Air Barrier Paper A polyolefin sheet material that is permeable to water vapor but not to air or liquid water. Air barriers protect the structure from weather to ensure that the interior walls do not become mildewed and corroded. Also they help to reduce energy used by limiting airflow.
Attic Ventilation Soffit Vent located at the eave of a roof, permit generous airflow to the rafter space as they act as the intake to the attic’s ventilation.
Attic VentilationRidge Vent Ridge Vents, located at the highest point of a roof, allows air to be exhausted while still protecting the attic from weather.
Attic VentilationGable Vent located high in the wall at opposite ends of an attic. Gable vents create a cross draft to help ventilate the attic.
Attic Ventilation Roof Turbine Roof Turbines use wind to expel air out of the attic to ensure the moist air does not settle in the attic and begin to mold.
Combo Backhoe/Front end loader Piece of equipment used in the excavation of a site consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-piece articulated arm. This bucket is thirty inches wide.
Batter Boards Boards that are set horizontally along the edge of a foundation, which are used to support strings that outline the foundation.
Brick ArchesRoman Arch
Brick ArchesTudor Arch
Brick ArchesArch with A Keystone
Brick ArchesCentering Centering is the process of setting up temporary formwork in the process of building an arch, dome, or vault.
Brick BondsRunning Bond Running Bond is the simplest of the basic pattern bonds, consisting of all stretchers. Running bond can be laid in half bond, a third, or a quarter bond pattern
Brick BondsFlemish Bond Flemish Bond consists of alternating stretchers and headers, with the headers in alternate courses centered over the stretchers in the intervening courses.
Brick BondsRowlocks Headers
Brick BondsSoldiers Sailors
Brick BondsStretcher Rowlocks (shiners)
Brick SizesModular Standard 3 ⅝ x 7⅝ x 2¼ 3⅝ x 11⅝ x 1⅝
Bulldozer A heavy engineering vehicle that has a large vertically mounted blade in the front that is used to move earth, tree stumps etc.
CladdingStone Wood Boards Random Ashlar
CladdingWood Shingles Wood Shakes: a shingle split from a block of wood Wood Shingle: is sawn from a block of wood This is a picture of Wood shingles
Code RequirementsMy Window My bedroom window: Width – 30” Height – 51” Net Opening – 10.6 sq.ft. Sill Height – 27” Code Requirements: Width – 20” Height – 24” Net Opening – 5.7 sq. ft. Still Height – 44” My window meets the code requirements for egress as it meets the minimum height, width, opening measurements and the sill height is less than 44”
Code requirementsStairs My Stairs: Tread - 10½” Riser – 7 Code Requirements: Tread – 10” minimum Riser 7¾” maximum My stairs meet the code requirements for tread and riser maximum and minimum
Concrete jointsControl joint An intentional groove strategically placed to prevent cracking in a slab of concrete.
Concrete JointsIsolation Joint This is an isolation joint between a pool hot tub and the concrete slab poured next to it. Polyethylene foam was put between the rock wall and the slab before the caulking was put in the joint to seal it.
Concrete JointsIsolation Joint Isolation joints isolate concete slabs from another thing, such a wall, column, drain pipe, etc.
Concrete Masonry UnitsCMU’s The work horses of masonry construction. In residential construction, they serve primarily in foundations, retaining walls, and fireplaces.
Concrete Masonry UnitCMU’s The most common CMU block is nominally 8 x 8 x 16 inches
Decorative Masonry UnitsSplit Block Ribbed Block
Doors 6 Panel Door Top Rail Panel Stile Lock Rail Bottom Rail
DoorsTransom A window above a door that is usually hinged to a horizontal crosspiece over the door
DoorsSidelight A tall, narrow window alongside a door.
ElectricalPower Pole with transformer An electrical device that changes the voltage of alternating current.
ElectricalService Head The service head is where the power lines connect to the house
ElectricalMeter Measures power usage of the home.
ElectricalService Panel Houses the breakers, which act as fuses, for the electrical circuits in the home.
ElectricalDuplex Receptacle Electrical outlet with space for two plugs
Framing1. Anchor Bolt 2. Sill Plate
Framing3. Floor Joist 4. Subflooring
Framing5. Sole Plate 6. Stud
Framing 7. Top Plate 8. Unfinished Stringer
Framing9. Ceiling Joist 10. Rafter
Framing 11. Roof Decking 12. Sheathing
Front End Loader Front-end loaders are used to move a material from one place to another. Unlike the bulldozer, the front-end loader can pick up material in its bucket whereas a bulldozer can only push the material. A front-end loader cannot dig into the ground like a backhoe can do.
Gypsum Board Wall board made of layers of fiberboard or paper bonded to a gypsum core
Heat PumpCompressor/evaporator Advantage: Has the ability to both heat and cool Disadvantage: Difficult to zone Fan moves outdoor air across coils containing refrigerant to change the temperature of the refrigerant.
Heat PumpAir Handling Unit Conditions and circulates the air in an air-conditioning unit
InsulationBatt/blanket Most popular type of insulation for wall cavities. Also used in some attics, roofs, and floors.
InsulationLoose Fill Most commonly used in attics because it is inexpensive and leaves few voids with no gaps between pieces
InsulationFoamed Has a very high R value Is sprayed between wall studs At the time of spraying, the components are dense liquids, but they react immediately with one another to produce a low density foam.
InsulationRigid Board Used where high R-value per unit thickness is necessary. Commonly found in roof assemblies, walls and ceilings where insulation thickness is limited, and in below grade areas with a special water resistant composition.
Steel Lintel A beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening.
MortarConcave joint Tooled, Concave 3/8” wide Residential Building Mortar Type: N
MortarExtrudingjoint Neither tooled or troweled ½ inch wide Residential building Type N mortar
Oriented Strand Board (OSB) A non-veneered building panel composed of long shreds of wood fiber oriented in specific directions and bonded together under pressure. The strands of rectangular wood strips are held together by a wax and resin adhesive.
Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
PlumbingLavatory 1 ½” pipe is used to drain a lavatory
PlumbingWater Closet 3” pipe is used to drain a toilet
PlumbingManufactured tub unit
PlumbingVent The Vent Through Roof (VTR) maintains a system of plumbing drains and waste lines at atmospheric pressure by connecting them to the outdoor air.
PlumbingUndermount sink Integrated sink
Plywood A wood panel composed of an odd number of layers of wood veneer and bonded together under pressure. Veneer – A thin layer, sheet or facing.
Plywood Define the word “veneer”
Rebar #5 Rebar, 5/8” Deformations in rebar are to help prevent slipping
Steep Roof DrainageGutter A narrow channel which collects rainwater from the roof of a building and diverts it away from the structure, typically into a drain. The main purpose of a rain gutter is to protect a building‘s foundation by channeling water away from its base
Steep Roof DrainageDownspout Feeds the water collected by the rain gutter
Steep Roof DrainageSplashblock Used in order to prevent soil erosion/moisture problems around the foundation of a building or house. Leads the water away from foundation
Steep Roof MaterialsUnderlayment Roof underlayments are designed to protect the roof sheathing and structure from moisture and penetration. This example was a scrap piece I found on site.
Steep Roof MaterialsClay Tile Roof
Steep Roof MaterialsCedar Shingles Slate Shingles A thin oblong piece of material, such as wood or slate, that is laid in overlapping rows to cover the roof or sides of a house or other building.