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FAT AND WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS

TITLE: FAT ATER SOND WALUBLE VITAMINS IN ANIMALS

1 of 18
Jimma University
College of Agricultural and Veterinary Medicine
SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE
Introduction
Vitamins
Vitamins are essential organic nutrients, required in small
amounts.
They cannot be synthesized by the body. Must be obtained by
outside sources like diet, rumen bacteria & sun.
 Required for growth, maintenance, reproduction and
lactation.
 Absence or deficiency of vitamins causes deficiency
disorders
Classes of Vitamins
 Fat Soluble
Vitamins: stored
in tissues
Examples
A
D
E
K
 Water Soluble Vitamins:
not stored in tissues, must
have constant supply
Examples
B, B1, B2, B6 & B12
Niacin
Folic Acid
C
Differences Between Fat Soluble and Water Soluble
Vitamins
Differences Fat soluble Water soluble vitamins
Names A,D,E,K Vitamin C & B complex
Solubility Soluble in fats and
organic solvents
Soluble in water
Digestion and
absorption
Requires fat and bile Easily absorbed in intestine
Excretion Via feces Via Urine
Storage Stored in the body in
fat depots and in liver
Not stored in body except
Vitamin B12 (liver)
Toxicity An overdosage can lead
to toxicity
Usually not toxic as it is
readily excreted when given
in excess
Function, Deficiency Signs and Sources
Vitamin A
Function
development healthy skin and nerve tissue. Aids in building up
resistance to infection
Functions in eyesight and bone formation. ALL ANIMALS
require a source of Vitamin A
It is important in the ration of pregnant females.
Deficiency signs
 retarded growth in the young, the development of a peculiar
condition around the eyes known as Xerophthalmia, night
blindness and reproductive disorders.
Sources
 whole milk, carotene, animal body oils (cod fish and
tuna), legume forages and can be synthetically produced.
Vitamin E
Function
 normal reproduction.
Deficiency signs
 poor growth, "crazy chick" disease, Muscular Dystrophy,
"white muscle" disease in ruminants and swine and "stiff
lamb" disease (affects the nerves and muscles).
Sources
synthetic for poultry and swine, cereal grains and wheat
germ oil, green forages, protein concentrates, oil seeds
(peanut and soybean oil).
Vitamin E rapidly destroyed in rancid or spoiled fats.
That is why these may cause white muscle disease.
Utilization of Vitamin E is dependent on adequate
selenium.

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FAT AND WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS

  • 1. Jimma University College of Agricultural and Veterinary Medicine SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE
  • 2. Introduction Vitamins Vitamins are essential organic nutrients, required in small amounts. They cannot be synthesized by the body. Must be obtained by outside sources like diet, rumen bacteria & sun.  Required for growth, maintenance, reproduction and lactation.  Absence or deficiency of vitamins causes deficiency disorders
  • 3. Classes of Vitamins  Fat Soluble Vitamins: stored in tissues Examples A D E K  Water Soluble Vitamins: not stored in tissues, must have constant supply Examples B, B1, B2, B6 & B12 Niacin Folic Acid C
  • 4. Differences Between Fat Soluble and Water Soluble Vitamins Differences Fat soluble Water soluble vitamins Names A,D,E,K Vitamin C & B complex Solubility Soluble in fats and organic solvents Soluble in water Digestion and absorption Requires fat and bile Easily absorbed in intestine Excretion Via feces Via Urine Storage Stored in the body in fat depots and in liver Not stored in body except Vitamin B12 (liver) Toxicity An overdosage can lead to toxicity Usually not toxic as it is readily excreted when given in excess
  • 5. Function, Deficiency Signs and Sources Vitamin A Function development healthy skin and nerve tissue. Aids in building up resistance to infection Functions in eyesight and bone formation. ALL ANIMALS require a source of Vitamin A It is important in the ration of pregnant females. Deficiency signs  retarded growth in the young, the development of a peculiar condition around the eyes known as Xerophthalmia, night blindness and reproductive disorders. Sources  whole milk, carotene, animal body oils (cod fish and tuna), legume forages and can be synthetically produced.
  • 6. Vitamin E Function  normal reproduction. Deficiency signs  poor growth, "crazy chick" disease, Muscular Dystrophy, "white muscle" disease in ruminants and swine and "stiff lamb" disease (affects the nerves and muscles). Sources synthetic for poultry and swine, cereal grains and wheat germ oil, green forages, protein concentrates, oil seeds (peanut and soybean oil). Vitamin E rapidly destroyed in rancid or spoiled fats. That is why these may cause white muscle disease. Utilization of Vitamin E is dependent on adequate selenium.
  • 7. Function is essential for the proper utilization of calcium and phosphorus to produce normal, healthy bones. Deficiency signs retarded growth, misshapen bones (rickets), lameness and osteoporosis. Sources Whole milk, sun-cured hays, forage crops, fish liver oils, irradiated yeast. Vitamin D
  • 8. Function  necessary for the maintenance of normal blood coagulation. Deficiency signs  blood loses its power to clot or the time needed for clotting is longer and serious hemorrhages can result from slight wounds or bruises. Sources green leafy forages, fish meal, liver, soybeans, rumen and intestinal synthesis, and the synthetic compounds. Vitamin K
  • 9. Function has an effect on the metabolism of calcium in the body (Not required in rations of farm animals). Deficiency signs none demonstrated in livestock Human deficiency: scurvy (swollen and painful joints and bleeding gums) and brittleness of bones. Sources  citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy vegetables and potatoes. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
  • 10.  Cattle don’t need as much vitamin B because microorganisms in the stomach make their own.  Thiamine, Niacin and Riboflavin is a coenzyme in energy, protein and fat metabolism respectively.  Sources include green forage, well cured hays, and cereal grains. It is synthesized in the rumen.  Folic acid is needed in body cell metabolism.  B12 functions as a coenzyme in several metabolic reactions and is an essential part of red blood cell maturation.  Most swine rations are supplemented with vitamin B12. Vitamin B
  • 11. Function  required for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates. Deficiency signs loss of appetite, muscular weakness, severe nervous disorders, general weakness and wasting (BeriBeri). Sources  raw, whole grains and especially their seed coats and embryos; fresh green forage; and yeast, milk and rumen synthesis. Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
  • 12. Function  necessary for normal embryo development, important in the metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates. Deficiency signs  poor reproduction characterized by small litters and deformed young (cleft palate and club-footedness) curly toe paralysis in chicks, digestive disturbances, general weakness and eye abnormalities. Sources  milk and dairy by-products, yeast, green forages, well cured hay (especially alfalfa), whole grains, wheat bran and synthetic riboflavin rumen synthesis. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
  • 13. B‐3 Niacinamide and Niacin Niacinamide (Nicotinamide) Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)  energy production,maintenance of skin and tongue, improves circulation, maintenance of nervous system,maintenance of nervous system,maintenance of nervous system and Health of the digestive track. Deficiency signs: Pellegra  disease caused by B‐3 deficiency  headache, insomnia, mental depression, fatigue, aches, and pains nervousness and irritability. : Milk, Honey, Vegetables, Sweet and potatoes.
  • 14. Function  Production of red blood cells  conversion of tryptophan to niacin (B3)  immunity  nervous system functions  reducing muscle spasms, cramps, and numbness  maintaining proper balance of Na and P in the body Deficiency signs  nervousness, insomnia  loss of muscle control, muscle weakness, arm and  leg cramps,water retention and skin lesions.
  • 15.  Biosynthesis of glycine, methionine,nucleotides T and U  Important for rapidly dividing cells  Very important in early pregnancy.  Deficiency in pregnancy causes neural tube defects Deficiency signs persistent fatigue, pale skin, tachycardia, tachypnoea, depression and confusion,reduced sensation of taste, gray hair, etc Dark green leafy vegetables, Sunflower seeds,Whole grains,Fortified foods and supplements.
  • 16. Functions Source  proper nerve function Present in foods of animal production of red blood cells origin (meat, liver, fish,  metabolizing fats and proteins egg)  prevention of anemia  DNA reproduction  Energy production Clinical Symptoms of vitamin B 12 deficiency  Cardiovascular- increased risk of stroke or heart attack.  Psychiatric- Irratability and overall personality change. Mild memory impairment,,occasional dementia. Psyhosis. Depression.  Hematologic Megaloblastic anemia Pancytopenia.
  • 18. GROUP INFORMATION ID 1. Beshada Wedajo............................. RU/5002/14 2.Amsalu Babu.................................... RU 0242/14 3.Dagmawit Solomon..........................RU 0015/14 4.Metaalem Bazezew..........................RU 0424/14 5.Temesgen Waktola...........................RU 1635/14 6.Tsion Darsema................................. RU 0099/14