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0635 SRI Information Handout/Farmers’ Manualon Socio Economic and Ecological Concern for SRI: A Productivity Enhancing Practice in India
 

0635 SRI Information Handout/Farmers’ Manualon Socio Economic and Ecological Concern for SRI: A Productivity Enhancing Practice in India

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Presenter: B.C. Barah, C. Ramasamy and K. N. Selvaraj, V. Ratna Reddy, and G. Nagaraj, Scientific inputs from T. M. Thyagarajan ...

Presenter: B.C. Barah, C. Ramasamy and K. N. Selvaraj, V. Ratna Reddy, and G. Nagaraj, Scientific inputs from T. M. Thyagarajan

Institution: National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research (ICAR), Centre for Economic and Social Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University and University of Agricultural Sciences, India

Subject Country: India

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    0635 SRI Information Handout/Farmers’ Manualon Socio Economic and Ecological Concern for SRI: A Productivity Enhancing Practice in India 0635 SRI Information Handout/Farmers’ Manualon Socio Economic and Ecological Concern for SRI: A Productivity Enhancing Practice in India Presentation Transcript

    • SRI Information Handout/Farmers’ Manual on Socio Economic and Ecological Concern for System of Rice Intensification (SRI): A Productivity Enhancing Practice in India B. C. Barah C. Ramasamy and K. N. Selvaraj, V. Ratna Reddy, and G. Nagaraj Scientific inputs from Dr. T. M. Thyagarajan National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research (ICAR) Centre for Economic and Social Studies Tamilnadu Agricultural University and University of Agricultural Sciences
      • System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is an innovative methodology of rice cultivation relying on available farmer inputs.
      • It is a set of farmer-friendly and environment-friendly practices, specifically intended for use among small and marginal farmers.
      • Using a set of simple techniques, farmers can improve their rice productivity while incurring little or no additional cost.
      • SRI helps meet household food requirements with:
      • Less land area , due to enhanced productivity of the soil,
      • Minimum seeds as SRI require fewer lesser seedlings per acre,
      • Saving time , as seedlings just 8-12 days old are transplanted
      • rather than the usual 28 days, and SRI crops ripen sooner.
      • Little external nutrients , and less manpower needed once skill is acquired.
      • Most important, SRI is water saving because the methodology
      • requires 25-50% less quantity of water vs. continuous flooding
      TO THE HANDS OF SMALL AND MARGINAL FARMERS
    • A synergistic approach: Following are important and specific SRI practices Following the above practices, SRI uses relatively lesser quantity of inputs and has higher yield capability, making it small-farmer-friendly , and SRI also provides several biological advantages for plants, soil and organisms
      • Good soil bed preparation using locally-made equipment
      • Early transplanting : Young seedlings of 8-12 days, transplanted carefully before the third leaf appears, capitalizing on the phyllochron effect
      • Wider Spacing (25x25 cm to begin; up to 45x45cm or even more on best soil); one seedling per hill, achieving the “edge effect” for the whole field
      • No need to keep the fields flooded continuously: 1) keep soil moist; or 2) practice alternate wetting and drying, making water savings
      • Use a mechanical rotary weeder every 10-14 days for weed control; this facilitates soil aeration, improving biological activity in the soil
      • Use compost , and zero or reduced inorganic fertilizers for best results, promoting sustainable soil health
    • By practicing the following methods explained below, rice productivity can be improved significantly with lesser inputs 1 6 4 3 2 5
    • Get better yield prospects from the following practices: Practice No. # 1 : SOIL BED PREPARATION Effectively leveled field is easier for marking operation; and it is also easier for the proper distribution of scarce water resources and for transplanting of young seedlings Land leveler with wooden plank made of local materials improves field capacity. Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University (ANGRAU), Hyderabad, has developed an improved leveler-cum-marker at a cost of about Rs.900 per piece.
      • Transplant young seedlings of 8-12 days, before the third leaf appears;and transplant carefully, keeping root horizontal (like L). Resumption of the roots’ growth is delayed when the root tip is inverted upwards (like J).
      • The potential advantages are:
      • Better phyllochron effect (more tillers),
      • Saving of seeds, need only 1/10th the usual seed rate (approx. 2-3 kg as against 30-40 kg per acre),
      • Save time, about 20 days, and minimize transplanting shock to the young seedlings
      Practice No. # 2: EARLY TRANSPLANTING
    • Practice No. # 3: WIDER SPACING Row and column spacing should be at least 25x25 cm, and can go up to 45x45cm or even more, at the rate of one seedling per hill, when the soil has improved through SRI practices. Due to wider space between seedlings, the roots and the canopy of the plant grow undisturbed. External soil nutrients could be reduced as the wider space provides more energy and air for the plants. Therefore, the plants enjoy the advantage of ‘ the edge effect’ for the whole field, and there is more biological N fixation
    • Practice No. # 4: NO CONTINUOUS FLOODING Unlike in conventional practice, the fields should not be flooded continuously . In order to keep soil moist, practice alternate wetting and drying of fields is followed. This promotes judicious use of water. Depending on type of soil, it should be irrigated and then let to dry, even to cracking stage, although with clay, may need to keep a thin film of water on the field. This creates scope for water saving, and hairline cracks improve soil aeration for plants and microbes. .
    • Practice No. # 5: REGULAR WEEDINGS Woman farmer ( Mrs. Manonmani of Thenpaththuvillage near Tirurnveli in Tamilnadu) reports she could harvest 6088 kg of rice per acre. She used the rotary weeder shown here regularly and feels that this makes weed management ‘ child’s play’. The weeds are converted into manure and incorporated into soil. Use mechanical rotary weeder every 10-14 days for weed control and soil aeration, starting 10-12 days after transplanting. This improves biological activity in the soil and facilitates vigorous root growth. Beyond minimum of 2 weedings, additional weedings can add 0.5-2.0 t/ha to yield
    • Weeding is crucial: Multiple direction weedings are good More weedings enrich soil for better root growth due to incorporation of organic matter and aeration of soil [FLD CRIDA , Hyderabad]
        • Use more compost , and zero or reduced inorganic fertilizers, for best results. This ensures:
        • Sustainable soil health
        • Producing of healthy food
        • Saves the cost of agro-chemicals
        • Accelerates microbial activities in soil
      Practice No. # 6: ORGANIC MANURE
    • Andhra Farmer says: Farmers could not believe their own eyes when they saw only 23 cms long seedlings in 11 days, and then on the 39th day after transplantation, their plants with 84 tillers. Mr. Rambabu of Srinagar village in Manopadu mandal of Mahabubnagar District was surprised to see such seedlings; he considers the whole exercise as ‘a miracle’. Luxurious tillering from a single seed A convincing OUTPUT:
    • SRI NORMAL RICE Picture from Dong Tru village, Vietnam, after typhoon, taken by Elske van de Fliert, FAO IPM advisor, during Sept. 2005 visit. Due to the sturdy stems and larger, healthier root systems, SRI plants have capacity to resist lodging compared to rice plants grown with usual methods (e.g., continuous flooding).
      • Therefore, SRI potentially can assure meeting household food requirements with:
      • Less area of land,
      • Minimum volume of seeds, as SRI requires lesser number of seedlings per acre,
      • Saving time, with shorter crop cycle,
      • Little external nutrients, thereby reducing costs of production, and
      • Lesser labour once methods are learned.
      • Most importantly, SRI can be practices with lesser quantity of water.
    • International experiences: Gain in yield due to SRI (ton/ha) in 12 Countries 177% 7.2 2.6 Madagascar 102% 8.5 4.2 Nepal 100% 8.0 4.0 India From: Norman Uphoff, Presentation to Intl Year of Rice Conference, FAO, Rome, Feb. 2004 14% 12.4 10.9 China 29% 6.3 4.9 Bangladesh 37% 7.4 5.0 Indonesia 58% 9.8 6.2 Cuba 78% 4.8 2.7 Cambodia 112% 5.3 2.5 Sierra Leone 116% 7.8 3.6 Sri Lanka 169% 5.4 2.0 Myanmar 209% 7.1 2.3 Gambia % increase SRI Conventional Countries
    • Source: Collated from a village survey in Anantpur, Andhra Pradesh 2005 by Dr. Ratna Reddy, Hyderabad 32 5915 7804 Net Return with family labor 20 9388 11230 Net Return w/o family labor 16 15145 17502 Value of output (product+by-product) 9 5757 6271 Operational cost (Rs./acre) 138 314 747 Hired labor cost: (Rs./acre) 100 3 6 : Female 100 4 8 Hired Labor: Male 167 6 16 : Female 18 78 92 Family labor: Male 4 633 660 Labor cost (Rs./acre) (-) 47 97 51 Irrigation (no./acre) (-) 93 35 2.4 Seed rate 29 22.8 29.4 Yield Likely to increase 4.55 1.34 Area % Difference Normal SRI A comparison of Input use pattern in SRI rice
    • To summarize SRI may have diverse meaning as rice is cultivated in highly diverse way. Depending on the agenda of various groups of farmers in adopting technology innovations, they try to maximise productivity within the local production environments and social systems. This implies that there is no single solution or policy of productivity enhancement for all situations across the spatio-temporal dimension. New technology/practice like SRI opens up the vista for sustainable agriculture and/or revitalise the potential of traditional as well as modern seed varieties that seems to have gradually lost in the green revolution agenda. As the newer practice is dedicated mainly for the small and marginal farmers, it has important household food security implication. The SRI is an innovative practice of rice cultivation that has a chance to revive the shrinking opportunity in rice production systems. Source; IWMI-Tata initiative 2005