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Nanotechnology And Its Applications


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Nanotechnology And Its Applications

  2. 2. <ul><li>This technical project report presents the implementations and applications of the latest technology that is </li></ul><ul><li>NANOTECHNOLOGY. </li></ul>
  3. 3. NANOTECHNOLOGY <ul><li>The main unifying theme in nanotechnology is the control of matter on a scale below 100 nano meters , as well as the fabrication of devices on this same length scale. Nanotechnology is simply any technology that contains components smaller than 100 nanometers. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>What is Nanotechnology ? </li></ul><ul><li>A basic definition: Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale . </li></ul><ul><li>It involves molecular electronics, which is nothing but electronics involving components the size of molecules. Molecular electronics seeks to build computational systems, both memory and logic, wherein individual or small collections of molecules serve as discrete device components. Potential advantages of molecular electronic systems could be many-fold including. </li></ul><ul><li>reducing the complexity and cost of current integrated circuit fabrication technologies, </li></ul><ul><li>reducing heat generation by using only a few electrons per bit of information, </li></ul><ul><li>and providing a route to meet the ever-continuing demand for miniaturization </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The main focus of this project will be to look at the various applications and implementations of nanotechnology including various nanoelectronic devices especially nanocells and nanogates, nano FETs and nano batteries which are creating waves in the electronics world. </li></ul>
  6. 6. NANOCELL (The basic building block): <ul><li>A nanocell is a two-dimensional (2-D) [3-D models could also be considered] network of self-assembled metallic particles connected by molecules that show reprogrammable (can be turned ON or OFF) negative differential resistance (NDR) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>A nanocell could be ~1 m possessing 20 I/O leads on the edges that can be contacted by standard lithographic wiring. As shown in fid.1. the black rectangles at the edges are the I/O leads.The nanocell has the potential to be reprogrammed throughout a computational process via changes in the ON and OFF states of the molecules, thereby creating a real-time dynamic reconfigurable hard-wired logic. The central processing unit of the computer would be comprised of arrays of nanocells wherein each nanocell would have the functionality of many transistors working in concert. </li></ul><ul><li>A regular array of nanocells is assumed to manage complexity, and ultimately, a few nanocells, once programmed, should be capable </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>of programming their neighboring nanocells </li></ul><ul><li>A molecular self-assembled monolayer coating each nanoparticle would control the spacing between nanoparticles. Molecular switches would insert into the inert self-assembled monolayer barrier around each nanoparticle, and thereby inter-link adjacent nanoparticles Each molecular switch could be set into an ON state or an OFF state. Thus nanocells form nano electronic switches. These switches are used in transistors and then in VLSI designing which is the electronic circuit designing. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The small size of nanocells and the nanoelectronic switches is very useful in todays electronic world. </li></ul><ul><li>Inverters, NAND gates, half-adders, and 1-bit adders have been discovered using the nanocells. </li></ul><ul><li>a Nanoelectronic switch </li></ul>
  10. 10. CARBON NANOTUBES (CNTs): <ul><li>CNTs, an example of true nano technology, are t iny tubes about 10,000 times thinner than a human hair -- consist of rolled up sheets of carbon hexagons. They have the potential for use as minuscule wires or in ultrasmall electronic devices. To build those devices, scientists must be able to manipulate the Nanotubes in a controlled way. </li></ul><ul><li>The molecules are arranged chemically and physically in very useful ways. Nanotubes, depending on their structure, can be metals or semiconductors.  They are also extremely strong materials and have good thermal conductivity.  The above characteristics have generated strong interest in their possible use in nano-electronic and nano-mechanical devices.  For example, they can be used as nano-wires or as active components in electronic devices such as the field-effect transistor. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>CNT have excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, strength, stiffness, and toughness because the carbon aligns perfectly on molecule level of single wall CNT. At the molecular level the free electron moves around the whole structure rather staying within donor atom. This is the reason the CNT molecule have metallic-type electrical conductivity. </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>As can be seen from this diagram we can see that nanotechnology will open vast number of technology fields especially in electronics. As can be seen the many devices that result from this technology will mainly benefit the electronics and communication field. The basic building block i.e. nanocell, results in making molecular switches that result in the development other nanodevices such as CNT transistors, nanophotonic devices, naobridges. These devices are further used in making high performance computers, ultra- fast and secure network systems and in advanced VLSI designing, thus contributing to the updating, of the present day technolgy, three folds. </li></ul>
  14. 16. 1.CARBON NANOTUBE APPLICATIONS: <ul><li>The carbon nanotube(CNT), already discussed is a promising nanomaterial whose application is highly anticipated in a variety of fields such as electronics. </li></ul><ul><li>Transistors using CNTs as conducting channels and has clearly shown possibility of high speed operation of CNT transistors. Carbon nanohorns, a kind of nanotube, are an optimal material to serve as a support for platinum catalyst particales for fuel cells because they have complex surfaces and are chemically stable and conductive. Development of fuel cells has demonstrated the operation of laptops with the world’s best output power density. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Single walled carbon nanotubes and nanohorns </li></ul><ul><li>A CNT fuel cell </li></ul>
  16. 18. 2.NANOMATERIAL SIMULATION: <ul><li>Based on the quantum mechanics, we can predict reaction paths and properties of materials, and can reduce experimental runs that need time and cost and cause environmental pollutions. Nano-material simulation is a powerful tool to investigate nano-scale phenomena, which are, however, hard to be observed </li></ul><ul><li>experimentally. We are currently simulating nano-phenomena being related to the fuel-cell technologies and the nanotube devices. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>simulation </li></ul>
  18. 20. 3.NANOBRIDGE DEVICES : <ul><li>NanoBridge is a kind of switching device that has a solid electrolyte layer sandwiched by two metal electrodes. The switching is caused by creation and annihilation of nanoscale metal bridges based on electrochemical reaction and metal-ion migration in a solid electrolyte. Applying NanoBridges to programmable logic circuits significantly improves the logic circuit usage efficiency ten times, extending the range of destination. </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Application of nanobridge to programmable logic </li></ul>
  20. 22. 4.NANOSCALE TRANSISTOR: <ul><li>Today, silicon transistors are used almost everywhere, as the key processing device, embedded in various kinds of equipments. By nature, higher speed, lower power, and increased functionality can be achieved by decreasing the size of the transistors.NEC fabricated a 5-nm-gate world-smallest transistor and successfully confirmed the transistor operation at room temperature. This small transistor is expected to be realized around 2020. NEC also succeeded to develop the high-resolution electron beam resist (Calixarene) for the precise fabrication of such minute devices. NEC investigates the possibility of future LSI through the investigation of nanoscale transistor. </li></ul>
  21. 24. 5.BASIC DEVICE FOR QUANTUM COMPUTERS: <ul><li>Quantum computers will be able to calculate vast amounts of data that cannot be processed by present computers. A device using the superconducting tunnel junction as the basic element for quantum computers has been developed and it is solid-state quantum bit operation. </li></ul>
  22. 25. 6.NANOPHOTONIC DEVICES: <ul><li>Nanoscale control of photons realizes extremely small and low power consumption optical devices. NEC has developed optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs) with photonic crystals under collaboration with Tohoku Univ. for use in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and demonstrated the transmission experiment for the first time with the OADM modules. nanophotonic technologies are useful for the integration of system devices for the IT/networks in the ubiquitous era. </li></ul>
  23. 27. 7.NANOBIOCHIPS/INTEGRATED <ul><li>High through-put protein assay with a small amount of samples and information technology for analyzing the output of the assay are essential for effective drug discovery or early detection of disease. The nanobiochip technology enables the high-speed analysis of protein samples that have been difficult to analyze with conventional technologies </li></ul>
  24. 29. THE END <ul><li>THANKS FOR YOUR PATIENCE </li></ul>