Energy Audit Basics and Principles

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Energy Audit in Building A Regional Training Workshop Organized by RCREEE 1 - 5 June, 2010

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Energy Audit Basics and Principles

  1. 1. The Lebanese Center for Energy CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy Audit Basics and principles Presented by: MAY 2010 Mr. Hamadi Sayah International Energy Expert Centre Molka Escalier N°15 El Manar II – 2092 TUNIS Tél: 00 216 71 886 177 – Fax: 00 216 71 885 010 Site Web: www.cra2e.com– E-mail: cra2e@yahoo.fr 1
  2. 2. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage OUTLINES 1. Definition and Objectives of Energy Audit and Management 2. Types of energy audit 3. Methodology of energy audit 4. Preliminary Consultation 5. Measurement Campaigns and Equipment 6. Approach to Energy Balance 7. Definition of an Action Plan 8. Presentation of the Audit Report 9. Audit of Electric System 10. Audit of Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning System 11. Conclusion 12. Study of case: Energy Audit of Establishment 2
  3. 3. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Definition and Objectives of Energy Audit and Management 3
  4. 4. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage WHAT IS AN ENERGY AUDIT? Energy audits “periodic and mandatory” constitutes a strategic element to help companies REDUCE ENERGY COSTS and MANAGE ENERGY CONSUMPTION to the extent that it will allow to examine THE STATE OF ENERGY-USING EQUIPMENT and take necessary MEASURES to replace any other repair or improvement and reduce energy losses. 4
  5. 5. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage OBJECTIVE OF ENERGY AUDIT? The primary objective of Energy Audit is to determine ways to lower operating costs or to reduce energy consumption: - per unit of product output (industry) - ft² or person (commercial/building) Energy Audit provides a " bench-marking“ (Reference point) for managing energy in the organization and also provides the basis for planning a more effective use of energy. 5
  6. 6. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage WHAT IS THE ENERGY MANAGEMENT? - "The judicious and effective use of energy to maximize profits (minimize costs) and enhance competitive positions“ - "The strategy of adjusting and optimizing energy, using systems and procedures so as to reduce energy requirements per unit of output while holding constant or reducing total costs of producing the output from these systems" 6
  7. 7. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage OBJECTIVE OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT? The objective of Energy Management is to achieve and maintain optimum energy procurement and utilization, throughout the organization and: • to optimize specific energy consumption •To minimize energy costs • To minimise environnemental effects. 7
  8. 8. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy Audit is the key to a systematic approach for decision making in the area of energy management. It attempts to balance the total energy inputs with its use, and serves to identify all the energy streams in a facility. It quantifies energy usage according to its discrete functions. 8
  9. 9. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Methodology of Energy Audit 9
  10. 10. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage BASIC AUDIT LEVELS 10
  11. 11. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage The scope work of energy Audit : ü Analysis of energy situation of building üCalculate specific consumption (BTU/sq ft or BTU/person or visitor) ü Comparison with reference values (national and international) of similar facilities ü Distribution of the energy consumption by custom (usage) ü Energy balances (electric and thermal) after measurements ü Calculate Energy Using Index üIdentification of potential of energy conservation üDefinition of ECMs 11
  12. 12. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage The energy audit can be divided into for tasks : Level 1 . Task 1 . Preliminary audit Level II. Task 2. Energy analyses by section Level III. Task 3. Campaign of measurement Task 4. Energy balance of main energy consummer Task 5. Audit report and actions plan
  13. 13. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Preliminary analysis
  14. 14. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Task 1 - Preliminary audit 14
  15. 15. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage - of the audit. -Collect of information about building - Visit of the facility -Evaluation of energy consumption data to analyze energy use quantities and comparison with similar facilities. -Preliminary estimate of savings potential and provide a list of low-cost savings opportunities through improvements in operational and maintenance practices. 15
  16. 16. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Collect of information about building: 1. Energy consumption by type of energy, by section, by major items of process equipment, by final - use 2. Areas/ Number of passengers, patients, clients, etc… COMMERCIAL 3. Analysis of energy invoice and energy cost 4. Process and material flow diagrams 5. Generation and distribution of compressed air, hot water, cooking water. 6. Sources of energy supply 7. Potential for fuel substitution, process modifications, and the use of co-generation systems and tri-generation. 8. Energy Management procedures and energy awareness training programs within the establishment 16
  17. 17. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Visit of the facility “ ONE DAY” to visually inspect each of the energy using systems to give the Energy Auditor/Engineer an opportunity to meet the personnel concerned to familiarize him with the site to assess the procedures necessary to carry out the energy audit 17
  18. 18. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage During the visit, Energy Auditor/Engineer should carry out the following actions: • Analyze the major energy consumption data with the relevant personnel. • Obtain site drawings where available - building layout, steam distribution, compressed air distribution and electricity distribution etc. • visit of the sites of building accompanied with energy manager 18
  19. 19. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage The main objectif of this visit are: • To finalize Energy Audit team • To identify the main energy consuming areas/plant items to be surveyed during the audit. • To identify any existing instrumentation/ additional metering required. • To decide whether any meters will have to be installed prior to the audit energy (Electric meters, steam meters, oïl or gas meters. • To identify the instrumentation required for carrying out the audit. • To plan with time frame • To collect macro data on plant energy resources, major energy consuming centers • To create awareness through meetings / program 19
  20. 20. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage The first visit for the establishment by experts to: - Discuss with the sites senior management the tasks of the energy audit. - Discuss economic guidelines associated with the recommendations – Obtain energy consumption data for the last 3 years (include water). – Obtain mechanical, architectural, heating, cooling, lighting and electrical drawings specifications for the original building – Obtain a summary description of a building and its sections – Meeting and discuss aspects of the facility with responsible in establishment : • Occupancy schedules • Operation and maintenance practices • Future plans that may have an impact on energy consumption – Visual inspecting of equipments – Take pictures through the building. Including mechanical equipment, lighting, interior workspaces, common areas and halls, and the exterior including the roof 20
  21. 21. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage General data : • Base year of audit : Year of reference • Annual hours of operation : 8 760 h/year (AHU, boilers, etc.) 21
  22. 22. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Heating Climatisation flow 22
  23. 23. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et PilotageElectric plan of AITC 23
  24. 24. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Electric installation of Establishment - Power transformer MT/BT: Number of Type Type Compensation Affectation Total KVA transformer normal secours KVAR Transf MT/MT 3 3 000 ----- 9 000 ----- STATION A 2 1 500 400 1900 90 STATION B 4 2 500 600 3 100 150 STATION STELLITE 4 1 800 400 2 200 240 STATION 4 2 930 2 930 SALLE OF MACHINES TOTAL 17 1 400 19 130 480 Signed Power: 8000 kW 24
  25. 25. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Climatisation of Establishment • The climatisation (heating and cooling) of Establishment is assured by: – Air Handling Unit « AHU » – Schillers – Boilers – Cooling Tower 25
  26. 26. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage CONVERSION UNITS • 1000 kWh = 0,086 TOE • 1 thermie = 103 Kcal • 1 TOE = 104 thermies • PCI of Natural gas = 9,00 Th/Nm3 26
  27. 27. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage We note that the maximum power drawn does not exceed 7000 kW for every time slot, while the power is reduced out of 8000 kW. It is recommended to revise the STEG contract for the decline of the reduced power to 6700 kW divided as follows: Subscribed power Value kW Daytime peak 6700 Evening peak 6700 Winter peak 6700 Summer peak 6700 Subscribed reduced power 6700 This decline of reduced power generate immediately a gain of 54 400 TND per year without penalty calculated as follows: Gain = 3,5 X (actual reduced power – projected reduced power) x month per year = 3,5 x(8000 – 6700) x 12 = 54 400 TND 27
  28. 28. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Distribution of energy consumption by form for the base year of Audit : § Electricity : 32 004,694 MWh « 9 057 TOE » § Natural Gas : 242 293 Nm3 « 218 TOE » 28
  29. 29. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Annual Cost of Energy and Water 2 756 306 TND Eau 19% Natural Gas 2% 528 574 TND 40 621 TND 2 187 110 TND Electricity Electricity 79% 79% 29
  30. 30. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage • Cost of TOE: – Electricity TOE = 241,483 TND 330 TND - Natural Gas TOE = 172,126 TND 230 TND 30
  31. 31. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Passenger number for the base year of audit : 3 449 185 passengers Specific Energy Consumption by passenger in year of reference : Energy Value Unit Electrical energy 9,279 kWh/passenger Natural gas 0,684 Thermal/passenger Global 10,074 kWh/passenger 31
  32. 32. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage n Area : 57 448 m² n Volume : 293 356 m3 Specific Energy Consumption by area/volume in year of reference : Energy Value Unit Electrical energy 557 kWh/m² 109 kWh/m3 Natural gas 37,959 Thermal/m² 7,433 Thermal/m3 32
  33. 33. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage establishment values: Energy Value Unit Electrical energy 557 kWh/m² Natural gas 38 Thermal/m² Comparison with reference values: Energy Value Unit Electrical energy 450 kWh/m² Natural gas 30 Thermal/m² Potential energy saving: Energy Value Unit Electrical energy 107 kWh/m² Natural gas 8 Thermal/m² 33
  34. 34. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy situation for the 3 last years of audit 34
  35. 35. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage • Evolution of passenger number : Year 1st Years 2nd Years 3rd Years Number of passenger 3 194 742 3 049 183 3 449 185 35
  36. 36. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage • Evolution of Global energy balance : Energy Unit 1st Year 2 nd Year 3rd Year kWh 33 013 365 31 923 281 32 004 694 Electrical TOE 9 343 9034 9 057 energy % TOE 97,8 97,91 97,46 Nm3 218 109 199 595 242 293 Natural gas TOE 210 193 218 % TOE 2,2 2,09 2,54 Global TOE 9 553 9 227 9 293 36
  37. 37. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage 37
  38. 38. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage 38
  39. 39. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage • Evolution of specific consumption: Energy kWh/m² Th/m² 1st year 575 36,6 2nd year 556 33,6 3th year 557 37,9 39
  40. 40. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage More Detailed Analysis « MONTHLY » PEAK
  41. 41. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage PEAK
  42. 42. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Bonifications ACEPTABLE
  43. 43. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage 43
  44. 44. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy Use Index by Building Type 44
  45. 45. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage PRELEMINAY ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES § Revision of signed power with STEG: save an annual budget of 54 400 Dinars. § Improving the power factor with an optimum of 0.99 would receive an extra bonus from STEG. § The preliminary inspection of equipments shows an acceptable level of maintenance, but imbalance in the air- conditioning compared to racking requested 45
  46. 46. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Task 2 - Energy analyses by section 46
  47. 47. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Preliminary analysis Detailled analysis 47
  48. 48. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage – For the reason of absence of energy metering in the Establishment, the Level II analysis can not be developed without the measurement campaign (3rd LEVEL) – We recall that Establishment has only : • A electricity General meter as well as a set of divisional meters accounting box and consumption of rented premises • A natural gas General counter • A general SONEDE meter and 5 divisional meters for condensers 48
  49. 49. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage – Establish the mass and energy balances of different areas of the establishment and determine their energy consumption. - The main areas of the establishment are : • Public "departure" on the 1st floor with easements of checked baggage, cafes and shops • Public arrival in the DRC with the relevant areas and shops • Bonded zone "start" with police control filter including boarding rooms and satellite • Bonded zone arrivals area with the baggage, customs and police control 49
  50. 50. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage The thermal and electric balances can provide the Energy consumption by energy using section : • Building Operation • Lighting Systems • HVAC Systems • HVAC Distribution Systems • Energy Management Control Systems • Building Envelope • Power Systems • Water Heating Systems • Heat Recovery Opportunities 50
  51. 51. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy Use in Office Buildings 51
  52. 52. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy Use in Schools 52
  53. 53. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy Use in Hospitals 53
  54. 54. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy Use in Supermarkets 54
  55. 55. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy Use in Apartment Buildings 55
  56. 56. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy Use in Hotels 56
  57. 57. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy Use in Restaurants 57
  58. 58. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage RESULTS OF PRELEMINARY VISIT IN COOLING MODE : After the preliminary visit, we noted following points: • The regulation of the shutters (volets) of recycled air and the new air is inefficient implying either an excess of new air (to cool) or an excess of air recycled (partially polluted). • During audited period, the outside climatic conditions were rather favorable for a march in 100 % of new air. • The AHU N°2,3,7,8,11 et 15 were inable to satisfy the conditions of confort required. • The networks of connection and distribution of Chillers are inefficient 58
  59. 59. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage An important quantity of energy wasted by infiltrations of air générés by opening (15% eletric and frigorific consumption) The water consumption of supplement of condenser is excessive (Needs of drainage of suffer contained (teneur en souffre)). IN HEATING MODE : • The regulation of the shutters of new and recycle air is inefficient implying either an excess of new air (for heating) OR an absence of new air (affected confort and sanitary conditions). • The march of the ventilators of resumption(reprise) and blowing (soufflage) in mode 50 % and 100 % implies a rate of air renewal far from the optimum. • The management of march of hot water generators is necessary. 59
  60. 60. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Task 3 – Campaign of measurement 60
  61. 61. The Lebanese Center for Energy CRA2E (LCECP) Proposal of improvement Sayah HamadiConservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage solutions Proposal of improvement solutions 61
  62. 62. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Measurements DO NOT ESTIMATE WHEN YOU CAN CALCULATE DO NOT CALCULATE WHEN YOU CAN MEASURE § The capability of the energy auditor and the scope of an audit could be extended by the use of in place instrumentation and temporary monitoring equipment. § In-place instrumentation refers to existing utility metering, air- conditioning control instrumentation and energy management systems (EMS). § These instruments must be portable, durable, easy to operate and relatively inexpensive. 62
  63. 63. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage The parameters generally monitored during energy audit may include the following: Basic Electrical Parameters in AC and DC systems: -Voltage (V) - Current (I) - Power factor - Active power (kW) - apparent power (demand) (kVA) - Reactive power (kVAr) - Energy consumption (kWh) -Frequency (Hz) - Harmonics, etc. 63
  64. 64. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Power transformer Measuring Description instrument Active power Reactive power apparent power voltage Electric power intensity analyzer Energy Power factor Voltage harmonic 1-50 Intensity harmonic 1-50 64
  65. 65. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Electrical Measuring Instruments: These are instruments for measuring major electrical parameters such as kVA, kW, PF, Hertz, kVAr, Amps and Volts. In addition some of these instruments also measure harmonics. These instruments are applied on-line on running motors without any need to stop the motor. Instant measurements can be taken with hand-held meters, while more advanced ones facilitates cumulative readings with print outs at specified intervals. 65
  66. 66. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Parameters of importance other than electrical: -Temperature and heat flow - Radiation - Air and gas flow, liquid flow - Revolutions per minute (RPM) - Air velocity, noise and vibration, dust concentration, -Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), pH - Moisture content - Relative humidity - Flue gas analysis - CO2, O2, CO, SOx, NOx, combustion efficiency etc. 66
  67. 67. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Luxmeter Manometer Power Electric Analyzer 67
  68. 68. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Hygrometer Combustion Analyzer 68
  69. 69. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Anemometer Thermography 69
  70. 70. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Combustion Analyzer: This instrument has in-built chemical cells which measure various gases such as O2, CO, NOX and SOX. Fuel Efficiency Monitor: This measures oxygen and temperature of the flue gas. Calorific values of common fuels are fed into the microprocessor which calculates the combustion efficiency. Fyrit: A hand bellow pump draws the flue gas sample into the solution inside the fyrite. A chemical reaction changes the liquid volume revealing the amount of gas. A separate fyrite can be used for O2 and CO2 measurement. 70
  71. 71. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Contact thermometer: These are thermocouples which measures for example flue gas, hot air, hot water temperatures by insertion of probe into the stream. For surface temperature, a leaf type probe is used with the same instrument. 71
  72. 72. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Infrared Thermometer: This is a non-contact type measurement which when directed at a heat source directly gives the temperature read out. This instrument is useful for measuring hot spots in furnaces, surface temperatures etc. 72
  73. 73. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Speed Measurements: In any audit exercise speed measurements are critical as thay may change with frequency, belt slip and loading. A simple tachometer is a contact type instrument which can be used where direct access is possible. More sophisticated and safer ones are non contact instruments such as stroboscopes. Tachometer Stroboscope 73
  74. 74. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Leak Detectors: Ultrasonic instruments are available which can be used to detect leaks of compressed air and other gases which are normally not possible to detect with human abilities. Lux meters: Illumination levels are measured with a lux meter. It consists of a photo cell which senses the light output, converts to electrical impulses which are calibrated as lux. 74
  75. 75. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Pitot tube Pitot Tube and manometer: Air velocity in ducts can be measured using a pitot tube and inclined manometer for further calculation of flows. 75
  76. 76. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Water flow meter: This non-contact flow measuring device using Doppler effect / Ultra sonic principle. There is a transmitter and receiver which are positioned on opposite sides of the pipe. The meter directly gives the flow. Water and other fluid flows can be easily measured with this meter. 76
  77. 77. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Main points of measure by Equipment 77
  78. 78. Hamadi SayahThe Lebanese Center for Energy Measures CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Temperature (T°) Relative humidity (RH%) Air Handling Unit Speed (m/s) Dimensions of the sheath (m) Fresh air Air blowing Ambiance Air return Air after Air after cold hot battery battery 78
  79. 79. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Resumption (reprise) T: T: Air de reprise °C °C RH : RH : New air % % V: V: Air neuf m/s m/s T: °C Air de soufflage RH : Blowing % (soufflage) HOT COLD V: WATER WATER m/s Ts Tec Tsf Tef cC cC C cC 79
  80. 80. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage AIR HANDELING UNIT EFFICIENCY RETURN AIR AIR BLOWER FRESH AIR RETURN WATER HOT WATER (qab × hab – qfa × hfa – qra × hra) h AHU = ---------------------------------------------------------------------- [qhw × (Thw – Twr) × Cp]
  81. 81. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage qab = air blower flow qfa = fresh air flow qra = return air flow qhw = hot water flow hab = air blower enthalpie hfa = fresh air enthalpie hra = return air enthalpie Thw = hot water temperture Twr = water return temperture Cp = specific heat of the hot water
  82. 82. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Chiller Description Value Unit Measure (Evaporator) Description Value Unit Chilled water flow m3/h Evaporator entering water temperature °C Evaporator water temperature output °C Measure (Condenser) Description Unit Flow water cooling Tour m3/h Entering condenser water temperature °C condenser water temperature output °C Electric power compressor KW Measured electric power KW 82
  83. 83. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage THE EFFICIENCY OF THE REFRIGERATED PRODUCTION (Q2 – W) COP cool = -------------------- W
  84. 84. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Q2 = Power condenser = S x v x 1,2 x (Ts - ta) [kW] S = condenser surface m² v = air speed m/s Ts = Air temperature at the exit of the condenser °C Ta = Temperature of air inhaled) by the condenser °C 1,2 = is the volume heat of the air kJ/(m3.°C) W = The energy absorbed by the compressor only
  85. 85. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Description Measuring instrument BOILER Combustion gas % CO2 Combustion analyser % O2 Combustion analyser CO ppm Combustion analyser Temperature Combustion analyser Flow Pitot tube Combustion air Flow Anemometer Temperature Thermometer Relative humidity Hygrometer Dimensions Meter Boiler feed water Flow Flowmeter Temperature Thermometer Hot water boiler output Temperature Thermometer 85
  86. 86. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage BOILER EFFICIENCY Lrc Lfg Lu Qfuel hComb = 100 - % losses due to dry flue gas (Lfg) - % Unbured losses (Lu) - % Losses by radiation and convection (Lrc)
  87. 87. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage (Lfg) % = k × (Tfg – Ta) / % CO2 kfuel = 0,62 kgas = 0,47 Kpropane = 0,5 (Lu) % = b × % CO / (%CO + % CO2) bfuel = 52 bgas = 35 bpropane = 43 (Lrc) % = 1 200 × S × (Tp – Ta) / Pb S = surface of the boiler Tp = average wall temperature of the boiler Ta = ambient temperature Pb = Power rated boiler
  88. 88. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage – The campaign of measures is done in two periods: • Summer season : in hot season (use of cold for conditioning) • Wintry season : in cold season (use of hot water for heating) 88
  89. 89. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage §The use of in-place utility metering and temporary monitoring equipment in energy auditing can yield valuable information about the building systems such as: § Energy signature and end-use consumption analysis § Discovery and identification of ECMs § Quantification of energy use and misuse § Establishing bounds for potential energy reduction, and Data acquisition for further calculation and analysis 89
  90. 90. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Existing information • Existing instrumentation such as utility meter readings, and energy billings could be used to establish energy consumption patterns for the building. • The regularity of consumption pattern is an indicator that no significant change in consumption occurred prior to the audit. • This can also be used to check the validity of projections based on extrapolated short-term monitored data. 90
  91. 91. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage By Measurements it’s possible to: - Quantify energy uses and losses through a more detailed review and analysis of equipment, systems, and operational characteristics. - Measurement and testing to quantify energy use and efficiency of various systems. - Standard energy engineering calculations are used to analyze efficiencies and calculate energy and costs savings based on improvements and changes to each system. 91
  92. 92. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Task 4 – Energy balance of main energy consumer 92
  93. 93. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage An estimate for annual consumption is extrapolated from the typical week consumption profile. Regularity of the weekly consumption profile means that the annual consumption could be estimated with confidence and the value used to cross check with the annual energy bills. 93
  94. 94. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage 94
  95. 95. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage 95
  96. 96. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Computer Simulation • Detail use of energy by function and a more comprehensive evaluation of energy use patterns. • Develop a computer simulation of building systems that will account for weather and other variables and predict year-round energy use. • Build a base for comparison that is consistent with the actual energy consumption of the facility. • Make changes to improve efficiency of various systems and measure the effects compared to the baseline. Because of the time involved in collecting detailed equipment information, operational data, and setting up an accurate computer model, this is the most expensive level of energy audit but may be warranted if the facility or systems are more complex in nature. 96
  97. 97. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Evaluation of energy consumption by equipment in summer season 97
  98. 98. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP) Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage q Air Handling unit % Air Air neuf Air reprise Air mélange Air soufflage Air ambiant Bilan thermique Bilan thermique eau neufN° m3/h T(°C) m3/h T(°C) m3/h T(°C) % m3//h T(°C) HR T(°C) HR % 1000Kg/h KW Debit T°entrée T° sortieAC1 -- -- 21381 23 21381 23,0 0 21381 16,5 73 20,5 54 69,77 81 41,98 7 8,1AC2 Bis 18144 22 13190 22,8 31334 22,5 57,9 31334 17,6 73 23,0 53 73,6 85,7 94,94 6,6 7,4AC2 33000 23,1 26030 24,6 59067 23,8 55,9 59067 18,5 74 24,9 58 114,24 133 57,48 6,9 8,9AC3 35510 22,5 36547 24,3 72058 23,4 49,3 72058 18,8 75 24,8 57 83,9 97 61,9 6,6 8,4AC4 19958 23,7 25402 23,8 45360 23,4 44,0 45360 20 68 23,8 55 60,23 70 61,79 7,3 8,3AC5 -- -- 49896 23,9 49896 23,9 0,0 49896 19,1 72 22,9 51 63,97 74 61,79 6,6 7,6AC6 -- -- 48190 23 48190 23,0 0,0 48190 18,5 72 22,7 64 76,41 89 93,99 7,6 8,4AC7 -- -- 40487 23,5 40487 18,3 0,0 40487 18,3 74 24,6 58 82,48 96 56,62 7,5 9AC8 -- -- 42915 23,2 42915 23,2 0,0 42915 19 74 24,4 59 56 66 74,25 7 7,8AC9 -- -- -- -- 15256 23,0 0,0 15256 17 72 20,4 61.0 44,02 51 42,39 7,5 8,5AC10 -- -- 34900 23,3 34900 23,3 0,0 34900 16,6 72 23,3 52.0 90,31 105 77,4 7,5 8,7AC11 15368 23 55457 23 70825 23 21,7 70825 17,1 74 24,9 56 155,23 180 77,4 7,5 10AC12 25920 23 6912 23 32832 23 78,9 32832 21 63 23,1 50.0 11 13 57 7,5 7,7AC13 -- -- 15552 23,5 15552 23,5 0,0 15552 17,3 70 22,3 51.0 50,22 58 34,5 7,5 9AC15 -- -- 22957 23,2 22957 23,2 0,0 22957 17,6 68 25,3 55 67,12 78 41,9 7,4 9AC16 22560 23,3 -- -- 22560 23,3 100,0 22560 16,5 70 20,8 58 81.41 95 41,98 7,5 9,4AC17 28464 23,5 -- -- 28464 23,5 100,0 28464 17,8 73 NR NR 70,79 82 41,9 7 8,7 98
  99. 99. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP) Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage % Air Air neuf Air reprise Air mélange Air soufflage Air ambiant Bilan thermique N° neuf Bilan thermique eau m3/h T(°C) m3/h T(°C) m3/h T(°C) % m3//h T(°C) HR T(°C) HR % 1000Kg/h KW Debit T°entrée T° sortieAC18 -- -- 14165 24,5 14165 24,5 0,0 14165 13,5 74 21,9 53 87,3 101 41,9 7,4 9,5AC19 -- -- 16740 23 16740 23,5 0,0 16740 19,1 71 NR NR 31,27 36 41,98 7,5 8,2AC22 8528 23,6 14026 23,4 22554 23,5 37,8 22554 17 73 22,2 52 68,63 80 53.22 7 8,3AC24 11250 26,2 18779 25,7 30029 25,9 37,5 30029 21,3 68 25,8 59 65,44 76 53,6 8 9,2AC25 A -- -- -- -- 38330 23,5 0,0 38330 17,5 74 23,1 58 99,93 116 65,41 7,5 9,3AC25 B -- -- -- -- 45000 23,5 0,0 45000 17,4 73 23,2 59 117,06 136 56.41 7,3 9,4AC25 C -- -- 31519 24.2 31519 24,2 0,0 31519 17,8 74 23,0 52 89,54 104 46,2 6 7,9AC26 -- -- 57879 23 57879 23 0,0 57879 18,5 70 22,7 57 99,14 115 54.6 7 8,8AC27 -- -- 38264 23,5 38260 23,5 0,0 38264 20 70 23,9 54 78,16 91 27,86 7,3 10,1AC28 -- -- 41250 23,5 41250 23,5 0,0 41250 20,9 71 24,1 61 16,4 19 35,38 7,5 8AC29 13323 21,7 17885 23,7 31208 22,8 42,7 31208 19,9 70 22,9 52 16,09 19 32,44 7 7,5AC30 39593 23,0 11775 23 51368 23 77,1 51368 19,2 75 22,9 54 36,51 42 31,54 7 8,2AC31 8482 22,5 15380 23,8 23860 23,3 35,5 23862 21 60 21,8 50 15,06 17 31,6 7 7,5AC32 43740 23,0 -- -- 43740 23 100,0 43740 19,5 72 22,0 59 43,01 50 34,6 7.5 8,7AC33 6420 22,6 18220 23,2 24640 23 26,1 24640 19,2 70 23,1 58 30,04 35 36.96 7.5 8,3AC34 70056 23,3 -- -- 70056 23,3 100,0 70056 20,3 70 23,0 55 49,91 58 36,9 7 8,4AC35 10289 22,8 14818 23,1 25107 23 41,0 25107 20,2 71 24,1 49 20,91 24 34,6 7 7,6AC36 12999 22,4 9078 23,5 22077 23 58,9 22077 18,9 76 23,3 56 35,81 42 36,38 7 8ACX -- -- -- -- 78000 23,5 0,0 78000 18 76 NR NR 150,74 175 79,98 7,5 9,7 99
  100. 100. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Global analysis flows between blown and needs Comparison between measures of ambient air in different areas of the establishment and conditions sought confort in September 2007 when the outside is 22 ° C as follows: Température = 22°C Hygrométrie = 50 % HR CTA shows that AC2, AC3, AC7, AC8, AC11 and AC15 are not currently developing the cooling power needed. 100
  101. 101. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage This is due either : • “Consigne” value • The location of temperature sensors • The lack of cooling capacity of CTA • On the importance of lighting (light intensity) with a warming of the atmosphere. 101
  102. 102. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Analysis of fresh air Given that the audited period (end September 2007) is the end of the summer and early fall, the outside air is at a temperature of days of the order of 22 ° C and 55% HR The analysis of measured data shows respectively: - The total absence of the provision of fresh air for 18 CTA yet its temperature is generally lower than that of air again. - The fresh air enters partially into the mixture before the battery level remaining 18 CTA. 102
  103. 103. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP) Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et PilotageIn another aspect, by comparing the flow of fresh air compared to the hygienic needs(25 m3/h/pax), we note the following: N° CTA New Air : need (m3/h) Measure (m3/h) Measure/needsAC01 3500 0 0AC02 11975 33000 2,76AC02 BIS 19575 18144 0,93AC03 11000 35510 3,23AC12 20425 25920 1,27AC13 12075 0 0,00AC15 11950 0 0,00AC22 11775 8528 0.72AC24 5750 11250 1,96AC27 7850 0 0,00AC18 5000 0 0,00AC04 3100 19958 6,44AC05 1475 0 0,00AC06 10750 0 0,00AC07 10250 0 0,00AC08 2050 0 0,00AC10 2625 0 0,00AC11 8100 15368 1,90 103ACX 0 0 0
  104. 104. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP) Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage N° CTA New Air : need (m3/h) Measure (m3/h) Measure/needs AC25A&B 26950 0 0,00 AC25C 9100 0 0,00 AC26 9250 0 0,00 AC9 650 0 0,00 AC17 1250 28464 22,77 AC19 5250 0 0,00SATELLITE AC28 2500 0 0,00 AC29 5250 13323 2,54 AC30 5250 39593 7,54 AC31 5250 8482 1,62 AC32 5250 43740 8,33 AC33 5250 6420 1,22 AC34 5400 70056 12.97 AC35 2500 10289 4,12 AC36 1000 13000 13,00 total 249 325 401 045 1,609 104
  105. 105. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Recommendation The regulation of aspects of entry of fresh air must be improved. We recommend that: • Implementation of probes % CO2 sensors in each service area, such information come into the logic circuit controlling the phase of fresh air. • Levels for opening strands (volets) of fresh air and recirculated air will depend on the respective rates of CO2, the temperature of fresh air and the temperature and humidity of air recycled. • Setting vouchers of fresh air by ensuring a minimum flow of air regardless of the occupation and season through mechanical stops which closed for a minimum of air (10 to 15% ). 105
  106. 106. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage CALCULATION OF CHILLER 106
  107. 107. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP) Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Description Value unit CharacteristicCooling capacity 1938 KWCOP theory 5,34Evaporator exit temperature 30 °CElectrical power installed 373 KWElectrical power absorbed 363 KWChilled water flow 330 m3/hCooling water flow 334 m3/h Thermal balance of Evaporator Description Value unitChilled water flow 334 m3/hEvaporator entering water temperature 9,3 °CEvaporator water temperature output 7 °C 766 th/hEnergy exchange 889 KW Thermal balance of condenser Description Value unitFlow water cooling Tower 330 m3/hEntering condenser water temperature 27.9 °Ccondenser water temperature output 30,76 °C 942 th/hCooling Energy 1094 KW 107Absorbed Power 205 KW
  108. 108. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage We observe the following: - The group was operating at only 45.1% of its capacity to weather external lenient evidenced by a low temperature gradient between the entry and exit of water ice. - The call of the power is 217 kW or a load factor of 59.78% (nominal power of 363 kW) corresponding to a COP of 4.03. 108
  109. 109. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage SECTION % Frigorific COP % Electyricity SMA 45,1 4,03 59,78 DES 50,3 3,42 72,4 Satellite 43,3 2,78 46 Average 47,94 3,49 64,46 We observe, during the audited period, that overall the groups of water ice are exploited to the tune of 47.94% have gone to 64.46% of the nominal power. Also, we observe that groups with (satellite) have a better ratio of power consumption during operation at about 50%. 109
  110. 110. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage CALCULATION OF COOLING TOWER 110
  111. 111. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP) Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Valeur Désignation Unity Unit N°1 Unit N°2 OUTPUTHR 100 97 %Output T° of Tower °C 26,7 26,7 °CH2O fraction input 22,24 21,55 g/Kg air secWet Air « humide » density 1,159 1,16 Kg/m3Wet Air « humide » Enthalpy 83,6 82,8 Kj/Kg INPUTFlow 56757 59786 m3/hHR 52,1 51 %Input T°of tower °C 27,2 27 °CH2O fraction input 11,74 11,35 g/Kg air secWet Air « humide » density 1,164 1,16 Kg/m3Wet Air « humide » Enthalpy 57,32 56,1 Kj/KgMassic flow Dry Air « sec » 65348 68923 Kg/h 111
  112. 112. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Thermal balance and massique (applied to the air) Exchanged Thermal power 477 511 KW Quantity of evaporated water 0,69 0,70 m3/h Quantity of water purged of bottom 0,69 0,70 m3/h Quantity of water of supplement 1,38 1,41 m3/h Total supplement of the tower 2,78 m3/h Total power Exchanged by the tower 988 KW 112
  113. 113. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Assessment of global climate establishment We recall at this level the surfaces and volumes of spaces constituting establishment and their assignments machinery room. Machinery room Surfaces ( m²) Volumes (m3) S.M.A 26 175 130 875 DSE 22 690 124 795 Satellite 7 958 35 811 Other 625 1 875 TOTAL 57 448 293 356 113
  114. 114. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage The results of air conditioning consumption during the day audited are respectively: SECTION Wf/m2 Frigories/m2 h W élec/m2 Wf/m3 Frigories/m3 h W/m3 SMA 33,4 28,76 8,29 6,68 5,75 1,66 DSE 84,4 72,69 24,68 15,34 13,21 4,49 Satellite 38,4 33,12 13,82 8,54 7,36 3,07 Autres - - - - - - TOTAL 53,87 46,40 15,44 10,55 9,09 3,02 For an optimal ratio of 70 Wf/m² corresponding to local public attendance average for non- smokers, we observe that : - The AHU provide standards of comfort above the needs. - The station “SMA”, expanding 45.1% of its capacity, has a ratio of 33.4 Wf/m², to below the level of comfort. This confirms the failure of CTA 2,3,7 and 8. 114
  115. 115. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy balance of power transformer 115
  116. 116. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Called Power Transformer Power KVA Rate % KVA Transformer terminal S/SB 400 140 35 Transformer of secour S/SB 1000 450 45 Transformer of air conditioning SAT 1000 214 21 Transformer of secour SAT 400 38 9 Transfo Normal 1&2 SAT 800 415 52 Normal transformer S/SA 1500 1202 80 Transformer of secour S/SA 400 236 59 Transformer of air conditioning DSE 2000 1032 52 Transformer of eclairageDSE 300 182 61 We note that a total of 7 800 KVA installed and the call in power during the days audited, processors are responsible for overall height of only 50.11% for a nominal 65%. 116
  117. 117. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy consumption By station Consumption/hour Consumption/day Désignation % (Kwh) (Kwh) Under station B 1 513 36 312 39 Station SATELLITE 367 8 808 9 Under station A 1 161 27 864 30 Station room of machines 834 20 016 21 TOTAL 3 875 93 000 100 117
  118. 118. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy Consumption by use ACTIVE POWER KW AFFECTATION S/S A SATEL S/SB SM TOTAL % AHU 79,7 96,4 108,4 284,5 7,3 LIGHTING 922 95,5 674 158 1849,5 47,7 CHILLERS 471,5 152,9 199,7 659,4 1483,5 38,3 Batteries de 5,6 19 2,6 27,2 0,7 compensation BOILERS 17 17 0,4 OTHERS 34 3,1 176,4 213,5 5,5 TOTAL 1512,8 366,9 1161,1 834,4 3875,2 100,0 We note that lighting accounts for 47.7% of the active power drawn with 1 followed by 849.5 KW stations production of ice water with 38.3% and 1 483.5 KW. 118
  119. 119. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage REACTIVE POWER (KVAR) AFFECTATION S/S A SATEL S/SB SM TOTAL % AHU 57,9 84 89,6 231,5 8,4 LIGHTING 322,8 69,3 410 89,5 891,6 32,3 CHILLERS 198,1 102,4 409,3 536,7 1246,5 45,1 Batteries de 36,9 200,4 37,5 274,8 9,9 compensation BOILERS 14,5 14,5 0,5 OTHERS 23,3 8,9 73,1 105,3 3,8 TOTAL 639 465 1019,5 640,7 2764,2 100,0 In against part, we observe that CHILLERS generate reactive power kVAR 1 246.5 representing 45.1% of the total reagent indicating that electric motors are operated GEG limited mode (rate infrequent use) involving assets of over a generation and a strong back current (reactive) on the circuit. 119
  120. 120. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Tension and POWER FACTOR average AFFECTATION S/S A SATEL S/SB SM TOTAL Cosinus 0,92 0,62 0,75 0,79 0,81 Tension(Volt) 355,3 357,5 343,4 382,2 351,8 Lighting AFFECTATION S/S A SATEL S/SB SM TOTAL Cosinus 0,94 0,81 0,85 0,87 0,90 Tension (Volt) 360,6 359,9 376,0 389,7 366,6 Chillers AFFECTATION S/S A SATEL S/SB SM TOTAL Cosinus 0,92 0,83 0,44 0,78 0,77 Tension(Volt) 357,5 398,1 318,4 381,4 349,0 120
  121. 121. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage AMPERAGE AFFECTATION S/S A SATEL S/SB SM TOTAL % AHU 156,6 184,4 211,5 552,5 7,1 LIGHTING 1564,1 189,3 1211,5 269 3233,9 41,4 CHILLERS 825,9 266,9 825,9 1287 3205,7 41,0 Batteries de compensation 57,3 299,9 59,8 417 5,3 BOILERS 33 33 0,4 OTHERS 65 16,1 288,9 370 4,7 TOTAL 2668.9 956,6 2597,6 1589 7812,1 100 Again, we see that the lighting and CHILLERS appeal to 82.4% of the intensity. 121
  122. 122. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Compensation batteries Tension Active Power similar Réactive Power POSITION Current (A) Cos φ (V) Power (KW) (KVA) (KVAR) S/S B 366 57,3 5,6 0,15 37,3 36,9 401 123 6,48 0,08 81,0 80,7 SATELLITE 391 57,9 3,5 0,09 38,4 38,3 390 119 9,01 0,11 81,9 81,4 S/S A 388 59,8 2,63 0,07 37,6 37,5 We find that the batteries are inserted in good condition. However, the battery under the S / SB beginning to show signs of degradation whose cosine was around 0.15 against a 0.07 nominal practice. 122
  123. 123. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Wintry season The 2nd compaign of measurement took place in January, when the outside temperature was about 16 ° C with relative humidity averaging 30% (dry but cold atmosphere). 123
  124. 124. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Combustion efficiency generators HOT WATER 124
  125. 125. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage The measurements in the boiler combustion are concerned, analysis of smoke, losses by convection and radiation, temperatures and natural gas consumption. HOT WATER GENERATOR DESIGNATION Unity Value Puissance Calorifique Heat capacity th/h 1500 Temperature smokes °C 104 Temperature air combustive °C 17,5 Percentage O2 % 3,4 Percentage CO2 % 9,9 Percentage CO ppm 0 Losses by heat Sensitive of smokes % 4,11 Rendement de Combustion % 95,9 Losses by convection and brilliance % 1,0 Thermal return % 94,9 Coefficient of excess of air(sight 1,19 125
  126. 126. The Lebanese Center for Energy Hamadi Sayah CRA2E (LCECP)Conservation ProjectEtude, Contrôle et Pilotage Energy Conservation Measures ECMs for Establishment 126

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