  • 29. 31
  • 30. 32
  • 31. 21st Century Water Auditor33
  • 32. Water Audit Case Studies34
  • 33. 35
  • 34. 340 Bed Acute Outpatient Care Facility 750,000 SF Total Floor Space 2300 Employees 723 Fixture upgrades were performed in the first 3 months of 200935
  • 35. 2008/09 Water Consumption Comparison (Per 1000 Gallons) Month 2009 2008 Change January 2,278.51 2,712.52 -16.00% February 2,244.36 2,470.48 -9.15% March 2,431.76 2,691.75 -9.66% April 2,248.70 2,672.24 -15.85% May 2,688.21 3,094.76 -13.14% June 2,874.65 3,272.56 -12.16% Totals: 14,766.19 16,914.31 -12.70%36
  • 36. 2008/09 Water Consumption Comparison (Per 1000 Gallons) Month 2009 2008 Change July 3,227 3,610 -10.6% August 3,181 3,480 -8.59% September 2,814 3,058 -7.97% October 2,517 2,599 -3.16% November 2,256 2,400 -6.02% December 2,276 2,421 -5.96 % Totals: 16,321 17,568 -7.1%37
  • 37. Retrofit Installation38
  • 38. Retrofit Installation39
  • 39. Retrofit Installation40
  • 40. How to Perform a Commercial Water Audit44
  • 41. Typical Water Usage Breakdown45
  • 42. Collect General Information Obtain Utility Rates (1 Year Minimum) – Water and Waste (CCF) – Electric (kWh) – Natural Gas (therm)46
  • 43. 47
  • 44. 48
  • 45. 49
  • 46. 49
  • 47. Compare Benchmarks Water Use / Square Foot / Year Comparisons 120 100 80 Gallons 60 40 20 0 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 Hospital Size (Square Feet)50
  • 48. On-Site Audit Preparation Schedule Audit with Facility Manager Review collected utility bills Research rebates for city, county, state Assemble Audit Tools51
  • 49. On-Site Audit Preparation Find Rebates52
  • 50. 53
  • 51. On-Site Audit Preparation Audit Tools Fixture Replacement Tick Sheet Stop Watch Water Drip Calculator Question List Rebate Flyers Tools (Screwdriver, Wrenches, Etc.) Flashlight and Mirror Camera (Still and Video)54
  • 52. 55
  • 53. 56
  • 54. Example Question List (1 of 2) 1. How many water meters serve your facility? 2. Do you have one that is dedicated to irrigation? 3. Has your facility ever been audited for water efficiency in the past? 4. What is the building occupancy trend over the duration of the billing data obtained? 5. Have you found any leaks over the course of the building period? 6. Do you perform your own Laundry services? 7. Do you have an industrial Dishwasher?57
  • 55. Example Question List (2 of 2) 8. How do you cool your building? Air-Cooled, Split-Units, Water Cooled or none? 9. Do you have a pool? 10. Do you have any damp and squishy wet areas on your property? 11. Have you made any changes to your irrigation system? 12. Is the irrigation system on a clock or timer?58
  • 56. 59
  • 57. On-Site Audit Walk Campus – Obtain facility drawings – Reserve enough time (Depends on size of building) – Great time to build your relationship with the customer!!!60
  • 58. 61
  • 59. On-Site Audit Make sure you see everything!62
  • 60. 63
  • 61. Measuring with Bucket and Stopwatch Measure twice and average Measure 10% of similar devices throughout facility64
  • 62. Equipment Audit Information List all equipment using water, model numbers and flow rates Hours / Day and Days / Week of use (verify with facilities operator) Obtain model number of water using equipment where flow rates cannot be calculated or measured and obtain from manufacturer (take nameplate picture)65
  • 63. Plumbing Fixtures and Kitchen Equipment66
  • 64. 67
  • 65. Tank-Type Water Closets • Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) • 3.5 GPF = Complete Replacement • 1.6 GPF = Leave as is68
  • 66. MaP Testing (Maximum Performance Testing) Began in 2003 Measures Toilet’s ability to remove solids in a single flush69
  • 67. 70
  • 68. Flushometer Water Closets • Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) • 3.5 GPF = Complete Replacement • 1.6 GPF = Dual Flush Kit71
  • 69. Dual-Flush Flushometer Retrofit Kits72
  • 70. Sensor Activated Water Closets73
  • 71. Urinals74
  • 72. 75
  • 73. Faucets76
  • 74. Faucets 1.5 GPM 0.5 GPM77
  • 75. Sensor Activated Faucets78
  • 76. Showerheads79
  • 77. Industrial Dishwasher Record Manufacturer, Model Number, Serial Number and Electrical Information (especially booster heater) and use rates80
  • 78. 81
  • 79. Kitchen Spray Nozzles High Efficiency with Shut-off82
  • 80. Ice-Makers, Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment Replace ALL single pass water cooled equipment with air cooled or central chilled water sources!83
  • 81. Laundry Machines84
  • 82. Maintenance Problems None!85
  • 83. User Negative Feedback None!86
  • 84. HVAC and ProcessEquipment87
  • 85. Swimming Pools1. Pool Filters2. Pool Covers (outdoor pools) – Reduce Water Evaporation – Reduce Chemical Consumption – Reduces Energy Use3. Chemical Covers88
  • 86. Vacuum Sterilizers89
  • 87. Medical Air Compressors90
  • 88. Medical Vacuum Pumps91
  • 89. Waste Anesthesia Gas (WAG) Pumps92
  • 90. Increase Cooling Tower and Boiler Cycles of Concentration93
  • 91. Hybrid Cooling Towers94
  • 92. Boiler Stack Economizer Water Recovery Cost: $1,090 Water / Sewer Savings: 720 GPD Return on Investment: 5 Months95
  • 93. Landscaping / Xeriscaping Limit lawns to high exposure areas Plant native landscaping material96
  • 94. Irrigation Use drip irrigation and rain sensing controls Winterize properly97
  • 95. Site SpecificAlternatives98
  • 96. Greywater Systems99
  • 97. Rainwater Car Wash100
  • 98. 101
  • 99. Vacuum Operated Waste System102
  • 100. Dialysis Reject Water103
  • 101. How to Calculate Water Audit Payback Periods104
  • 102. 105
  • 103. What you need for Payback Period Calculation1. Water, Waste, Natural Gas and Electrical Utility Costs2. Fixture / Equipment Use Rates3. Facility Work Days4. Know Facility Hot Water Creation Method5. Installation Cost6. Estimated Annual Utility Rate Increase7. Rebate Potential106
  • 104. Use Rates Water Closet: – 3 / Day (Women) – 1 / Day (Men)* Urinal: – 2 / Day (Men) Faucets: – 1 Minute / Person / Day Shower Use: – 8 Minutes / Day / Person *3 / Day if no urinals107
  • 105. Use Rates108
  • 106. 109
  • 107. Hot Water Fuel Natural Gas Electric110
  • 108. 111
  • 109. Installation Costs112
  • 110. 113
  • 111. 114
  • 112. 115
  • 113. Activity #1116
  • 114. Activity #1 (Part I)Part I - Compute the CCF/Year water savings for the following: A. Replace 3.5 GPF Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #1, Use #1) with 1.28 GPF Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #2, Use #1) B. Replace 3.5 GPF Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #1, Use #1) with 1.1/1.6 GPF Dual Flush Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #2, Use #1: 1.1 GPF; Line Item #2, Use #2: 1.6 GPF)Givens: • 6 Average Uses per Day • Work Days: 260 (Data Entry: Line Item #4, Letter H) • 2 to 1 Ratio for Small Flush to Large Flush117
  • 115. Activity #1 (Part II)Part II - Compute the Water and Waste Water Bill Savings (1st Year) for the following: C. Retrofit 1.6 GPF Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #1, Use #1) Flushometer with 1.1/1.6 GPF Dual Flushometer (Data Entry: Line Item #2, Use #1: 1.1 GPF; Line Item #2, Use #2: 1.6 GPF) D. Replace 1.1/1.6 GPF Dual Flush Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #1, Use #1: 1.1 GPF; Line Item #2, Use #2: 1.6 GPF) with 0.8/1.28 GPF Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #2, Use #1: 0.8 GPF; Line Item #2, Use #2: 1.28 GPF)Givens: • Data Entry A and B A. Water Cost: $4.00/CCF B. Sewer Cost: $8.89/CCF • 6 Average Uses per Day • Work Days: 260 (Data Entry: Line Item #4, Letter H) • 2 to 1 Ratio of Small Flush to Large Flush 118
  • 116. Activity #2119
  • 117. Activity #2Compute the Payback Period (without rebates) for replacing a 2.5 GPM Shower Head(Data Entry: Line Item #1, Use #1, 2.5 Gallons per Use) with a 1.5 GPM Shower Head(Data Entry: Line Item #2, Use #1, 1.5 Gallons per Use) for the following: A. Payback Duration without including Domestic Hot Water creation savings B. Payback Duration with Domestic Hot Water created by Natural Gas Water Heater C. Payback Duration with Domestic Hot Water created by Electric Hot Water Heater D. Payback Duration with Domestic Hot Water created by a Steam to Hot Water Converter with the Steam created by a Natural Gas Steam Boiler E. Payback Duration with Domestic Hot Water created by a Steam to Hot Water Converter with the Steam created by an Electric Steam BoilerGivens: • Data Entry A and B A. Water Cost: $4.00/CCF B. Sewer Cost: $8.89/CCF C. Natural Gas Cost: $0.343/Therm D. Electrical Cost: $0.048/kWh • Average Uses per Day: 7 minutes /day • Work Days: 260 Days (Data Entry: Line Item #4, Letter H) • Installation Cost: $100 (Data Entry: Line Item #12, Letter S)120
  • 118. Activity #3121
  • 119. Activity #3 Compute the Payback Period (without rebates) for a new industrial dishwasher: Givens: • Data Entry A and B A. Water Cost: $4.00/CCF B. Sewer Cost: $8.89/CCF C. Natural Gas Cost: $0.343/Therm D. Electrical Cost: $0.048/kWh • Work Days: 365 (Data Entry: Line Item #4, Letter H) • Data Entry Line Item #1 and #2 1. Current Equipment Use/Day: 1 Use @ 2,000 Gallons 2. New Equipment Use/Day: 1 Use @ 1,000 Gallons • Data Entry Line Item #9 b and c b) Current Therms (NG), kWh (Electric) Consumed per Day: 17 Therms (NG), 227 kWh (Electric) c) Estimated Therms (NG), kWh (Electric) Consumed per Day: 10 Therms (NG), 100 kWh (Electric) • Installation Cost: $50,000 (Data Entry: Line Item #12, Letter S)122
  • 120. Activity #4123
  • 121. Activity #4Using Activity #3 data, compute the Payback Period for each of the following:A. Current dishwasher requires $1,500/Year in maintenance and the new dishwasher will require $500/Year in maintenance. (Data Entry: Line Item #10, Letter R).B. All of the above with annual utility increases: Water (5%), Sewer (8%), Electrical (2%), and Natural Gas (2%). (Data Entry: Line Item #11, Letters a), b), c), and d) respectively).C. All of the above with water utility rebate (10%). (Data Entry: Line Item #13).D. All of the above with electrical utility rebate (70%). (Data Entry: Line Item #16).124
  • 122. Bonus Activity125
  • 123. 126
  • 124. 127
  • 125. 128
  • 126. Rainwater Harvesting Assumptions: – $1 / Gallon Installed – System Size: 10,000 Gallons – 50” Rain / Year – 2,500 SF Roof – 0.62 Gallons/SF of Roof/Inches of Rain per Year – 85% Collection Efficiency – Water Cost: $0.0025 / Gallon – Sewer Cost: $0.0075 / Gallon What is the Payback Period?129
  • 127. How to Write a Water Audit Report130
  • 128. 131
  • 129. 132
  • 130. 133
  • 131. 134
  • 132. 135
  • 133. Segregate Payback Periods136
  • 134. 137
  • 135. Tips, Strategies and Lessons Learned138
  • 136. 139
  • 137. 140
  • 138. 141
  • 139. Post-Installation Flushometer Adjustments142
  • 140. Water143
  • 141. Actual Fixture Counts not matching Audit Count144
  • 142. Lowering GPF without changing bowl145
  • 143. Fixture Footprints are not all the same146
  • 144. System Shut-downs vs. Freezing147
  • 145. Beta-Testing148
  • 146. Problematic Existing Conditions149
  • 147. Aerators vs. Flow Control150
  • 148. Straying from Water Audit Recommendations151
  • 149. ROI Thresholds: Owner Furnished Fixtures / Equipment152
  • 150. Buyer Beware: Small Water Spots = More Maintenance153
  • 151. Dual-Flush Tank-Type Retrofit Kits154
  • 152. Additional Stickers155
  • 153. Putting Water Efficiency Ahead of User or Building needs156
  • 154. Follow-up Audits / Stop looking for new products157
  • 155. Follow-up Audits / Stop looking for new products158
  • 156. Follow-up Audits / Stop looking for new products159
  • 157. Objectives Identify skills necessary to perform a Commercial Water Audit Using tools given in class, learn how to perform your own Commercial Water Audit by identifying water saving opportunities Learn how to estimate Payback Periods for recommended Water Saving concepts Learn how to write a Commercial Water Audit Report160
  • 158. Additional References “Water Use and Conservation” by Amy Vickers “Dry Run – Preventing the Next Urban Water Crisis” by Jerry Yudelson “Every Drop for Sale” by Jeffrey Rothfeder “The World’s Water….” Bi-Annual Series 1998 – Present by Peter H. Gleick “Globalization of Water” by Arjen Y. Hoekstra and Ashok K. Chapagain www.waterefficiency.net www.watersmartinnovations.com161
  • 159. Final Questions162
  • 160. 163

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