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Water sampling methods and tools

methods and tools

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Water sampling methods and tools

  1. 1. Water Sampling Methods & Tools Praveen Kumar Singh M. Sc. (2nd Sem.) Department of Environmental Science Central University of Rajasthan
  2. 2. Sampling Flow Chart Sampling Planning Water Sampling Preparation Storage Sampling at the Sites Transportation Analyses
  3. 3. Sampling Methods If an environmental domain was completely homogeneous, a single sample would adequately represent it. However, we seldom come across such a situation, as the environment is highly heterogeneous. A static system is one which does not change much with time. It must be sampled so that the sample reflects all the inhomogeneity of the system. If a field is to be tested for a longlived pesticide in the soil, that could be considered to be a relatively static system. A dynamic system is one whose content changes with time. Most regions which we wish to characterize by taking samples are dynamic to some extent, and show both spatial and temporal variation. When a river or a waste effluent stream is to be characterized, its concentration will probably change over a period of minutes, days, or hours.
  4. 4. Systematic, Random, Judgmental (nonstatistical), Stratified, Haphazard
  5. 5. Systematic Sampling For example, The area to be analyzed may divided by a grid, and a sample taken at each point of the grid. For air pollution studies, an air sample might be taken at fixed intervals of time, say every three hours. This approach does not require the prior knowledge of pollutant distribution, is easy to implement, and should produce unbiased samples. However, systematic sampling may require more samples to be taken than some of the other methods.
  6. 6. Random Sampling Typically, the area to be sampled is divided into triangular or rectangular areas with a grid. Three dimensional grids are used if the variation in depth (or height) also needs to be studied. The grid blocks are given numbers. A random number generator or a random number table is then used to select the grid points at which samples should be collected. If a waste site contains numerous containers of unknown wastes and it is not possible to analyze every container, a fraction of the containers are selected at random for analysis.
  7. 7. Judgmental Sampling In the lake samples might be collected just around the outfall point. This type of judgmental sampling introduces a certain degree of bias into the measurement. For example, it would be wrong to conclude that the average concentration at these clustered sampling points is a measure of the concentration of the entire lake. However, it is the point which best characterizes the content of the waste stream. In many instances, this may be the method of choice, especially when purpose of the analysis is simply to identify the pollutants present. Judgmental sampling usually requires fewer samples than statistical methods, but the analyst needs to be aware of the limitations of the samples collected by this method.
  8. 8. Stratified Sampling The strata in a stratified scheme do not necessarily have to be obviously different. The area may be divided into arbitrary subareas. Then a set of these are selected randomly. Each of these units is then sampled randomly. For example, a hazardous waste site can be divided into different regions or units. Then, the soil samples are collected at random within each region or within randomly selected regions. Stratification can reduce the number of samples required to characterize an environmental system, in comparison to fully random sampling.
  9. 9. Haphazard Sampling A sampling location or sampling time is chosen arbitrarily. This type of sampling is reasonable for a homogeneous system. Since most environmental systems have significant spatial or temporal variability, haphazard sampling often leads to biased results. However, this approach may be used as a preliminary screening technique to identify a possible problem before a full scale sampling is done.
  10. 10. Continuous Monitoring An ideal approach for some environmental measurements is the installation of instrumentation to monitor levels of pollutants continuously. These real time measurements provide the most detailed information about temporal variability. If an industrial waste water discharge is monitored continuously, an accidental discharge will be identified immediately and corrective actions can be implemented while it is still possible to minimize the damage. Continuous monitoring is often applied to industrial stack emissions. Combustion sources, such as incinerators, often have CO monitors installed. A high CO concentration implies a problem in the combustion process, with incomplete combustion and high emissions. Corrective action can be triggered immediately. Continuous monitoring devices are often used in workplaces to give early warnings of toxic vapor releases. At present, a limited number of continuous monitoring devices are available. Monitors are available for gases such as CO, NO2, and SO2 in stack gases, and for monitoring some metals and total organic carbon in water. These automated methods are often less expensive than laboratory analyzed samples, because they require minimal operator attention. However, most of them do not have the sensitivity required for trace level determinations.
  11. 11. Types Of Samples Grab sample: A grab sample is a discrete sample which is collected at a specific location at a certain point in time. If the environmental medium varies spatially or temporally, then a single grab sample is not representative and more samples need to be collected. Composite sample: A composite sample is made by thoroughly mixing several grab samples. The whole composite may be measured or random samples from the composites may be withdrawn and measured.
  12. 12. Rinse the sampling vessel with water on site 3~4 times. Care must be taken to avoid contaminating water to be sampled during rinsing. Submerge the sampling vessel gently, fill it with the water sample and close it tightly. If the collected water sample may be frozen, leave some space for expansion equivalent to about 10% of the sampling vessel. Sampling using Sampling Vessels Surface water Equipment
  13. 13. Simple Water Sampler
  14. 14. Buckets or Samplers with Shafts (Scoops) Such instruments made of polyethylene are often used. A rope can be attached to the bucket if required. Scoops with adjustable shafts are convenient. Items made of synthetic resins such as polypropylene can also be used. Samplers made of stainless steel can be used provided they are not to be used for tests on trace amounts of heavy metals.
  15. 15. Water Collection using Heyroth Water Sampler
  16. 16. Vandorn Water Sampler
  17. 17. Insulated Water Sampler
  18. 18. Groundwater Equipment Bailer A bailer in is a hollow tube used to retrieve groundwater samples from monitoring wells. Bailers are tied to a piece of rope or a piece of wire and lowered into the water column. Once lowered, the bailer uses a simple ball check valve to seal at the bottom in order to pull up a sample of the groundwater table. Bailers can be disposable or reusable, and they are made out of polyethylene, PVC, FEP or stainless steel. Bailers are simple devices to use and are relatively inexpensive. In addition, bailers can be lowered to any depth while pumps have sharp limitations on the depth of the well. The main drawback of using bailers is aeration of the water as the sample is obtained, which could release volatile organic compounds that need to be tested. Also, if there is a high amount of sediment or turbidity, this may interfere with the ball check valve seating correctly.
  19. 19. Suction lift Pump Suction-lift pumps create a vacuum in the intake line that draws the sample up to land surface. Sampling is limited to situations where water levels are within about 20 ft of the ground surface. Vacuum effect can cause the water to lose some dissolved gas.
  20. 20. Air-lift Samplers The pump injects compressed air at the bottom of the discharge pipe which is immersed in the liquid. The compressed air mixes with the liquid causing the air-water mixture to be less dense than the rest of the liquid around it and therefore is displaced upwards through the discharge pipe by the surrounding liquid of higher density. Causes changes in carbon dioxide concentrations; therefore this method is unsuitable for sampling for pH-sensitive parameters. In general, this method is not an appropriate method for acquisition of water samples for detailed chemical analyses because of degassing effect on the sample. Oxygenation is impossible to avoid unless elaborate precautions are taken.
  21. 21. Submersible Pump The submersible pumps are multistage centrifugal pumps operating in a vertical position. Produced liquids, after being subjected to great centrifugal forces caused by the high rotational speed of the impeller, lose their kinetic energy in the diffuser where a conversion of kinetic to pressure energy takes place. This is the main operational mechanism of radial and mixed flow pumps. The pump shaft is connected to the gas separator or the protector by a mechanical coupling at the bottom of the pump. When fluids enter the pump through an intake screen and are lifted by the pump stages. Other parts include the radial bearings (bushings) distributed along the length of the shaft providing radial support to the pump shaft turning at high rotational speeds. An optional thrust bearing takes up part of the axial forces arising in the pump but most of those forces are absorbed by the protector’s thrust bearing.
  22. 22. Thank You…

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