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Hypervitaminosis

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The effect of overdosing on vitamins

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Hypervitaminosis

  1. 1. Hypervitaminosis The result of toxic levels of vitamins on the system
  2. 2. Vitamin A <ul><li>Beta-carotene & retinol </li></ul><ul><li>Beta-carotene sources: carrots, dandelion greens, broccoli, kale spinach, turnips, apricots, melon, sweet potato </li></ul><ul><li>Retinol sources: fish liver oils, diary, egg yolks, liver </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains healthy coat & skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes bone growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects against infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aids in treatment of eye disorders </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Hypervitaminosis A <ul><li>Highest occurence in cats fed mostly on liver </li></ul><ul><li>Produces bone hypertrophy (bone growths) and ankylosing spondylosis (bone fusion) of cervical vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Also effects foetal brain and eye development </li></ul>
  4. 4. Symptoms in cats <ul><li>Kangaroo sitting </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to move head or neck </li></ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Forelimb lameness </li></ul>
  5. 5. Diagnosis and Treatment <ul><li>Diagnosis by radiography </li></ul><ul><li>Prognosis guarded to poor </li></ul><ul><li>Cessation of vitamin intake may halt progression, but will not reduce spondylosis </li></ul>
  6. 6. Signs in other animals <ul><li>Chicks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhoea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encrustation around mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reddening of eyelids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough coat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaly skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyper-irritability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haemorrhages over limbs and abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic tremors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. B Vitamins <ul><li>B-1 – Thiamine </li></ul><ul><li>Source: beef liver, kidneys, whole grains, bran oatmeal, salmon, wheat germ, peanuts & kidney beans </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of cocarboxylase enzyme involved in decarboxylation (citric acid cycle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains normal function of nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves brain power </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Hypervitaminosis B-1 <ul><li>B-1 symptom – curare like i.e. paralysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks nerve transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restlessness, convulsions and labored respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death results from respiratory paralysis and cardiac failure </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. B Vitamins <ul><li>B-2 – Riboflavin </li></ul><ul><li>Source: cottage cheese, cheese, wheat germ, kidney, fish & chicken </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flavoproteins in oxidative phosphorylation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains healthy mucous membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to vision </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Hypervitaminosis B-2 <ul><li>B-2 symptom - Bright yellow urine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Itching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning or prickling sensations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to light </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. B Vitamins <ul><li>B-3 – Niacin </li></ul><ul><li>Source: beef liver, white chicken meat, peanuts, salmon, tuna, turkey, whole grains & milk </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coenzyme in hydrogen transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains muscle tone, healthy skin & coat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converts food to energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents seizures (in some cases) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Hypervitaminosis B-3 <ul><li>B-3 symptom – low blood pressure and lightheadedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peptic ulcers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin rashes </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. B Vitamins <ul><li>B-5 – Pantothenic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Source: eggs, wheat germ, lentils, liver, brewers yeast, peas & whole grains </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constituent of coenzyme A (CoA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves longevity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aids in wound healing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects against stress & infection </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Hypervitaminosis B-5 <ul><li>B-5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>symptom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– diarrhea </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. B Vitamins <ul><li>B-6 – Pyridoxine </li></ul><ul><li>Source: bananas, bran, brewers yeast, carrots, salmon, tuna, wheat germ, lentils, whole grain cereals </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coenzyme for amino & fatty acid metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes red-blood cell formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains strong immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to healthy nervous system </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Hypervitaminosis B-6 <ul><li>B-6 – symptom – neurological disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve damage in limbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects balance & co-ordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease sensation to touch and temperature </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. B Vitamins <ul><li>B-12 – Cyanocobalamin - produced by intestinal bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Source: sardines, herring, milk products, eggs, organ meats (liver, kidney, brain) & beef </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleoprotein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of erythrocytes (red blood cells) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to treat anaemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes normal growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates weight gain in puppies </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Hypervitaminosis B-12 <ul><li>B-12 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduction in size of vascular controlled reflexes </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. B Vitamins <ul><li>Biotin – A B vitamin also known as Vitamin H </li></ul><ul><li>Source: brown rice, diary products, egg yolk, chicken, liver, tomatoes, lentils & oats </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein & Fatty acid synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents skin problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates metabolism of amino acids & carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes health of nerve cells </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Hypervitaminosis Biotin <ul><li>Biotin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scurfy skin, due to hyperkeratosis of the superficial follicular epithelia </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Vitamin C <ul><li>Ascorbic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Source: oranges, peppers, tomatoes, broccoli, kiwi, rose hips, strawberries (most fruit & veg) </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential for formation of collagen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes tissue & wound healing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can detoxify blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can reduce pain of arthritis </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Hypervitaminosis C <ul><li>may acidify the urine, </li></ul><ul><li>cause nausea and diarrhoea, </li></ul><ul><li>interferes with the healthy antioxidant-prooxidant balance in the body </li></ul><ul><li>in patients with thalassemia or haemochromatosis, promote iron overload </li></ul>
  23. 23. Vitamin D <ul><li>Cholecalciferol </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: sun exposure, salmon, sardines, cod-liver oil, herring & mackerel </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by Osteoclasts in bone for demineralization </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Hypervitaminosis D <ul><li>Causes high levels of calcium and phosphorus in blood, arteries and organs </li></ul><ul><li>Via re-absorption of bone and deposits of calcium in soft tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. calcification in ox heart dissected in class </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Bone <ul><li>We constantly renew bone </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium and phosphate in blood plasma help to make bone </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins A & D also aid parathyroid hormone in bone demineralization </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of Vitamin D may produce bone re-absorption without parathyroid hormone </li></ul>
  26. 26. Vitamin E <ul><li>Alpha-tocopherol (antioxidant) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: wheat germ, whole wheat floor, margarine, corn oil, peanut oil & eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-blood clotting agent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes muscle growth & repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes healing of skin problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves heart & circulatory system </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Hypervitaminosis E <ul><li>Vitamin E inhibits vitamin K and therefore reduces platelet production </li></ul><ul><li>Increased bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired immune system – causing necrotizing enterocolitis </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhoea and intestinal cramps </li></ul><ul><li>include fatigue, muscle weakness, delayed wound healing, and headaches </li></ul>
  28. 28. Vitamin K <ul><li>Phytonadione - produced by intestinal bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Source: alfalfa, cheddar cheese, oats, spinach & brussel sprouts </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents abnormal bleeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by the liver to make blood platelets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used to treat dogs poisoned by warfarin </li></ul>
  29. 29. Hypervitaminosis K <ul><li>Causes excess clotting of the blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leading to thrombosis and potential sudden death should clots form in brain or heart </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Folic Acid <ul><li>Folacin, pteroylglutamic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: Meats </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleoprotein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of erythrocytes (red blood cells) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Hypervitaminosis Folic Acid <ul><ul><li>Inhibition of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin reactions </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Storage <ul><li>Vitamins C, B & A (beta-carotene) are water soluble and quickly eliminated from the body </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins A (retinol), D & E are fat soluble and become concentrated in the liver </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin K is also fat soluble </li></ul><ul><li>N.B. up to 20 times the RDA of vitamins & minerals have been found in commercial pet food </li></ul>

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