Wine and spirit association of Great Britain
• Wine is defined as
– Juice of freshly gathered grapes,
– The fermentation of which has been carried
out in the district of origin
– The local tradition and customs.
• As per the definition wine cannot be made
from fruits other than grapes.
• Similarly from the definition it can be
understood that wines made from canned
grapes, tinned grapes or grape pulp
cannot be called as wine as well.
• Egyptian records dating from 2500 BC refer to
the use of grapes for winemaking.
• The first wines seem to have originated in the
• There are frequent references to wine in the Old
• Wine was also used by early Minoan, Greek,
and Etruscan civilizations. Centuries later the
role of wine for sacramental use in Christian
churches helped maintain the industry after the
fall of the Roman Empire.
• The Romans had carried winemaking into much
of Western Europe, especially the Moselle and
Rhine valley sections of France and Germany
and the Danube River valley of Austria.
• Voyages of Columbus and other explorers,
grape cultivation was transported from the Old
World to Mexico, South America, South
Africa, Australia, and California.
• Today wine is produced on all the inhabited
Table Sparkling Fortified
Red White Rose White Pink Red white
• The species VITIS VINIFERA produces grapes,
which are used for the production of the best
quality wines of the world.
• The species vinifera produces some 5000
different varieties of grapes
• Around 50 of them are used for the production of
• In 1870 using the labrusca species as graft
saved the vinifera species from phylloxera
• Care of Wine
• Area of Growth- 30- 40 lititude
• Soil- chalk or limestone, slate, gravel (coarse sand) and
schist (crumbly form of granite).
• Temperature- Annual avg. temp 10c
• Humidity – 60% to 80%
Grapes are not grown by seed
grafting is done to get the same quality of grapes and
hence the same quality of wine.
The life span of a vineyard is 30 years.
The graft spends 14 month in a nursery
The minimum distance between two vines should be 3
feet and the minimum distance between two rows 3
Vine takes around 1 year to bear the grapes but the
plant is not allowed to bear grapes for 4 years to make
the plant more strong and healthy.
• Harvesting (Secateur, Refractometer)
• Epluchage (Grading and Weighing)
• Destalking (Egrappoir)
• Crushing (Foulage)( Must weight)
• Fermentation- white wine at 19c and red at 29c
• Maceration (Skin is Macerated in red wine)
• Bloom (Saccromyses Ellipsodius )
• Cultured yeast
• Attemperators- Cold water pipes inside the tank
• Malo-lactic fermentation- In red wine only
Meaning of Vintage
• Vintage means gather of grapes and pressing them
& making wine. Therefore every year is vintage
• The date on a bottle of wine signifies the year in
which wine was produced.
• Some vineyards bottle and date every year
production. Other dates only the better year.
• Champagne and Port date only the wines of
exceptional years in which the different factors of
production like rainfall, sunshine, climate etc are at
its ultimate. Since it is not done every year, the dated
wines are known as “Vintage wines”.
• Note- The wines of a vintage year are not blended
with the wines of the previous year and wines of one
vineyard are not blended with the wine of another