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  1. 1. Hypervitaminosis The result of toxic levels of vitamins on the system
  2. 2. Vitamin A Beta-carotene & retinol Beta-carotene sources: carrots, dandelion greens, broccoli, kale spinach, turnips, apricots, melon, sweet potato Retinol sources: fish liver oils, diary, egg yolks, liver Function: – Maintains healthy coat & skin – Promotes bone growth – Protects against infection – Aids in treatment of eye disorders
  3. 3. Hypervitaminosis A Highest occurence in cats fed mostly on liver Produces bone hypertrophy (bone growths) and ankylosing spondylosis (bone fusion) of cervical vertebrae Also effects foetal brain and eye development
  4. 4. Symptoms in cats Kangaroo sitting Inability to move head or neck Pain Forelimb lameness
  5. 5. Diagnosis and Treatment Diagnosis by radiography Prognosis guarded to poor Cessation of vitamin intake may halt progression, but will not reduce spondylosis
  6. 6. Signs in other animalsChicks Pigs Loss of appetite Rough coat Poor growth Scaly skin Diarrhoea Hyper-irritability Encrustation around mouth Haemorrhages over limbs Reddening of eyelids and abdomen Periodic tremors Death
  7. 7. B Vitamins B-1 – Thiamine Source: beef liver, kidneys, whole grains, bran oatmeal, salmon, wheat germ, peanuts & kidney beans Function – Formation of cocarboxylase enzyme involved in decarboxylation (citric acid cycle) – Maintains normal function of nervous system – Improves brain power
  8. 8. Hypervitaminosis B-1 B-1 symptom – curare like i.e. paralysis – Blocks nerve transmission – Restlessness, convulsions and labored respiration – Death results from respiratory paralysis and cardiac failure
  9. 9. B Vitamins B-2 – Riboflavin Source: cottage cheese, cheese, wheat germ, kidney, fish & chicken Function – Flavoproteins in oxidative phosphorylation – Maintains healthy mucous membranes – Promotes growth – Contributes to vision
  10. 10. Hypervitaminosis B-2 B-2 symptom - Bright yellow urine – Itching – Numbness – Burning or prickling sensations – Sensitivity to light
  11. 11. B Vitamins B-3 – Niacin Source: beef liver, white chicken meat, peanuts, salmon, tuna, turkey, whole grains & milk Function – Coenzyme in hydrogen transport – Maintains muscle tone, healthy skin & coat – Converts food to energy – Prevents seizures (in some cases)
  12. 12. Hypervitaminosis B-3 B-3 symptom – low blood pressure and lightheadedness – Liver damage – Peptic ulcers – Skin rashes
  13. 13. B Vitamins B-5 – Pantothenic Acid Source: eggs, wheat germ, lentils, liver, brewers yeast, peas & whole grains Function – Constituent of coenzyme A (CoA) – Improves longevity – Aids in wound healing – Protects against stress & infection
  14. 14. Hypervitaminosis B-5 B-5 – symptom – diarrhea
  15. 15. B Vitamins B-6 – Pyridoxine Source: bananas, bran, brewers yeast, carrots, salmon, tuna, wheat germ, lentils, whole grain cereals Function – Coenzyme for amino & fatty acid metabolism – Promotes red-blood cell formation – Maintains strong immune system – Contributes to healthy nervous system
  16. 16. Hypervitaminosis B-6 B-6 – symptom – neurological disorders – Nerve damage in limbs – Effects balance & co-ordination – Decrease sensation to touch and temperature
  17. 17. B Vitamins B-12 – Cyanocobalamin - produced by intestinal bacteria Source: sardines, herring, milk products, eggs, organ meats (liver, kidney, brain) & beef Function – Nucleoprotein synthesis – Formation of erythrocytes (red blood cells) – Used to treat anaemia – Promotes normal growth – Stimulates weight gain in puppies
  18. 18. Hypervitaminosis B-12 B-12 – reduction in size of vascular controlled reflexes
  19. 19. B Vitamins Biotin – A B vitamin also known as Vitamin H Source: brown rice, diary products, egg yolk, chicken, liver, tomatoes, lentils & oats Function – Protein & Fatty acid synthesis – Prevents skin problems – Facilitates metabolism of amino acids & carbohydrates – Promotes health of nerve cells
  20. 20. Hypervitaminosis Biotin Biotin – Scurfy skin, due to hyperkeratosis of the superficial follicular epithelia
  21. 21. Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid Source: oranges, peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, kiwi, rose hips, strawberries (most fruit & veg) Function – Essential for formation of collagen – Promotes tissue & wound healing – Can detoxify blood – Can reduce pain of arthritis
  22. 22. Hypervitaminosis C may acidify the urine, cause nausea and diarrhoea, interferes with the healthy antioxidant- prooxidant balance in the body in patients with thalassemia or haemochromatosis, promote iron overload
  23. 23. Vitamin D Cholecalciferol Sources: sun exposure, salmon, sardines, cod-liver oil, herring & mackerel Function: – Used by Osteoclasts in bone for demineralization
  24. 24. Hypervitaminosis D Causes high levels of calcium and phosphorus in blood, arteries and organs Via re-absorption of bone and deposits of calcium in soft tissue – i.e. calcification in ox heart dissected in class
  25. 25. Bone We constantly renew bone Calcium and phosphate in blood plasma help to make bone Vitamins A & D also aid parathyroid hormone in bone demineralization High levels of Vitamin D may produce bone re-absorption without parathyroid hormone
  26. 26. Vitamin E Alpha-tocopherol (antioxidant) Source: wheat germ, whole wheat floor, margarine, corn oil, peanut oil & eggs Function – Anti-blood clotting agent – Promotes muscle growth & repair – Improves immune system – Promotes healing of skin problems – Improves heart & circulatory system
  27. 27. Hypervitaminosis E Vitamin E inhibits vitamin K and therefore reduces platelet production Increased bleeding Impaired immune system – causing necrotizing enterocolitis Diarrhoea and intestinal cramps include fatigue, muscle weakness, delayed wound healing, and headaches
  28. 28. Vitamin K Phytonadione - produced by intestinal bacteria Source: alfalfa, cheddar cheese, oats, spinach & brussel sprouts Function – Prevents abnormal bleeding – Used by the liver to make blood platelets Used to treat dogs poisoned by warfarin
  29. 29. Hypervitaminosis K Causes excess clotting of the blood – leading to thrombosis and potential sudden death should clots form in brain or heart
  30. 30. Folic Acid Folacin, pteroylglutamic acid Sources: Meats Function – Nucleoprotein synthesis – Formation of erythrocytes (red blood cells)
  31. 31. Hypervitaminosis Folic Acid – Inhibition of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase – Stomach problems – Sleep problems – Skin reactions
  32. 32. Storage Vitamins C, B & A (beta-carotene) are water soluble and quickly eliminated from the body Vitamins A (retinol), D & E are fat soluble and become concentrated in the liver Vitamin K is also fat soluble N.B. up to 20 times the RDA of vitamins & minerals have been found in commercial pet food