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Nanotechnology   academic essay assignment - www.topgradepapers.com
 

Nanotechnology academic essay assignment - www.topgradepapers.com

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    Nanotechnology   academic essay assignment - www.topgradepapers.com Nanotechnology academic essay assignment - www.topgradepapers.com Document Transcript

    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com 2009 rs Nanotechnology pe Pa de rapGTo Ibrahim-your Name University Name 1 8/25/2009 GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com
    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com Table of Contents rs Nanotechnology ......................................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 3 pe Brief background of Nanotechnology .................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. More History about Nanotechnology chronologically: .......................................................... 4 Pa Manufacturing of Nano-Products ........................................................................................... 6 The Potential Benefits of Nanotechnology ............................................................................ 7 Relation of the Nano-Technology with the life sciences: ...................................................... 7 de The perception about the Nano-Technology in the world...................................................... 9 The Social Implications of Nanotechnology .......................................................................... 9 Future of the Nano-Technology ........................................................................................... 10 ra Risks Associated with Nano-Technology ............................................................................ 12 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 13pG References ................................................................................................................................ 14To GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com
    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com Nanotechnology INTRODUCTION rs A lot of universities and centers, governments research centers and many other institutes dealing with nano-tachnology offer different definition for the nanotechnology. As the pe definition we can say that: “Nanotechnology is basically the control and understanding of the meter at the smallest level of about 1 to 100 nanometers, where, where this unique technology enhances novel applications.” Pa The technology of nano is that which is differentiated first and foremost on the basis of the scale on which it acts; the nanotechnology can be up to one billionth of a meter or the one-ten de thousandth of the thickness of a human hair. Individual atoms or molecules are fundamental activities that are engaged in nano scale. Consequently, nanotechnology is said to be simulated exploitation of atomic or molecular matter or processes. Simply, Now a days ra nanotechnology is being manufactured at a very small scale like we cans say that at the level of atomic or molecular scale.pGTo Figure 1: Nanoparticles Atoms GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com
    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com Photosynthesis and formation of energy in the body of a human being are the important activities that are occurring naturally around us and also as the perfect examples of the nanoscale. To re-establish the nanoscale processes in organic and non-organic field is now having become possible for the scientists to make this a reality all over the world. Capabilities of working on such an unbelievably small scale, opportunities are available in rs extensive range of industries remarkably mechanization, physical condition and ecological administration. pe Nanotechnology is also regarded as a feature of all methodical disciplines such as physics, chemistry, environmental science, material science, manufacturing-moderately than another field of science. Nanotechnology has developed such an importance that is provides assistance to all industries except being an industry itself. More History about Nanotechnology: Pa The background of nanotechnology is full of mysteries & cynicism. Some people were de determined on this statement that this is fresh form of scientific development & it would not flourish until the arrival of 1990s. Some other verified that the history of nanotechnology can be map out back in early 1959. ra Moreover, as scientific expansion goes wider, nanotechnology is still spanking new arena of scientific research.pG Still other developers believe that human has engaged realistic nanotechnological methods for thousands of years, possibly even longer. Nanotechnology is the maturity of evolution, as most of people situate it, and growth has included the vulcanization of rubber. These progresses count in the record of nanotechnologyTo according to many recognized scientific experts. GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com
    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com rs pe Pa Figure 2: Nanophotography Possibly it might be more secure to admit that the fundamentals of history of nanotechnology have been applied for thousands of years or longer but we as a scientific society did not place de a name to it until somewhere in 1960s. In order to exactly manuscript the history of nanotechnology, one could disagree that it started when we developed the aptitude to resolve particle size, which is designate to be ra around the turn of 20th century. It was during this occasion that particle size became an invariable factor in scientific discovery. These dimensions were witness at smaller than 10nm, which in lay terms interpretpG roughly into less microscopic. The nanometre came on vista earlier than the start of the 1960s. The nanometre for a numerous, is the commencement of history of nanotechnology. Nevertheless, once it could beTo gauged, it would be deemed as an acceptable structure of reference. True? Yes it is almost. The mid nineteen’s generate the talent to identify the particles via the use of an ultra microscope that could notice particles as small as 1/1 millionth of a millimetre. This is a particle smaller than most general public cannot visualize perfectly. So, there are up till now even more detractor that describes the history of nanotechnology actually began in the mid 19 teens when the familiar case comes to pass. GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com
    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com Certainly, the phrase itself comes with the olden times. The word allocate to this type of scientific progression known to have originate from a paper that was released in 1974 written from the Tokyo Science University. There, a student invents the term “nanotechnology” in his paper and the name fixed firmly from then on. This is one region of this science’s time past that is not willingly argued, or argument able. rs At some stage in this time, nanotechnology truly boomed and as early as 1974 there were so many cracks that guided scientist to carry on this science with passion. Discoveries, such as the famous Finns’ process of atomic layering assist to put nanotechnology on the map whilst pe it added up to being recognized by the rest of scientific community. The proposal that one could in fact in some logic “touch” atoms and molecules, transpired in Pa the 1980s, when well known nanotechnological scientists sponsored the theory proposed by Dr. K. Eric Drexler, who was conscientious for the eventual ability to manipulate atom and molecules. This was quite divisive at the time as the maltreatment of molecules and atoms were feared, de should the any scientist with fatal purpose get their hands on the procedure. The fright was well founded, as molecular planning would have definitely been a way to disrupt just about anything, including humane formation of the ordinary world. ra The 1980s and the early 1990s saw a noteworthy boost in the reputation of nanotechnology. This is the science that can shape out how to strengthen our lives with nothing more thanpG molecules and atoms. This is the science where innovations are always turning out and being analysed. It won’t be so long before we look to nano, scientist’s effort to fix some of the worlds chubby social difficulties with the execution of technology & progress. Manufacturing of Nano-ProductsTo Nanotechnology is considered to be advance trough two points of views. The first one is the building up substance and particles through the merging of atomic elements. The second way is the use of the equipments and utensils to make mechanical and small nano scale objects. The concept of development techniques have been basic thing when we need trade of the micro-particles. GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com
    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com rs pe Pa Figure 3: An artists take on the "scary wonder" of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology allows the development of the hope to the progress regarding individual de components like atoms and molecules. For example it helps to put up particular, to make intricate formation and help them to join the structures with the help of other elements so that it can produce new apparatus of incredible power. If we have a deeper look over the ra molecular formation of any entity or any part of that entity we will see that it has the basis of the nanotechnology and the laws of physics in the assembling of that product. The manufacturing is nano products require a latest high level of resource competency. EverypG ingredient in the manufacturing should be used and there should be little amount that is left behind as the wastage. Because there are a lot of issues, concerning about the wastage and the cost associated with the raw material used and wasted. On the basis of this one should be so much competent to use the well defined resources so that it would not be so much expensiveTo or you have to bear a wastage disposal cost. The Potential Benefits of Nanotechnology There are a number of fields in which nanotechnology now a days involving and having its potential benefits regarding these fields. According to the different researches, the nanotechnology is involved in the manufacturing of new materials, new medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, environmental processes and procedures, new electronic devices, new sensors, and new computer technologies. Now a day there is a huge GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com
    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com advancement is looking the fields of the mobiles where a numerous number of advancements are coming regarding nanotechnology. Small phones with much more functions are also an application to the nanotechnology. Similarly it has increase the number of ways in which it has capacity to utilize the atomic and molecular possessions of materials to make the diversified new methods and meanings of the producing current products. Due to this rs technology we are able to have overlooked on it more precisely this far-reaching nanotechnology that is now making it one of the most successful and innovative areas of science, and one that has the most commercialization about its products and the concept. pe People now like it due to its convenience, accessibility and attractive smaller designs. The Nanotechnology has an ability to transform the current trends of the manufacturing of the products in such a way that is almost impossible to imagine. Nanotechnology is already being Pa used in our everyday items like sunscreen to needles. And it has also wide application in the field of architecture that has been appreciated a lot. In the near future, it will take us to use the building resources like coating, bricks and other essentials things to be developed in such de a way that it will not remain too much complicated. Although by these means and ways, these initiatives in the nanotechnology industry can change the future of the human being and it can be very helpful for us to use these materials very easily and efficiently. Similarly the development of the carbon nanotubes and other materials related to the building is going to ra change the building design and performance relative to previous concepts and areas. The development of nanotechnology is offering new combinations of the strength, durability and toughness that is helpful for the solution to our problems. For example the bio-mimeticpG materials that are based on the structures and compounds present in the nature. And has the ability to adjust their interfaces, shape memory, self repairing and to handle strain materials.To Relation of the Nano-Technology with the life sciences: As the nanotechnology has the concern regarding about the life sciences, we can find many implications of nanotechnology regarding life sciences. For example, when we are operating at the nano-scale, the division between the various scientific orders start diminishing. When we are talking about the biological responses, it leads us to all connect combinations of atoms, molecules and microscopic particles that are rule by the chemical and physical procedures. GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com
    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com rs pe Pa Figure 4: Nano- Biotechnology Similarly Nanotechnology also offers new basis for development and the innovative ideas de regarding the life sciences. For instance, a lot of research is done regarding the emerging sciences of biotechnology, genomics, proteomics that defines how proteins work in the human body, stem cell research. As well as the deep-rooted fields of agriculture, ecological ra management, clinical medicine and health check device manufacturing also has considerable role of the nanotechnology in their development. All of these are main focusing and point able extensive researches for the illustration of the link between life sciences andpG nanotechnology. The perception about the Nano-Technology in the world Nanotechnology functions have a certain quality in this age. It has become as a reality.To Different car producers in the word are using nanotubes to make possible the maximum safety of fuel-lines in vehicles for last ten years and the electronics industry also relies much more on nanotubes to make it for attractive outlook. Similarly it assists it in the control of the exclusion of any electrical charges before the time that they can become problematic to the stakeholders. Japan, Korea, Taiwan, European countries and USA have also played significant roles in the development of nanotechnology capabilities and this is the reason why that this technology has become world-wide attention. GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com
    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com It is estimated that about US$2 billions are being spent yearly for the purpose of the development and the growth of the nanotechnology worldwide. Among this entire budget about 40% of this is being used in the USA. The biggest contributor to this cause is the Japan. After that the major contribution is considered for the European Governments and the other major industrial economies like China, Singapore, and Taiwan. rs The Social Implications of Nanotechnology Whenever we are getting a required growth in a technology then it also need to be the pe recognition of that technology as an emerging thought and concept in the minds of human and society. And as the concern of the nanotechnology, it is focusing more on this area. It is developing nanotechnology as a social need and requirement. Along with its numerous ideas, Pa the nanotechnology is spreading its concept as the pure science as compare to the concept that it is unattainable fiction science. But nanotechnology has proved itself a pure science. It reason because mysteries are drive out and ideas are tested and verified practicable. And there is also one reason that it is human nature that he coverts the hand knowledge into the de implementable knowledge and technology and that is what the human has done for the nanotechnology. It is further being assumed and a lot of research is being done on it to open the closed horizons behind this mystery. ra As nanotechnology has silent promises with us for the new technologies and development, it has boosted up the open discussion of fears, failures and successes, researches studies, studypG conclusions and curiosity about the new knowledge in the societies. Due to these reasons most of the chief national nanotechnology organizations are now together with conversation of the public, feedback and ethical issues that are relating to the nanotechnologies.To Future of the Nano-Technology The new emerging technology in the world is easy to predict. Due to these technologies the most common used things, the computers are becoming quicker, materials has become stronger, and the medicine are being introduced for incurable diseases. Nanotechnology is performing its vital role in the huge part of this future. It is facilitating immense improvements in the technologies described above. This technology has reduced the sizes of GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com
    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com the things that were difficult to carry but now you can easily carry with yourself. According to the one research due to its greater importance and contribution by 2015, products incorporating nanotech will be assigned approximately $1 trillion for their production and development. It will also provide job opportunity to many people. Accroding to the estimation about two million workforces will be employed in nanotech business and about six rs million will be working in the supporting jobs. Over the next pair of decades, nanotech will develop through four overlapping stages of pe industrial prototyping and near the beginning commercialization. The first one, which commenced after 2000, involves the growth of passive nanostructures: materials with stable constructions and functions frequently used as parts of an artefact. These can be as diffident Pa as the particles of zinc oxide in sunscreens, but they can also be supported fibres in new complex or carbon nanotube wires in ultraminiaturize electronics. The next stage, which began in 2005, spotlights on lively nanostructures that are helpful in de the modification of their size, conductivity, figure or other related properties within the period of manufacturing. rapGTo Figure 5: Future Nano-Car GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com
    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com Starting around 2010, workforce will develop expertise with organisms of nanostructures, directing huge numbers of complex components to specified ends. One function could engage the guided self-assembly of nanoelectronic mechanism into three-dimensional circuits and whole devices. Medicine could use such systems to develop the tissue compatibility of implants, or to produce gallows for tissue regeneration, or possibly even to build fake organs. rs After 2015-2020, the field will spread out to take in molecular nanosystems and heterogeneous networks that have molecules and super molecular separate devices pe arrangements. The proteins within the cells work jointly this way, but while biological systems are water-based and noticeably temperature-sensitive, these molecular nanosystems will be able to function in a far wider range of atmospheres and should be much quicker. Computers and robots could be condensed to astonishingly small sizes. Medical submissions Pa might be as motivated as new types of genetic therapies and anti aging cure. New boundary linking people straightforwardly to electronics could alter telecommunications. In the UK many schools and universities are searching about the changes made by this de technology to this world. It is going bigger and bigger. Due to this enlargement, this makes the people to think about this to have a solution about this problem. If we go before 50 years ago such an expansion was considered as the success, but in this age is has been considereing ra as the question mark. So according to increasing populations, needs and living areas such an enlargement is not acceptable.pG Risks Associated with Nano-Technology The biggest fear of nanotechnology that the people bear is greater than these concrete social, environmental and economic factors. This fear concerns about the question of the properTo affiliation between man and nature. Many questions have been arising due to this technology. It has been conflicting with religion and sometimes cultures. Some of the questions like is it legal to attain some molecules from human body and then make another person of the same shape or identity. It is question regarding cloning. Similarly questions like replacement of the living parts of the body with man-made object are raised. Because this is the way we are blurring the line between man and machine. And it is no more acceptable by many human beings. These fears are the major consideration that are the environmentalists, socialist and the religious people are arising about it. it is Obvious that is the greatest fear to loss of control GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com
    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com over a technology that can be dangerous in our next ages. These are the major concern that is being taken about the questions raised about the bad impacts of the nanotechnology. Conclusion rs Nanotechnology gives us an ability to build large numbers of products that are incredibly powerful by todays standards and easy to carry and handle as compare to the previous ages machines. For example we can have comparison of pocket pc’s and the frame computers in pe last ages. This technology creates both opportunity and risk. In this paper we are discussing different aspects of the nanotachnolgy with our life styles, its history and what would be the future of this technology. There are also considered many risk along with the opportunities Pa discussed above. We have to work more to enhance these opportunities while decreasing the threats of risks associated with this technology. de rapGTo GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com
    • GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com References rs  Daniel Ratner, (2002), Nanotechnology: a gentle introduction to the next big idea, Volume 174, pe http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=m9Tn_V4an28C&printsec=frontcover&dq=nanotechn ology#v=onepage&q=&f=false, Accessed at 23/08/2009.  Pa Rebecca L. Johnson, (2005), Nanotechnology, http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=HcQ6MedM09gC&printsec=frontcover&dq=nanotech nology#v=onepage&q=&f=false, Accessed at 23/08/2009 de  Nanowerk Spotlight, (Feb, 2009), Cutting edge nanotechnology, http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=9315.php, Accessed at 24/08/2009. ra  Nanotechnology, http://www.zyvex.com/nano/, Accessed at 24/08/2009.pGTo GET YOUR WORK DONE BY www.TopGradePapers.com