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  1. 1. Vitamins & Minerals Nooshin Alizadeh-Pasdar, PhD, RD
  2. 2. B-Vitamins - Introduction <ul><li>B VITAMINS - Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, B 6 , Folate, B 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Most rich sources can be found in germ, bran & husk layers of grains, which are removed in the milling of grains  enrichment of grain products (e.g. flour, breakfast cereals) with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate (all B vitamins) and iron </li></ul>
  3. 3. B-Vitamins – Thiamin (B 1 ) <ul><li>It helps the body to transform sugars into usable energy. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important for optimal function of brain, heart, and nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Losses During Food Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>prolonged cooking in water &/or adding baking soda to water  losses of thiamin </li></ul><ul><li>microwave or steam = good preparation method </li></ul>Animal Foods Plant Foods pork, ham organ meats enriched grains & products (flours, breakfast cereals) sunflower seeds, peanuts, legumes whole grains, wheat germ, bran
  4. 4. B-Vitamins - Thiamin (B 1 ) Food Thiamin (mg/100g) Food Thiamin (mg/100g) Oatmeal 0.55 Apples 0.04 Brown rice 0.29 Oranges 0.10 White rice 0.07 Beef 0.08 Whole wheat grain 0.55 Veal 0.18 White wheat grain 0.06 Salmon 0.17 Asparagus 0.18 Heart, veal 0.60 Peas, green 0.32 Cheese 0.05 Brewer’s yeast 15.6 Eggs 0.12
  5. 5. B-Vitamins - Thiamin (B 1 ) Procedure Food Loss (%) Convection cooking Meats 25-85 Baking Bread 5-35 Heating with water Vegetables 0-60 Pasteurization Milk 9-20 Spray drying Milk ~10 Canning Milk ~40 Room temperature storage Fruits, vegetables 0-20
  6. 6. B-Vitamins – Riboflavin (B 2 ) <ul><li>It helps the body to transform sugars into usable energy, while helping metabolism of fats and proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>It is needed for the proper use of other vitamins. </li></ul><ul><li>Losses During Food Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>riboflavin is stable to heat, but destroyed by light & irradiation; opaque milk containers protect riboflavin from degradation </li></ul></ul>Animal Foods Plant Foods milk & milk products (~50% of intake) meat, fish, poultry (e.g., ground beef, liver, oysters) enriched grains & products (e.g., flours, breakfast cereals, breads), whole grains dark green vegetables, mushrooms fortified plant-based beverages
  7. 7. B-Vitamins – Niacin (B 3 ) <ul><li>It is important in producing energy from macronutrients & the storage form of carbohydrates in liver and muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>It contributes to the health of skin, nervous, & digestive system by its involvement in calcium and fatty acid metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>~50% from diet and ~50% obtained from conversion of excess Tryptophan </li></ul><ul><li>Losses During Food Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lost into cooking water, little lost to heat </li></ul></ul>Animal Foods Plant Foods beef liver Chicken Tuna, Halibut, Salmon Whole grains, wheat bran, enriched grains & products (breakfast cereals, flours) Mushrooms, nuts, asparagus, leafy green vegetables
  8. 8. <ul><li>Pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid can have a drug-like effect on the nervous system causing dilation of blood capillaries in skin that results in the skin reddening – “niacin flush” </li></ul><ul><li>can experience painful tingling, especially in the extremities </li></ul><ul><li>advantage – pharmacological doses (1-3 g) used in the management of atherosclerosis causing a decrease in LDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL </li></ul><ul><li>disadvantage – may damage liver, heart, and cause ulcers </li></ul>B-Vitamins - Niacin (B 3 )
  9. 9. B-Vitamins – Panthothenic acid (B 5 ) <ul><li>It is important in the release of energy from macronutrients, synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, & cell membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : fish, poultry, whole grains, yoghurt, legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementation is not necessary/recommended. </li></ul>
  10. 10. B-Vitamins - Vitamin B 6 <ul><li>It is important in the synthesis of proteins or conversion of amino acids to sugars when needed. Also, helps with transforming glycogen to usable glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy immune system need B 6 since it helps synthesis of serotonin and other chemical messengers in our brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : fish, poultry, meats, banana, avocados, unrefined whole wheat foods </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>VITAMIN B 6 TOXICITY </li></ul><ul><li>first reported in 1983 when treating Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) </li></ul><ul><li>women taking supplements of vitamin B-6 at 2g/day for 2 months </li></ul><ul><li>symptoms = loss of neurological coordination; numb feet, hands & mouth </li></ul><ul><li>supplementation needs to be supervised by a health care professional and is a questionable treatment of PMS </li></ul>B-Vitamins - Vitamin B 6
  12. 12. B-Vitamins - Vitamin B 6 <ul><li>Sources : beef liver, turkey, pork, fish, legumes, whole grains, green leafy veggies, fruit (e.g. banana, cantaloupe, watermelon), seeds, potatoes, squash; animal sources more readily absorbable than plant sources </li></ul><ul><li>Losses During Food Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vitamin B 6 decreases with milling of grains and exposure to light, oxidation, high temperatures </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. B-Vitamins - Folate <ul><li>It is important for cell reproduction and formation of hemoglobin in our red blood cells which is responsible for carrying oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>If not enough is consumed during pregnancy, neural tube defect occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>folate in foods is ~50% absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>folate found in foods; folic acid found in supplements and fortified foods </li></ul><ul><li>folic acid is ~1.7 times more bioavailable than folate in foods </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity is very rare; can exit from body in bile excretion; likeliest cause – supplement use </li></ul><ul><li>excess folate intake can mask a vitamin B 12 deficiency </li></ul>
  14. 14. B-Vitamins - Folate <ul><li>Sources : beef liver, fish, legumes, fresh dark green leafy vegetables (e.g. spinach, broccoli, asparagus, parsley), dark orange vegetables (e.g. squash), fresh fruits, orange juice, fortified grain products, legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Losses During Food Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very susceptible to heat, oxidation, prolonged storage, food processing methods, ~1/2 lost in food preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>choose raw salads, fresh vegetables and fruits as good sources of folate </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. B-Vitamins - Folate Food Folate (  g/100g) Food Folate (  g/100g) Milk 5-12 Wheat, whole 30-55 Cheese 20 Wheat bran 80 Beef 5-18 Eggs 70 Beef liver 140—1070 Asparagus 70-175 Chicken liver 1810 Beans 70 Tuna 15 Broccoli 180 Corn 35 Soybeans 360 Polished rice 15 Tomatoes 5-30 Unpolished rice 25 Bananas 30
  16. 16. <ul><li>Healthy blood cell and nerve cell formation, DNA, and amino acid production require B 12 . </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : only found in animal foods ; most nutrient-dense sources: clams, oysters, organ meats, beef, eggs; fortified sources (e.g. fortified soy or other plant-based drinks and breakfast cereals) </li></ul><ul><li>Losses During Food Preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>microwaves destroy vitamin B 12 </li></ul></ul>B-Vitamins - Vitamin B 12
  17. 17. B-Vitamins - Vitamin B 12 Food B 12 (  g/100g) Food B 12 (  g/100g) Beef 1.94-3.64 Salmon 3.2 Beef liver 69-122 Tuna 2.8 Beef kidney 38.3 Trout 7.8 Chicken 0.32 Clams 19.1 Ham 0.8 Lobster 1.28 Pork 0.55 Shrimp 1.9 Turkey 0.38 Eggs, whole 1.26 milk 0.36 Eggs, whites 0.09 Cheeses 0.36-1.71 Egg yolk 9.26 Yogurt 0.06-0.62 Vegetables, grains, fruits 0
  18. 18. Vitamin C <ul><li>It is important in formation of tissues vital for body structure, e.g., collagen, bones, muscles as well hemoglobin, nervous system hormones, and immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : citrus fruits, pepper, broccoli, fortified drinks </li></ul><ul><li>Losses During Food Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>easily lost in processing & cooking, lost with excessive heat, losses with prolonged exposure of cut surfaces to air, exposure to baking soda in cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementation : no benefit is supported; high doses may cause side effects such as diarrhea and increases risk of kidney stones. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Vitamin A & Beta-carotene <ul><li>It is important for optimal vision, maintaining healthy skin and internal surfaces such as respiratory and gastrointestinal areas, healthy immune system, reproduction and lactation. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : organ meats, fish, egg yolk, fruits and vegetables (beta-carotene: yellow-orange pigments) </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementation can help with slowing down the progression on eye degeneration in old age but might increase risk of lung cancer is smokers. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Vitamin D <ul><li>It is important in immune function, nervous nervous system, muscles, skin, reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : egg yolks, liver & fish oils (watch out for supplements; they can contain very high levels), fortified milk, </li></ul><ul><li>Losses During Food Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>relatively stable to heat, storage and processing </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity : calcium deposits in soft tissue in children (via supplements), abnormally high levels of calcium in blood in adults which causes irreversible kidney and heart damage due to Calcium deposits into soft tissues </li></ul>
  21. 21. Food Vitamin D (IU/100g) Food Vitamin D (IU/100g) Cow’s milk 0.3-54 Sardine 1,500 Human milk 0-10 Salmon 220-440 Butter 35 Shrimp 150 Cheese 12 Beef liver 8-40 Cream 50 Chicken liver 50-65 Eggs 28 Beef 13 Cod 85 Pork 84 Cod liver oil 10,000 Poultry 80 Herring 330 Cabbage 0.2 Herring liver oil 140,000 Corn oil 9 Macakarel 120 Spinach 0.2
  22. 22. Vitamin E <ul><li>It is important as antioxidant, blood coagulation, nervous and immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : plant oils: corn oil, wheat germ oil, sunflower seed oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, almond oil, peanut butter, sunflower seeds, nuts, whole grains </li></ul><ul><li>Losses During Food Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>vitamin E is readily destroyed by heat (e.g. deep frying, processing of foods), or when exposed to oxygen, metals or light; store vitamin E-rich oils in cool, dark cupboards </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity : relatively non-toxic (even as a fat-soluble nutrient), wide safety range, % absorption inverse to intake. vitamin E (usually supplemental levels) can augment effects of anticoagulants (e.g. aspirin, warfarin) to cause uncontrolled bleeding </li></ul>
  23. 23. Vitamin K <ul><li>It is important for blood clotting, bone formation </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : synthesized in colon by bacteria, green leafy vegetables (e.g. kale, spinach), peas, broccoli, green beans, liver, eggs, milk (cow, not soy) </li></ul><ul><li>Losses During Food Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>resistant to losses in cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity : excessive vitamin K can hinder effects of anti-coagulant drugs; symptoms: RBC hemolysis, jaundice, brain damage </li></ul>