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DC-DC converters

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DC-DC converters

DC-DC converters

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  • mas saya cari dc-dc converter code AQD12-553A apakah ada?
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    andreas

    labaterusandreas91@gmail.com
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  • 1. Konverter DC-DC Pekik Argo Dahono
  • 2. Penerapan► Catudaya switching► Pengendalian motor dc► Regulator tegangan dc
  • 3. Regulator Tegangan R1 Rv Io Vi IoVi Ro Vo R2 Ro Vo
  • 4. Regulator tegangan Ts ViIi Vo TON Io 0 Vi Vo Load Io 0 Ii 0
  • 5. DC Power Supplies Io 220 V/ 50 Hz Vo Linear Regulator Io •220 V/ 50 Hz Load Vo • Switching Regulator
  • 6. Jenis Konverter DC-DC► Step-down (Buck)► Step-up (Boost)► Up-Down (Buck-Boost)► Cuk
  • 7. Klasifikasi1) Berdasarkan jumlah fasa► Satu-fasa► Multifasa2) Jumlah kuadran► Satu kuadran► Dua kuadran► Empat kuadran
  • 8. Step-Down (Buck) Converter iL id io id io S S R LEd vD ic vo Ed D vD M D C id iL S R L Ed vD vo D
  • 9. Step-Down Converter (Continuous Conduction Mode) diL id iL v D = RiL + L + vo R dt S L 0 ≤ t < TON :Ed vD vo D v D = Ed ON state diL Ed = RiL + L + vo dt iL id R TON ≤ t < Ts : S L vo vD = 0Ed D vD diL 0 = RiL + L + vo OFF State dt
  • 10. Step-Down Converter (Continuous Conduction Mode) Ed Tegangan rata - rata : T vD vD = ON Ed Ts TON T vD = E d = ON E d = dE d 0 TON + TOFF Ts TON Analisis Riak : Ts ~ i L = i L + iLE d − vo v =v +v ~ D D D vL v o = Vo −vo Thus, v D = Ri L + Vo ~ iL ~ = R ~ + L d iL vD iL dt ~ Jika nilai R io dianggap kecil maka : iL = ∫ v D dt = ∫ (v D − v D )dt id ~ 1 ~ 1 L L
  • 11. Step-Down Converter(Continuous Conduction Mode) ~ Ed − vD vD iL , pp = TON = TOFF L L E d − dE d = dTs L Ed = (1 − d )d Lf s f s = 1 / Ts adalah frekuensi switching d = TON / Ts adalah duty factor.
  • 12. Critically Conduction Mode Ed T vD vD = ON Ed Ts ~ ⎞ (1 − d )d 0 TON iLpp⎛ Ed iL = =⎜ ⎜ Lf ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ s ⎠ 2 TsE d − vo vL −v o ~ iLpp iL 0
  • 13. Discontinuous Conduction Mode id iL Ed R vD vo S L Ed vD vo D 0 TON α1Ts α 2Ts ON state Ts id iL R S L E d − vo Ed vD vo D vL − vo OFF state id iL R iL 0 S L Ed vD vo D OFF state
  • 14. Step-Up (Boost) Converter id L D iD io vL vD icEd vS S C vo
  • 15. Step-Up Converter (Continuous Conduction Mode) id io Persamaan umum : L ic E d = v L − v D + voEd S C vo 0 ≤ t < TON ⇒ v D = vo v L = Ed 0 ≤ t < TON TON ≤ t < Ts ⇒ v D = 0 v L = E d − vo id io Nilai rata - rata tegangan di induktor v L = 0, TON L ic vD = voEd C vo Ts jadi, E d = −v D + vo = (1 − d )vo TON ≤ t < Ts Ed vo = 1− d
  • 16. Step-Up Converter (Continuous Conduction Mode) vo Persamaan riak arus : T vD vD = ON vo did Ts L = Ed − vS 0 dt TON 0 ≤ t < TON ⇒ v S = 0 Ts TON ≤ t < Ts ⇒ v s = vo T Ed v S = OFF vo vL TsE d − vo id = ∫ (E d − vo )dt ~ 1 L ~ − ( E d − vo ) E id id , pp = TOFF = d TON L L Ed = d Lf s iD
  • 17. Critically Conduction Mode vo TON vD = vo vD Ts 0 TON Ts Ed Ed id , crit = d vL 2 Lf sE d − vo ~ idpp id
  • 18. Discontinuous Conduction Mode id io vo LEd ic vo vD S C 0 TON ON state Ts id io L Ed Ed ic vo C vL E d − vo OFF state id io ~ idpp L id Ed ic vo C OFF state
  • 19. Buck-Boost Converter id S D iD io vS iL ic vD voEd vL C L
  • 20. Buck-Boost Converter id S D iD io 0 ≤ t < TON vS iL vD ic vo Ed = v LEd vL L C TON ≤ t < Ts 0 ≤ t < TON v L = −v o Bevause v L = 0, then id S D iD io E d TON = voTOFF vS iL vD ic Thus,Ed vo vL C L TON vo = Ed TON ≤ t < Ts TOFF
  • 21. Buck-Boost Converter Continuous Conduction ModeE d + vo TON d vS vo = E d 0 1− d Ts Ed Ed vL i Lpp = α Lf s − voE d + vo vD 0 iL 0
  • 22. Cuk Converter id L1 C vL1Ed vS S vC D L2 io Cd vo vL 2
  • 23. Cuk Converter id L1 C Persamaan tegangan : vL1Ed v vS S C D vo E d = v L1 + vC − vo − v L 2 L2 io Cd v L1 = v L 2 = 0 vL 2 vC = E d + v o 0 ≤ t < TON 0 ≤ t < TON ⇒ v L1 = E d TON ≤ t < Ts ⇒ v L1 = E d − vC id L1 Thus, C E d TON = (vc − E d )TOFF = voTOFF vL1 v vo TONEd vS S C D L2 io Cd vo = Ed TOFF vL 2 TON ≤ t < Ts
  • 24. Multiphase Choppers i1 S1 i1 S1 i2 i2 io S2 io i3 S2Ed D1 D2 C ic vo S3 Ed C ic vo
  • 25. Two-Phase Chopper vD1 i1 vD 2 i2 io
  • 26. Multiphase Chopper► The effective switching frequency is the number of phase times the carrier frequency.► At several values of duty cycle, the ripple is zero.► The topology is useful for low-voltage high-current applications.► The flywheel diodes are usually implemented by using synchronous rectifiers.
  • 27. Multi-quadrant Chopper S1 D1 io Ed S2 D2 vo S1 D1 D3 S3Ed S2 D2 S4 D4
  • 28. Two-Quadrant Chopper S1 D1 vo io + voEd eo − vo S2 vo eo D2 S1 / D1 S 2 / D 2 + io R L iovo eo − io
  • 29. Four-Quadrant Chopper S1 D1 D3 v* 2 D io S3 v* 4 DEd vo S4 S2 D2 D4 vD 2 vD 4 io R L io eo vovD 2 vD 4
  • 30. Indirect DC-DC Converters► Flyback converter► Forward converter► Pushpull converter► Half-Bridge converter► Full-bridge converter
  • 31. The needs of galvanic isolation► Safety and noise requirements dictate the use of galvanic isolation.► Galvanic isolation is implemented by using a transformer.► The frequency of operation must be very high to reduce the size of transformer.
  • 32. Flyback converter► Simple► Minimum component count► Higher stresses across switching devices► Unipolar flux in the transformer► Higher ripple► Suitable for low-power applications (<150 W)
  • 33. Flyback converter • N1 N2 C vo Load Ed • S D • N1 N2 C vo Load 0 ≤ t < TONEd • D S • N1 N2 C vo Load Ed • S TON ≤ t < Ts
  • 34. Flyback ConverterPersamaan umum :E d = v Lm + v Sv Lm tegangan sisi primer trafo.0 ≤ t < TONE d = v LmvS = 0TON ≤ t < Ts Nv Lm = − 1 vo N2 N1vS = Ed + vo N2Nilai rata - rata tegangan di trafo harus sama dengan nol, jadi N1E d TON = voTOFF N2 N2 Tvo = E d ON N1 TOFF
  • 35. Forward Converter► Simple► Less ripple than flyback converter► Less stresses across switching devices► Unipolar flux► Suitable for medium power (< 500 W)
  • 36. Forward Converter D1 L D3 D1 L • • • • N1 N2 D2 C vo Load N1 N2 D2 C vo LoadEd Ed • S S
  • 37. Forward Converter D3 D3 D1 L D1 L • • • • N1 N2 D2 C vo Load N1 N2 D2 C vo LoadEd • Ed • S S 0 ≤ t < TON TON ≤ t < Ts
  • 38. Forward Converter Persamaan tegangan : v D 2 = v L + vo v L = v D 2 − vo 0 ≤ t < TON N2 v D 2 = v sek = Ed N1 TON ≤ t < Ts vD2 = 0 Jadi, N2 TON vo = Ed N1 Ts
  • 39. Push-Pull and Half-Bridge Converters D1 D3 L S1 L Ed D1 D3 S1 • • C vo Load C vo Load Ed • • Ed S2 D2 S2 D4 D4 D2
  • 40. Push-Pull and Half-Bridge Converters► Bipolar flux► Moderate stress across switching devices► Suitable for medium power (< 1 kW)► Sensitive to signal unbalances
  • 41. Full-Bridge Converter S1 S3 L D1 D3 D3Ed u v C vo Load S2 D2 S4 D4 D4 vuv S1 S2 S3 S4 Ed ON OFF OFF ON - Ed OFF ON ON OFF 0 OFF ON OFF ON 0 ON OFF ON OFF
  • 42. Full-Bridge Converter► Bipolar flux► Minimum stresses across switching devices► Suitable for large power (< 10 kW)► Can be operated under soft-switched mode
  • 43. Soft-Switching Mode vuv iuiu S 2 & S3 S1 & S 4
  • 44. Duality I in S1 I out S1Vin Vout I out I in Vin S2 Vout S2 Vout I Vout I in = d = in =d = Vin I out Vin I out
  • 45. Duality I in C S1 S2Vin Vout I in L S1 S2 I out I out