Hypervitaminosis
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Hypervitaminosis

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The effect of overdosing on vitamins

The effect of overdosing on vitamins

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  • Kangaroo sitting – cat sits up on hind legs, like a meerkat or kangaroo to relieve pressure on the spine
  • Homeopathic remedies to enhance blood clotting - Sabina, derived from Wild Liquorice (sarsaparilla), Arnica derived from leopards bain (doronica)
  • RDA (recommended daily amount)

Hypervitaminosis Hypervitaminosis Presentation Transcript

  • Hypervitaminosis The result of toxic levels of vitamins on the system
  • Vitamin A
    • Beta-carotene & retinol
    • Beta-carotene sources: carrots, dandelion greens, broccoli, kale spinach, turnips, apricots, melon, sweet potato
    • Retinol sources: fish liver oils, diary, egg yolks, liver
    • Function:
      • Maintains healthy coat & skin
      • Promotes bone growth
      • Protects against infection
      • Aids in treatment of eye disorders
  • Hypervitaminosis A
    • Highest occurence in cats fed mostly on liver
    • Produces bone hypertrophy (bone growths) and ankylosing spondylosis (bone fusion) of cervical vertebrae
    • Also effects foetal brain and eye development
  • Symptoms in cats
    • Kangaroo sitting
    • Inability to move head or neck
    • Pain
    • Forelimb lameness
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
    • Diagnosis by radiography
    • Prognosis guarded to poor
    • Cessation of vitamin intake may halt progression, but will not reduce spondylosis
  • Signs in other animals
    • Chicks
      • Loss of appetite
      • Poor growth
      • Diarrhoea
      • Encrustation around mouth
      • Reddening of eyelids
    • Pigs
      • Rough coat
      • Scaly skin
      • Hyper-irritability
      • Haemorrhages over limbs and abdomen
      • Periodic tremors
      • Death
  • B Vitamins
    • B-1 – Thiamine
    • Source: beef liver, kidneys, whole grains, bran oatmeal, salmon, wheat germ, peanuts & kidney beans
    • Function
      • Formation of cocarboxylase enzyme involved in decarboxylation (citric acid cycle)
      • Maintains normal function of nervous system
      • Improves brain power
  • Hypervitaminosis B-1
    • B-1 symptom – curare like i.e. paralysis
      • Blocks nerve transmission
      • Restlessness, convulsions and labored respiration
      • Death results from respiratory paralysis and cardiac failure
  • B Vitamins
    • B-2 – Riboflavin
    • Source: cottage cheese, cheese, wheat germ, kidney, fish & chicken
    • Function
      • Flavoproteins in oxidative phosphorylation
      • Maintains healthy mucous membranes
      • Promotes growth
      • Contributes to vision
  • Hypervitaminosis B-2
    • B-2 symptom - Bright yellow urine
      • Itching
      • Numbness
      • Burning or prickling sensations
      • Sensitivity to light
  • B Vitamins
    • B-3 – Niacin
    • Source: beef liver, white chicken meat, peanuts, salmon, tuna, turkey, whole grains & milk
    • Function
      • Coenzyme in hydrogen transport
      • Maintains muscle tone, healthy skin & coat
      • Converts food to energy
      • Prevents seizures (in some cases)
  • Hypervitaminosis B-3
    • B-3 symptom – low blood pressure and lightheadedness
      • Liver damage
      • Peptic ulcers
      • Skin rashes
  • B Vitamins
    • B-5 – Pantothenic Acid
    • Source: eggs, wheat germ, lentils, liver, brewers yeast, peas & whole grains
    • Function
      • Constituent of coenzyme A (CoA)
      • Improves longevity
      • Aids in wound healing
      • Protects against stress & infection
  • Hypervitaminosis B-5
    • B-5
      • symptom
        • – diarrhea
  • B Vitamins
    • B-6 – Pyridoxine
    • Source: bananas, bran, brewers yeast, carrots, salmon, tuna, wheat germ, lentils, whole grain cereals
    • Function
      • Coenzyme for amino & fatty acid metabolism
      • Promotes red-blood cell formation
      • Maintains strong immune system
      • Contributes to healthy nervous system
  • Hypervitaminosis B-6
    • B-6 – symptom – neurological disorders
      • Nerve damage in limbs
      • Effects balance & co-ordination
      • Decrease sensation to touch and temperature
  • B Vitamins
    • B-12 – Cyanocobalamin - produced by intestinal bacteria
    • Source: sardines, herring, milk products, eggs, organ meats (liver, kidney, brain) & beef
    • Function
      • Nucleoprotein synthesis
      • Formation of erythrocytes (red blood cells)
      • Used to treat anaemia
      • Promotes normal growth
      • Stimulates weight gain in puppies
  • Hypervitaminosis B-12
    • B-12
      • reduction in size of vascular controlled reflexes
  • B Vitamins
    • Biotin – A B vitamin also known as Vitamin H
    • Source: brown rice, diary products, egg yolk, chicken, liver, tomatoes, lentils & oats
    • Function
      • Protein & Fatty acid synthesis
      • Prevents skin problems
      • Facilitates metabolism of amino acids & carbohydrates
      • Promotes health of nerve cells
  • Hypervitaminosis Biotin
    • Biotin
      • Scurfy skin, due to hyperkeratosis of the superficial follicular epithelia
  • Vitamin C
    • Ascorbic Acid
    • Source: oranges, peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, kiwi, rose hips, strawberries (most fruit & veg)
    • Function
      • Essential for formation of collagen
      • Promotes tissue & wound healing
      • Can detoxify blood
      • Can reduce pain of arthritis
  • Hypervitaminosis C
    • may acidify the urine,
    • cause nausea and diarrhoea,
    • interferes with the healthy antioxidant-prooxidant balance in the body
    • in patients with thalassemia or haemochromatosis, promote iron overload
  • Vitamin D
    • Cholecalciferol
    • Sources: sun exposure, salmon, sardines, cod-liver oil, herring & mackerel
    • Function:
      • Used by Osteoclasts in bone for demineralization
  • Hypervitaminosis D
    • Causes high levels of calcium and phosphorus in blood, arteries and organs
    • Via re-absorption of bone and deposits of calcium in soft tissue
      • i.e. calcification in ox heart dissected in class
  • Bone
    • We constantly renew bone
    • Calcium and phosphate in blood plasma help to make bone
    • Vitamins A & D also aid parathyroid hormone in bone demineralization
    • High levels of Vitamin D may produce bone re-absorption without parathyroid hormone
  • Vitamin E
    • Alpha-tocopherol (antioxidant)
    • Source: wheat germ, whole wheat floor, margarine, corn oil, peanut oil & eggs
    • Function
      • Anti-blood clotting agent
      • Promotes muscle growth & repair
      • Improves immune system
      • Promotes healing of skin problems
      • Improves heart & circulatory system
  • Hypervitaminosis E
    • Vitamin E inhibits vitamin K and therefore reduces platelet production
    • Increased bleeding
    • Impaired immune system – causing necrotizing enterocolitis
    • Diarrhoea and intestinal cramps
    • include fatigue, muscle weakness, delayed wound healing, and headaches
  • Vitamin K
    • Phytonadione - produced by intestinal bacteria
    • Source: alfalfa, cheddar cheese, oats, spinach & brussel sprouts
    • Function
      • Prevents abnormal bleeding
      • Used by the liver to make blood platelets
    • Used to treat dogs poisoned by warfarin
  • Hypervitaminosis K
    • Causes excess clotting of the blood
      • leading to thrombosis and potential sudden death should clots form in brain or heart
  • Folic Acid
    • Folacin, pteroylglutamic acid
    • Sources: Meats
    • Function
      • Nucleoprotein synthesis
      • Formation of erythrocytes (red blood cells)
  • Hypervitaminosis Folic Acid
      • Inhibition of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase
      • Stomach problems
      • Sleep problems
      • Skin reactions
  • Storage
    • Vitamins C, B & A (beta-carotene) are water soluble and quickly eliminated from the body
    • Vitamins A (retinol), D & E are fat soluble and become concentrated in the liver
    • Vitamin K is also fat soluble
    • N.B. up to 20 times the RDA of vitamins & minerals have been found in commercial pet food