How to perform a commercial water audit

3,703 views

Published on

How to perform a Commercial Water Audit

Published in: Real Estate, Business, Technology
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,703
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
36
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
205
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

How to perform a commercial water audit

  1. 1. How to Perform a Commercial Water Audit Instructor: Troy Aichele “Before they bought it, they did an audit”
  2. 2. Objectives Identify skills necessary to perform a Commercial Water Audit Using tools given in class, learn how to perform your own Commercial Water Audit by identifying water saving opportunities Learn how to estimate Payback Periods for recommended Water Saving concepts Learn how to write a Commercial Water Audit Report2
  3. 3. Plan for the Day Water Audit: Who, What, When, Where and Why Case Studies How to Perform a Water Audit How to Calculate Water Audit Payback Periods How to Write a Water Audit Report Tips, Strategies, and Lessons Learned Final Questions / Evaluations3
  4. 4. Water Audits Who, What, When, Where and Why? 5 Minutes4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. The Cost of Water and Sewer / 100 Gallons Olympia, WA: $1.00 San Diego, CA: $1.38 Boston, MA: $1.05 El Paso, TX: $0.60 Omaha, NE: $0.53 Geneva, Switzerland: $1.95 Glasgow, UK: $2.86 Las Vegas, NV: $0.80Source: “The World’s Water 2008-2009” by Peter H. Gleick11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Utility Rate Trends… Utility Rate Trends 10 % 10%$9.00$8.00$7.00$6.00$5.00$4.00$3.00$2.00 Water Peak$1.00 Water $/CCF $- Waste Sewer $/CCF 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 200913 Year
  14. 14. Utility Rate Trends… 10 % 10%$9.00 Chicago (Water and Sewer Rates) Utility Rate Trends$8.00 15% in 2008$7.00$6.00 15% in 2009$5.00 14% in 2010$4.00$3.00 •USA average for 2007 was 6.1%$2.00 (Source: NUS Consulting) Water Peak$1.00 Water $/CCF $- Waste Sewer $/CCF 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 200914 Year
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. Utility Rate Trend Impacts16
  17. 17. U.S. average Water Footprint per person per day: 70-100 GPD17
  18. 18. 19
  19. 19. Increase in Waste Water Treatment Capacities (Brightwater)20 Cost: $1.84 Billion
  20. 20. Drought / OveruseThe U.S. EPA reports at least 36 states are anticipating local,regional or statewide water shortages by 2013—even under non-drought conditions21
  21. 21. 22
  22. 22. 24
  23. 23. 25
  24. 24. 26
  25. 25. 27
  26. 26. 28
  27. 27. Sewer mining is the process of tapping into a sewer (either beforeor after the sewage treatment plant) and extracting sewage, whichis then treated and used as recycled water. Some sewer miningby-products may be acceptable for return to the sewerage system.Recycled water is treated so it’s safe to use. Recycled waterproduced from a sewer mining operation is commonly used toirrigate sports fields, parks and golf courses. It can also be used insome commercial buildings and industrial sites. New Water Sources:Sewer mining reduces the stress on waterways by capturing some Sewer Miningof the nutrients that would otherwise be discharged from sewagetreatment plants. The demand for drinking water can besignificantly reduced, by replacing it with recycled water madeavailable through sewer mining processes. 29
  28. 28. 30
  29. 29. 31
  30. 30. 32
  31. 31. 21st Century Water Auditor33
  32. 32. Water Audit Case Studies34
  33. 33. 35
  34. 34. 340 Bed Acute Outpatient Care Facility 750,000 SF Total Floor Space 2300 Employees 723 Fixture upgrades were performed in the first 3 months of 200935
  35. 35. 2008/09 Water Consumption Comparison (Per 1000 Gallons) Month 2009 2008 Change January 2,278.51 2,712.52 -16.00% February 2,244.36 2,470.48 -9.15% March 2,431.76 2,691.75 -9.66% April 2,248.70 2,672.24 -15.85% May 2,688.21 3,094.76 -13.14% June 2,874.65 3,272.56 -12.16% Totals: 14,766.19 16,914.31 -12.70%36
  36. 36. 2008/09 Water Consumption Comparison (Per 1000 Gallons) Month 2009 2008 Change July 3,227 3,610 -10.6% August 3,181 3,480 -8.59% September 2,814 3,058 -7.97% October 2,517 2,599 -3.16% November 2,256 2,400 -6.02% December 2,276 2,421 -5.96 % Totals: 16,321 17,568 -7.1%37
  37. 37. Retrofit Installation38
  38. 38. Retrofit Installation39
  39. 39. Retrofit Installation40
  40. 40. How to Perform a Commercial Water Audit44
  41. 41. Typical Water Usage Breakdown45
  42. 42. Collect General Information Obtain Utility Rates (1 Year Minimum) – Water and Waste (CCF) – Electric (kWh) – Natural Gas (therm)46
  43. 43. 47
  44. 44. 48
  45. 45. 49
  46. 46. 49
  47. 47. Compare Benchmarks Water Use / Square Foot / Year Comparisons 120 100 80 Gallons 60 40 20 0 0 500,000 1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 Hospital Size (Square Feet)50
  48. 48. On-Site Audit Preparation Schedule Audit with Facility Manager Review collected utility bills Research rebates for city, county, state Assemble Audit Tools51
  49. 49. On-Site Audit Preparation Find Rebates52
  50. 50. 53
  51. 51. On-Site Audit Preparation Audit Tools Fixture Replacement Tick Sheet Stop Watch Water Drip Calculator Question List Rebate Flyers Tools (Screwdriver, Wrenches, Etc.) Flashlight and Mirror Camera (Still and Video)54
  52. 52. 55
  53. 53. 56
  54. 54. Example Question List (1 of 2) 1. How many water meters serve your facility? 2. Do you have one that is dedicated to irrigation? 3. Has your facility ever been audited for water efficiency in the past? 4. What is the building occupancy trend over the duration of the billing data obtained? 5. Have you found any leaks over the course of the building period? 6. Do you perform your own Laundry services? 7. Do you have an industrial Dishwasher?57
  55. 55. Example Question List (2 of 2) 8. How do you cool your building? Air-Cooled, Split-Units, Water Cooled or none? 9. Do you have a pool? 10. Do you have any damp and squishy wet areas on your property? 11. Have you made any changes to your irrigation system? 12. Is the irrigation system on a clock or timer?58
  56. 56. 59
  57. 57. On-Site Audit Walk Campus – Obtain facility drawings – Reserve enough time (Depends on size of building) – Great time to build your relationship with the customer!!!60
  58. 58. 61
  59. 59. On-Site Audit Make sure you see everything!62
  60. 60. 63
  61. 61. Measuring with Bucket and Stopwatch Measure twice and average Measure 10% of similar devices throughout facility64
  62. 62. Equipment Audit Information List all equipment using water, model numbers and flow rates Hours / Day and Days / Week of use (verify with facilities operator) Obtain model number of water using equipment where flow rates cannot be calculated or measured and obtain from manufacturer (take nameplate picture)65
  63. 63. Plumbing Fixtures and Kitchen Equipment66
  64. 64. 67
  65. 65. Tank-Type Water Closets • Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) • 3.5 GPF = Complete Replacement • 1.6 GPF = Leave as is68
  66. 66. MaP Testing (Maximum Performance Testing) Began in 2003 Measures Toilet’s ability to remove solids in a single flush69
  67. 67. 70
  68. 68. Flushometer Water Closets • Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) • 3.5 GPF = Complete Replacement • 1.6 GPF = Dual Flush Kit71
  69. 69. Dual-Flush Flushometer Retrofit Kits72
  70. 70. Sensor Activated Water Closets73
  71. 71. Urinals74
  72. 72. 75
  73. 73. Faucets76
  74. 74. Faucets 1.5 GPM 0.5 GPM77
  75. 75. Sensor Activated Faucets78
  76. 76. Showerheads79
  77. 77. Industrial Dishwasher Record Manufacturer, Model Number, Serial Number and Electrical Information (especially booster heater) and use rates80
  78. 78. 81
  79. 79. Kitchen Spray Nozzles High Efficiency with Shut-off82
  80. 80. Ice-Makers, Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment Replace ALL single pass water cooled equipment with air cooled or central chilled water sources!83
  81. 81. Laundry Machines84
  82. 82. Maintenance Problems None!85
  83. 83. User Negative Feedback None!86
  84. 84. HVAC and ProcessEquipment87
  85. 85. Swimming Pools1. Pool Filters2. Pool Covers (outdoor pools) – Reduce Water Evaporation – Reduce Chemical Consumption – Reduces Energy Use3. Chemical Covers88
  86. 86. Vacuum Sterilizers89
  87. 87. Medical Air Compressors90
  88. 88. Medical Vacuum Pumps91
  89. 89. Waste Anesthesia Gas (WAG) Pumps92
  90. 90. Increase Cooling Tower and Boiler Cycles of Concentration93
  91. 91. Hybrid Cooling Towers94
  92. 92. Boiler Stack Economizer Water Recovery Cost: $1,090 Water / Sewer Savings: 720 GPD Return on Investment: 5 Months95
  93. 93. Landscaping / Xeriscaping Limit lawns to high exposure areas Plant native landscaping material96
  94. 94. Irrigation Use drip irrigation and rain sensing controls Winterize properly97
  95. 95. Site SpecificAlternatives98
  96. 96. Greywater Systems99
  97. 97. Rainwater Car Wash100
  98. 98. 101
  99. 99. Vacuum Operated Waste System102
  100. 100. Dialysis Reject Water103
  101. 101. How to Calculate Water Audit Payback Periods104
  102. 102. 105
  103. 103. What you need for Payback Period Calculation1. Water, Waste, Natural Gas and Electrical Utility Costs2. Fixture / Equipment Use Rates3. Facility Work Days4. Know Facility Hot Water Creation Method5. Installation Cost6. Estimated Annual Utility Rate Increase7. Rebate Potential106
  104. 104. Use Rates Water Closet: – 3 / Day (Women) – 1 / Day (Men)* Urinal: – 2 / Day (Men) Faucets: – 1 Minute / Person / Day Shower Use: – 8 Minutes / Day / Person *3 / Day if no urinals107
  105. 105. Use Rates108
  106. 106. 109
  107. 107. Hot Water Fuel Natural Gas Electric110
  108. 108. 111
  109. 109. Installation Costs112
  110. 110. 113
  111. 111. 114
  112. 112. 115
  113. 113. Activity #1116
  114. 114. Activity #1 (Part I)Part I - Compute the CCF/Year water savings for the following: A. Replace 3.5 GPF Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #1, Use #1) with 1.28 GPF Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #2, Use #1) B. Replace 3.5 GPF Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #1, Use #1) with 1.1/1.6 GPF Dual Flush Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #2, Use #1: 1.1 GPF; Line Item #2, Use #2: 1.6 GPF)Givens: • 6 Average Uses per Day • Work Days: 260 (Data Entry: Line Item #4, Letter H) • 2 to 1 Ratio for Small Flush to Large Flush117
  115. 115. Activity #1 (Part II)Part II - Compute the Water and Waste Water Bill Savings (1st Year) for the following: C. Retrofit 1.6 GPF Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #1, Use #1) Flushometer with 1.1/1.6 GPF Dual Flushometer (Data Entry: Line Item #2, Use #1: 1.1 GPF; Line Item #2, Use #2: 1.6 GPF) D. Replace 1.1/1.6 GPF Dual Flush Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #1, Use #1: 1.1 GPF; Line Item #2, Use #2: 1.6 GPF) with 0.8/1.28 GPF Water Closet (Data Entry: Line Item #2, Use #1: 0.8 GPF; Line Item #2, Use #2: 1.28 GPF)Givens: • Data Entry A and B A. Water Cost: $4.00/CCF B. Sewer Cost: $8.89/CCF • 6 Average Uses per Day • Work Days: 260 (Data Entry: Line Item #4, Letter H) • 2 to 1 Ratio of Small Flush to Large Flush 118
  116. 116. Activity #2119
  117. 117. Activity #2Compute the Payback Period (without rebates) for replacing a 2.5 GPM Shower Head(Data Entry: Line Item #1, Use #1, 2.5 Gallons per Use) with a 1.5 GPM Shower Head(Data Entry: Line Item #2, Use #1, 1.5 Gallons per Use) for the following: A. Payback Duration without including Domestic Hot Water creation savings B. Payback Duration with Domestic Hot Water created by Natural Gas Water Heater C. Payback Duration with Domestic Hot Water created by Electric Hot Water Heater D. Payback Duration with Domestic Hot Water created by a Steam to Hot Water Converter with the Steam created by a Natural Gas Steam Boiler E. Payback Duration with Domestic Hot Water created by a Steam to Hot Water Converter with the Steam created by an Electric Steam BoilerGivens: • Data Entry A and B A. Water Cost: $4.00/CCF B. Sewer Cost: $8.89/CCF C. Natural Gas Cost: $0.343/Therm D. Electrical Cost: $0.048/kWh • Average Uses per Day: 7 minutes /day • Work Days: 260 Days (Data Entry: Line Item #4, Letter H) • Installation Cost: $100 (Data Entry: Line Item #12, Letter S)120
  118. 118. Activity #3121
  119. 119. Activity #3 Compute the Payback Period (without rebates) for a new industrial dishwasher: Givens: • Data Entry A and B A. Water Cost: $4.00/CCF B. Sewer Cost: $8.89/CCF C. Natural Gas Cost: $0.343/Therm D. Electrical Cost: $0.048/kWh • Work Days: 365 (Data Entry: Line Item #4, Letter H) • Data Entry Line Item #1 and #2 1. Current Equipment Use/Day: 1 Use @ 2,000 Gallons 2. New Equipment Use/Day: 1 Use @ 1,000 Gallons • Data Entry Line Item #9 b and c b) Current Therms (NG), kWh (Electric) Consumed per Day: 17 Therms (NG), 227 kWh (Electric) c) Estimated Therms (NG), kWh (Electric) Consumed per Day: 10 Therms (NG), 100 kWh (Electric) • Installation Cost: $50,000 (Data Entry: Line Item #12, Letter S)122
  120. 120. Activity #4123
  121. 121. Activity #4Using Activity #3 data, compute the Payback Period for each of the following:A. Current dishwasher requires $1,500/Year in maintenance and the new dishwasher will require $500/Year in maintenance. (Data Entry: Line Item #10, Letter R).B. All of the above with annual utility increases: Water (5%), Sewer (8%), Electrical (2%), and Natural Gas (2%). (Data Entry: Line Item #11, Letters a), b), c), and d) respectively).C. All of the above with water utility rebate (10%). (Data Entry: Line Item #13).D. All of the above with electrical utility rebate (70%). (Data Entry: Line Item #16).124
  122. 122. Bonus Activity125
  123. 123. 126
  124. 124. 127
  125. 125. 128
  126. 126. Rainwater Harvesting Assumptions: – $1 / Gallon Installed – System Size: 10,000 Gallons – 50” Rain / Year – 2,500 SF Roof – 0.62 Gallons/SF of Roof/Inches of Rain per Year – 85% Collection Efficiency – Water Cost: $0.0025 / Gallon – Sewer Cost: $0.0075 / Gallon What is the Payback Period?129
  127. 127. How to Write a Water Audit Report130
  128. 128. 131
  129. 129. 132
  130. 130. 133
  131. 131. 134
  132. 132. 135
  133. 133. Segregate Payback Periods136
  134. 134. 137
  135. 135. Tips, Strategies and Lessons Learned138
  136. 136. 139
  137. 137. 140
  138. 138. 141
  139. 139. Post-Installation Flushometer Adjustments142
  140. 140. Water143
  141. 141. Actual Fixture Counts not matching Audit Count144
  142. 142. Lowering GPF without changing bowl145
  143. 143. Fixture Footprints are not all the same146
  144. 144. System Shut-downs vs. Freezing147
  145. 145. Beta-Testing148
  146. 146. Problematic Existing Conditions149
  147. 147. Aerators vs. Flow Control150
  148. 148. Straying from Water Audit Recommendations151
  149. 149. ROI Thresholds: Owner Furnished Fixtures / Equipment152
  150. 150. Buyer Beware: Small Water Spots = More Maintenance153
  151. 151. Dual-Flush Tank-Type Retrofit Kits154
  152. 152. Additional Stickers155
  153. 153. Putting Water Efficiency Ahead of User or Building needs156
  154. 154. Follow-up Audits / Stop looking for new products157
  155. 155. Follow-up Audits / Stop looking for new products158
  156. 156. Follow-up Audits / Stop looking for new products159
  157. 157. Objectives Identify skills necessary to perform a Commercial Water Audit Using tools given in class, learn how to perform your own Commercial Water Audit by identifying water saving opportunities Learn how to estimate Payback Periods for recommended Water Saving concepts Learn how to write a Commercial Water Audit Report160
  158. 158. Additional References “Water Use and Conservation” by Amy Vickers “Dry Run – Preventing the Next Urban Water Crisis” by Jerry Yudelson “Every Drop for Sale” by Jeffrey Rothfeder “The World’s Water….” Bi-Annual Series 1998 – Present by Peter H. Gleick “Globalization of Water” by Arjen Y. Hoekstra and Ashok K. Chapagain www.waterefficiency.net www.watersmartinnovations.com161
  159. 159. Final Questions162
  160. 160. 163

×