• Nanotechnology or Nanotech in short refers to the technology of creating materials, devices and functions using automatically manipulated matter. A study of this kind of matter which has new properties constitutes an emerging branch of science, namely Nanoscience. Nanotechnology is derived from the discoveries in this area of science, just as all the technologies we are familiar with emerge from corresponding science.
• „Nano‟ means „billionth of a meter‟. One billionth of a meter is one meter divided by one billion (1000,000,000), that is, 0.00000001 cm. Imagine something as small as that. Look around! What can be as small as that? Whether these? DEFINITELY NO!
Inspiration• What could have inspired scientist to think of minute Nano-sized things? Simple! Nature! It needed the genius of that charismatic physicts, Richard Feynman. Feynman on December 29, 1959 delivered a lecture on “There’s plenty of room at the bottom” but everyone considered him as crazy.
• But not genius K.Eric drexler, and he only coined the term „Nanotechnology‟. These two great legends on the field of Nanotechnology became the inspiration for the development of Nano-tech. He is now considered as the “FATHER OF NANOTECHNOLOGY”
But before all these 20th century genius, our 4thcentury genius have noted the Nanomaterials available innature and made some articles using these!
The Lycurgus Cup • The Lycurgus Cup made from glass appears red in transmitted light and green in reflected light. The glass contains 70nm particles as seen in an electron microscopic image. The cup itself is dated to 4th century AD, but the metallic holder is a later addition.
• Today we manipulate matter such as silicon with optical methods so that transistors and integrated circuits are made, with which we built the era of information, technology. The dimensions of materials manipulated got systematically reduced with time and the modern Core i7 chip has above 700 millions of transistors in it (developed based on 45nm fabrication process). Imagine whether such many transistors which where in the Core i7 is possible without Nanotechnology?
• Rapid growth requirements in computing capabilities necessitated smaller and smaller transistors so that devices could shrink in size; this is popularly referred to as the Moore‟s Law which may be stated as, Number of transistors in an integrated circuit double in every 18months‟.
Graphene• Graphene is a rival of silicon and it an allotrope of carbon that will eventually revolutionize electronic devices ranging from supercomputers to cell phones. Graphene-based nanoelectronic devices will be faster, less power- consuming than silicon, and much thinner.
Molecules in Jeans as Solar Cells • Molecules, typically used in blue jeans and ink dyes, have been used for building and organic framework that could lead to economical, flexible and versatile solar cell.
Print Display Almost Anywhere • Ntera, a US-based company, has developed a nanotechnology mass- produce electronic displays on a wide range of paper, packaging, ticket and greeting card products.
Memristors- A Memory and Logic Device • Memristor logic devices are quite smaller than devices made from transistors, enabling packing more computing power into a given space. Memristor arrays performing both logic and memory functions would eliminate transferring data between a processor and a hard drive in future.
Nanorobots• In the fields of molecular computing and robotics, researches in Caltech, USA, have created robots the size of a molecule that can move freely across a nanoscale track. The achievement would lead molecular robots to fix individual cells or assemble nanoproducts. The project involves reprogramming DNA molecules to perform in specific ways.
• Nanotech based robots have been used for cell surgery and even these robots can be sent through the blood stream and can identify the damaged parts which cannot be found using x-rays, etc.
But, what is the main objective of this program?
• To create awareness among the people and students. Definitely not only that, we i.e. Students our ideas is needed for the greatest and the genius scientist of this time.
Number 1• Nanotech materials of Super-tough, super- light, super-insulating, etc. can be made use for constructing aircrafts, buildings, automobiles, etc. which is more stronger and the main thing is it cannot be damaged easily and the e-waste which is a part of Land pollution can be controlled. May be one can make a bicycle with frames as thin as a pencil. Can! One can wear ultra thin clothing and walk into fire! It can be possible only when we group together and work together
Number 2• New molecules, materials and artificial structures are now made in the lab, which are functional. Such materials change properties with external stimuli. Imagine buildings which absorb toxic gases, change colours, absorb ultraviolet, self clean, etc. can be made using nanotechnologies.
Number 3• Solar energy conversion will be much more efficient and cheap by the use of nanotech. This will make solar driven cars affordable to Indians. Solar houses become a reality. Clean energy hunt will intensify and new forms of captive energy which requires no external raw materials may come into homes. More power may be generated at homes than consumed from the grid. New generation of water purification can be come by than Reverse Osmosis (RO).
Number 4• Diseases will be diagnosed using molecular principles. Detecting cancer at the single cell level will become a reality. Hundreds of diseases and conditions will be screened in one go, in easy to use throw away chips, with one drop of blood, or saliva. Diagnosis of several of the health risks will be known years in advance. As a result, therapy will shrink to cell level or molecule level. Nanotech based Artificial organs and molecular medicine will make people at 60 young.
Final One• The Environment. The New materials and processes will come into existence to reverse climate change. But whether climate will return to normal will not be decided by science. However, every process is going to be understood from the way environment is going to be altered. Ultimate chemistry, physics, engineering, etc. will be similar to biology and it will be taught that way in schools by which the students can take their profession as a Nanotech Engineer.
• Science itself could be shaken by nanotechnology. The vitally important elementary particle, electron, the backbone of electronics and the electronics industry, has been found to behave in a bizarre manner in the very minute Nano- structures. Not only Nanotech even Biotech, Green Chemistry and so on can also be made use for minimizing the pollution in the world.
• By, T. Anbu X V. Dhananjay IX Of Sri Sankara Vidyalaya, Pammal, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.