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Visual Dictionary

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Visual Dictionary

  1. 1. Visual Dictionary
  2. 2. <ul><li>Protects the building from the weather. </li></ul><ul><li>Impermeable to airflow. </li></ul><ul><li>Covers the entire building enclosure. </li></ul><ul><li>Withstands forces of nature during and after construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Durable over the lifetime of the building. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Attic Ventilation Soffit Vent
  4. 4. Attic Ventilation Ridge Vent <ul><li>Wind blowing over the ridge creates a negative pressure that draws the warmer air out of the attic and replaces it with fresh air. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Attic Ventilation Gable Vent <ul><li>Allows warm air to escape and fresh air to circulate in. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Attic Ventilation Roof Turbine <ul><li>Exhausts moist, hot air from the attic allowing fresh air to circulate in. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Backhoe <ul><li>To dig the ground </li></ul><ul><li>To create trenches </li></ul><ul><li>To carve ditches or dikes </li></ul><ul><li>To remove deep-seated roots of tree </li></ul><ul><li>The Bucket is 23” wide x 18” deep x 44” long. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Batter Boards <ul><li>Boards erected at the corners of a proposed building to specifically locate and show corners and show foundation wall height. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Brick Arches Parabolic Arch
  10. 10. Brick Arches Jack Arch
  11. 11. Brick Arches Arch With A Keystone
  12. 12. Brick Arches Centering <ul><li>A temporary, usually wooden framework on which an arch, vault, or dome is supported during construction. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Brick Bonds Running Bond
  14. 14. Brick Bonds Flemish Bond
  15. 15. Brick Bonds Rowlocks
  16. 16. Brick Bonds Headers
  17. 17. Brick Bonds Soldiers
  18. 18. Brick Bonds Stretcher Rowlocks
  19. 19. Brick Bonds Sailors
  20. 20. Brick Sizes Queen Brick <ul><li>His is an example of queen brick. The actual dimensions are 2-3/4 inches high and 7-5/8 inches long and 3 inches wide. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Brick Sizes Modular
  22. 23. Cladding Brick
  23. 24. Cladding EIFS
  24. 25. Cladding Stone
  25. 26. Cladding Wood Boards
  26. 27. Cladding Wood Shingles or Shakes <ul><li>A wood shingle is a thin slab of wood that is sawn from a tree trunk. A wood shake is a thick piece of wood that is split from a tree trunk and has an irregular shape. The picture above illustrates a building with a wood shingle cladding. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Code Requirements Room <ul><li>The International Building Code states that the egress window must have a clear opening of at least 5.7 square feet, a clear width minimum of 20 inches, and a clear height minimum of 24 inches. The bottom clear opening cannot be more than 44 inches above the finished floor. The window we analyzed had a width of 35 inches, and the height was 25-1/2 inches. The clear opening is 6.54 sqare feet and the window is 36” above the finished floor. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>The International Building Code states that a set of wood-framed interior stairs has to meet certain codes. The code states the the minimum lengths for tread, the portion that we step on,10 inches and the riser cannot exceed 7-3/4 inches. We analyzed the stairs in Ben’s house to see if they meet code. The photograph above shows the stairs that I analyzed and the riser dimension was 7-1/2 inches and the tread dimension was 11-1/2 inches. If we measured correctly, the stairs meet code. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Concrete Joints Control Joint <ul><li>Control joints are planned for cracks which allow for movements caused by temperature changes and drying shrinkage. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Concrete Joints Isolation Joint <ul><li>An isolation joint isolates a section of the concrete from the rest of the concrete slab. In my picture, the column is isolated from the slab of concrete. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Concrete Masonry CMU and Brick Comparison <ul><li>Concrete masonry unit, or CMU is a hardened block of concrete that is molded into a specific shape and is used primarily in foundations, retaining walls, and fire places. CMU units are made in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, but the typical dimensions are 8 x 8 x 16. These dimensions are nominal, or appropriate, the actual dimensions are 7-5/8 x 7-5/8 x 15-5/8. An important aspect about CMU is that a standard eight inch high CMU is equal to three courses of modular brick. Another advantage is the time a builder saves using CMU instead of brick. The picture above illustrates the fact that a standard eight inch tall CMU block is equal to three courses of modular brick. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Concrete Masonry CMU Sizes <ul><li>Concrete masonry units are available in a variety of thicknesses even though face dimensions are always the same. </li></ul>6 inch CMU 12 inch CMU
  33. 34. Decorative Concrete Masonry Units Split Block
  34. 35. Decorative Concrete Masonry Units Ribbed Block
  35. 36. Doors Flush Door
  36. 37. Doors Six Panel Door Panel Stile Top Rail Bottom Rail Lock Rail
  37. 38. Doors Transom A glass pane, usually rectangular, which is located above a window or door.
  38. 39. Doors Sidelight A window beside the door, forming part of the door unit
  39. 40. Electrical Components Power Pole with Transformer The function of a power pole is to hold the transformer. The function of a transformer is to turn thousands of volts of electricity into 110/220-volt alternating currents.
  40. 41. Electrical Components Service Head Basically converts outdoor lines to a meter
  41. 42. Electrical Components Meter The meter calculates how much electricity a certain building uses.
  42. 43. Electrical Components Service Panel The service panel, usually located in a metal box, includes circuit breakers that distribute electricity that runs to a duplex receptacle.
  43. 44. Electrical Components Duplex Receptacle This is where appliances are plugged in.
  44. 45. Framing Elements 1) Anchor Bolt
  45. 46. Framing Elements 2) Sill Plate
  46. 47. Framing Elements 3) Floor Joist
  47. 48. Framing Elements 4) Subflooring
  48. 49. Framing Elements 5) Sole Plate
  49. 50. Framing Elements 7) Top Plate
  50. 51. Framing Elements 8) Ceiling Joist
  51. 52. Framing Elements 9) Rafter
  52. 53. Framing Elements 10) Roof Decking
  53. 54. Framing Elements 11) Sheating
  54. 55. Framing Elements 12) Stringer
  55. 56. Front End Loader <ul><li>A front end loader is a powerful earthmoving machine. A large hydraulic scoop is located in the front, which is usually the same length as the machine itself. The scoop is used primarily for lifting and loading dirt. This scoop defines the major difference between the bulldozer and the front end loader. </li></ul>
  56. 57. Gypsum Board <ul><li>Gypsum board is a prefabricated plaster sheet material consisting of gypsum core sandwiched between two paper layers. Gypsum board is also known as wallboard, drywall, or sheetrock. The picture shows a gypsum wall in which the joints have been taped and mudded. </li></ul>
  57. 58. Heat Pump Compressor/Evaporator <ul><li>The compressor/evaporator is located on the exterior of the building. The main purpose of this device is to take outdoor air and move it across coils containing refrigerant to change the temperature of the refrigerant. This device can also work in reverse to cool a building in the summer months. One advantage of a heat pump is the ability to heat a house rapidly but the disadvantage is the it can also be noisy when air travels through the ducts. </li></ul>
  58. 59. Heat Pump Air Handling Unit <ul><li>The air handling unit it located on the interior of the building and the main purpose of this device is to move air through ducts which distribute air to each room. </li></ul>
  59. 60. Insulation Batt Insulation <ul><li>This is usually made from fiber glass cut to fit onto framing cavities. Batts are provided on sheets, while blankets come in rolls. </li></ul>
  60. 62. <ul><li>Spray foam is a chemical substitute for insulation methods like fiberglass. This barrier can hold in air and heat, keeping houses warm. </li></ul>
  61. 63. Insulation Rigid Board Insulation <ul><li>Is manufactured in panels that make it easy to clad a large area. It also resists water and rot from locations in the ground. </li></ul>
  62. 64. Lintel <ul><li>A lintel is a horizontal beam used as a finishing piece over a door or window. Can be made of stone, concrete, or steel. </li></ul>
  63. 65. Mortar Tooled Joint <ul><li>A masonry joint where the mortar has been worked with a tool to create a finish effect . </li></ul><ul><li>This tooled joint is 3/8”. </li></ul><ul><li>This is used as a brick veneer on a hardware store. </li></ul><ul><li>I would guess that the mortar is type-N. </li></ul>
  64. 66. <ul><li>A mortar joint in brickwork formed by pressing the trowel. </li></ul><ul><li>The mortar size is 3/8”. </li></ul><ul><li>This is used as the foundation on a residential house. </li></ul><ul><li>I would guess that type-N mortar was used here also. </li></ul>
  65. 67. <ul><li>OSB is an engineered wood product formed from layers of wood flakes in specific orientations. OSB panels have no internal gaps or voids. </li></ul>
  66. 68. Plumbing Lavatory The typical sized piping used to drain a lavatory is 1-1/2” diameter.
  67. 70. Plumbing Tub and/or Shower Unit
  68. 71. Plumbing Plumbing Vent Vent through the roof for plumbing. The purpose of this vent is to keep the water level in the P-Trap under the sink level. The water needs to stay in the P-Trap to keep the toxic sewer gases from entering the building. It also lets the water drain freely.
  69. 72. Plumbing Drop In Kitchen Sink
  70. 73. <ul><li>Plywood is a type of engineered wood made from thin sheets and is glued together at right angles from each other for greater strength. The term veneer is defined as a thin layer of wood that is glued together to make a thicker sheet of wood. </li></ul>
  71. 74. Radiant Barrier <ul><li>Radiant barriers or reflective barriers inhibit heat transfer by thermal radiation. </li></ul>
  72. 75. Rebar <ul><li>A rod or bar used for reinforcement in concrete. A pattern is rolled onto them which helps the concrete get a grip on the bar. This rebar is ½” thick so it would be called a number 4. </li></ul>
  73. 76. <ul><li>Gutters are the metal channels that are attached to the roof edges and used to draw water down and away from the house and its foundation. </li></ul>
  74. 77. <ul><li>A vertical pipe for carrying rainwater down from a roof gutter. </li></ul>
  75. 79. Steep Roof Materials Underlayment Underlayment is a flexible, protective barrier for the roof sheathing; its main function is to protect the roof from rain water before the roofing is applied. It also serves as a permanent second layer of defense.
  76. 80. Steep Roof Materials Clay Tile Roof
  77. 81. Steep Roof Materials Slate Shingle Roof A thin oblong piece of material, such as wood or slate, that is laid in overlapping rows to cover the roof or sides of a house or other building.
  78. 82. Steep Roof Materials Metal Panel Roof Typical materials used are galvanized or aluminized steel.
  79. 83. Steep Roof Shapes Gable
  80. 84. Steep Roof Shapes Gambrel
  81. 85. Steep Roof Shapes Hip
  82. 86. Steep Roof Shapes Mansard
  83. 87. Steep Roof Terms Ridge <ul><li>The ridge runs along the uppermost portion of the roof. </li></ul>
  84. 88. Steep Roof Terms Valley <ul><li>A valley is formed by the intersection of the two roof slopes. </li></ul>
  85. 89. Steep Roof Terms Eave <ul><li>The eave is the horizontal edge located on the low side of a roof. </li></ul>
  86. 90. Steep Roof Terms Rake <ul><li>The rake is the sloping edge of a gable roof. </li></ul>
  87. 91. Steep Roof Terms With Fascia <ul><li>The fascia is an optional addition to a roof, but if a building has one it is the exposed vertical face of an eave. </li></ul>
  88. 92. Steep Roof Terms Without Fascia
  89. 93. Steep Roof Terms Soffit <ul><li>A soffit can be found on the underside of a roof overhang. </li></ul>
  90. 94. Stone Random Rubble
  91. 95. Stone Coursed Rubble
  92. 96. Stone Random Ashlar
  93. 97. Stone Coursed Ashlar
  94. 98. Vapor Retarder <ul><li>Vapor Retarder is a thin, continuous layer of material that is placed on insulation to obstruct the passage of water through a building. It is placed in such a way to make it as seamless as possible. The most common materials used are plastic sheathing, aluminum foil, and craft paper. Vapor retarder is always placed on the warm-in-winter side of insulation. </li></ul>
  95. 99. Waterproofing <ul><li>Waterproofing is placed on the underground area of a foundation wall and it serves to resist standing water under pressure. There are about five different categories of waterproofing, which include: liquid-applied membrane, loosely laid membrane, fully adhered membrane, cementations, and Bentonite clay. The picture shows an example of liquid-applied membrane. Some advantages of this type of waterproofing are that it is easy to detail around penetrations and it can take the form of any shape. </li></ul>
  96. 101. Welded Wire Fabric <ul><li>Welded wire fabric is fabricated from a series of wires  arranged  into different sized squares used to reinforce concrete . Welded wire fabric,  referred  to  as  WWF. </li></ul>
  97. 102. Windows Casement This is an out swinging casement window because it is hinged along the side of the window.
  98. 103. Windows Double Hung A window having two sashes that slide up and down.
  99. 104. Windows Single Hung A window having one sash that slides up and down.

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