International Experience with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)  Rice Research and Training Institute  Kafr-el-Shei...
Purpose: to  share knowledge  about  a new system of crop management <ul><li>Not trying to  sell  SRI or to  promote  its ...
Acc. to IRRI DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004 Rice sector needs in 21 st  century: <ul><li>Increased  land  productivity-- hig...
SRI practices already can  meet these needs : <ul><li>Higher   yields   -- 50-100%  (or more?) </li></ul><ul><li>Water red...
SRI is many things: <ul><ul><li>SRI derives from a certain number  of  INSIGHTS , based on  experience   </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><li>SRI is  NOT A TECHNOLOGY   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI practices may look like a  PACKAGE   or even like a  RECIPE, ...
<ul><li>SRI is  NOT YET FINISHED   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Since SRI was  empirically developed ,  we are  continually im...
 
Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in  raised-bed, zero-till  SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha. In ...
<ul><li>SRI was developed for smallholders in Madagascar,   but it is relevant  at all scales </li></ul><ul><li>- Fr. Henr...
Fr. de Laulani é making field visit
Status of SRI:   As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
Before 1999:   Madagascar 1999-2000:   China, Indonesia 2000-01:  Bangladesh, Cuba, Laos, Cambodia, Gambia, India, Nepal, ...
The Six Basic Ideas for SRI <ul><li>Transplant  young seedlings   to preserve their growth potential  -- but  DIRECT SEEDI...
Cuban farmer with two plants of same variety (VN 2084)  and same age (52 DAP)
Single-seed SRI rice plant Variety: Ciherang Fertile tillers: 223 Sampoerna CSR Program, Malang, E. Java, 2009
Additional benefits  of SRI practice: <ul><li>Reduced time to maturity , by 1-2 weeks,  less exposure to pests and disease...
Requirements/Constraints <ul><li>Water control   to apply small amounts of water reliably; may need drainage facilities </...
47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research I...
CHINA: Factorial trials by China National  Rice Research Institute, 2004 and 2005 using two super-hybrid varieties -- seek...
Average super-rice  yields  (kg/ha) with new rice  management (SRI) vs.standard rice management  at different  plant densi...
2009 Report from  Aga Khan Foundation : Baghlan Province, Afghanistan 2008: 6 farmers got  SRI yields of  10.1 t/ha  vs. 5...
AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
SRI field at 30 days
SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
IRAQ:  Comparison trials, Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
BHUTAN:  Report on SRI in Deorali Geog , 2009 Sangay Dorji, Jr. Extension Agent, Deorali Georg, Dagana SRI @ 25x25cm  9.5 ...
MALI: SRI nursery in Timbuktu region –  8-day seedlings ready for transplanting
SRI transplanting in Timbuktu, Mali
MALI:  Farmer in Timbuktu region showing difference between regular and SRI rice plants --  First SRI yields  8.98 t/ha (2...
<ul><li>* adjusted to 14% grain moisture content </li></ul>MALI: Next year results - rice grain yield for SRI, control, an...
Two Paradigms for Agriculture:  <ul><li>GREEN REVOLUTION  strategy was to: </li></ul><ul><li>* Change the  genetic potenti...
MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
CAMBODIA:  Rice plant grown from a single seed in Takeo province
NEPAL: Single rice plant grown with SRI  methods,  Morang  district
IRAN:   SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in  color  as well as  size
INDONESIA: Rice plants of same age and same variety in Lombok province
Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of  on-farm comparative evaluations  of SRI by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06  <ul><li>No. of t...
SRI LANKA: rice fields after three weeks without water; same rice variety, same irrigation system,  same drought -- conven...
VIETNAM: D ông Trù village, Hanoi province,  after typhoon   has passed over -- SRI plant/field on left; conventional plan...
Nie Fu-qiu, Bu Tou village, Zhejiang In 2004, SRI gave highest yield in province:  12 t/ha In 2005, his SRI rice fields we...
Time to flowering, maturity, and plant lodging percentage  as affected by AWDI and ordinary irrigation practice  combined ...
Incidence of  Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program: average of data from on-farm trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06...
Theory of Trophobiosis <ul><li>(F. Chaboussou,  Healthy Crops , 2004) deserves  more attention and empirical evaluation  t...
Theory of ‘Trophobiosis’ <ul><li>Explains incidence of pest and disease in terms of  plants’ nutrition :  </li></ul><ul><l...
Resistance to  cold temperatures:  Yield and meteorological data from ANGRAU, A.P., India + Sudden drop in minimum temp. f...
Measured Differences in  Grain Quality Conv. Methods  SRI Methods  Characteristic   (3 spacings)  (3 spacings)  Difference...
NEPAL:   Crop duration  (from seed to seed)  of different rice varieties with SRI (6.3 t/ha) vs. conventional methods (3.1...
Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spaced SRI LANKA: Best use of transplanting methods
SRI LANKA: Soil-aerating hand weeder costs <$10
Effect of Active Soil Aeration <ul><li>412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005 </li></ul>...
Impact of Weedings on Yield with SRI Methods Ambatovaky, Madagascar, 1997-98 Mechanical Weedings  Farmers  (N) Area  (ha) ...
Mechanization of weeding, i.e., soil aeration ,  is also possible
INDIA: Roller-marker devised by L. Reddy, East Godavari, AP, to save time in transplanting operations; yield in 2003-04 ra...
SRI seedlings ready for transport to field, for mechanical transplanting in  COSTA  RICA
Fig 1   Trasplantadora motorizada AP100 Yanmar Mechanical  transplanter  used in  COSTA  RICA
COSTA RICA  - Mechanically transplanted SRI field 8 t/ha yield
PAKISTAN: Making raised beds for rice-growing with adapted SRI methods on laser-leveled field
Mechanical transplanter for dropping seedlings into holes made by machine, Water is sprayed in hole after 10-day seedling ...
Mechanical weeder set for spacing 9x9 inch  (22.5x22.5 cm) – can give very good soil aeration
Rice crop at 71 days in Punjab, Pakistan Seedlings planted into dry soil = 70% water reduction Average yield = 13 tons/ha ...
Role of Soil Biota <ul><li>Bacteria and fungi perform many services for crop (under aerobic conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>...
 
Total bacteria Total diazotrophs Microbial populations  in rhizosphere soil in rice crop under different management  at ac...
CFU = colony forming units  PSM = Phosphate-solubilizing microbes  BF = Bio-organic fertilizer Values with the different l...
Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia,from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Gr...
Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid ...
Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings.  On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant ...
Extensions of SRI to Other Crops: Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, India  Rajma (kidney beans) Manduwa (millet) Crop No. of...
Sugar cane grown with SRI methods (left) in Andhra Pradesh Reported yields of  125-235 t/ha  compared with usual 65 t/ha
<ul><li>ICRISAT-WWF   Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with:  </li></ul><ul><li>30% reduction in water...
HIGH-TILLERING TRAIT IN TEFF WHEN TRANSPLANTED WITH WIDER SPACING Report of Dr. Tareke Berhe, Senior Rice Advisor,  Sasaka...
1 ST   S.T.I.  TRIALS, 2008  Duplication of Earlier Findings  YIFRU ( 1998 )  M. Sc. THESIS Reported yield of  4-5 tons/ha...
<ul><li>SRI is pointing the way toward a  paradigm shift?     toward  ‘post-modern agriculture’? </li></ul><ul><li>Less  ...
THANK YOU <ul><li>Can check out SRI website:   http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email:   [email_address]  ...
 
 
How to “speed up the biological clock”   (adapted from Nemoto et al. 1995) <ul><li>Shorter phyllochrons   Longer phyllochr...
 
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1031 International Experience with the System of Rice Intensification

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA

Presented at: Rice Research and Training Institute, Kafr-el-Sheikh

Date Presented: 04/14/2010

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1031 International Experience with the System of Rice Intensification

  1. 1. International Experience with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Rice Research and Training Institute Kafr-el-Sheikh, April 8, 2010 Prof. Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD
  2. 2. Purpose: to share knowledge about a new system of crop management <ul><li>Not trying to sell SRI or to promote its use – rather would like to promote its evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>If SRI ideas and practices are found to be beneficial , this is open-access, public-domain information – available to anybody to use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No patents, no royalties, no IPRs; not just rice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SRI is not a technology – instead we refer to it as a system or a methodology </li></ul><ul><li>We think of SRI as is emerging paradigm for agricultural research and practice </li></ul>
  3. 3. Acc. to IRRI DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004 Rice sector needs in 21 st century: <ul><li>Increased land productivity-- higher yield </li></ul><ul><li>Higher water productivity -- crop per drop </li></ul><ul><li>Technology accessible for the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental friendliness </li></ul><ul><li>More pest- and disease-resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance of abiotic stresses (climate Δ ) </li></ul><ul><li>Better grain quality for consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Greater profitability for farmers </li></ul>
  4. 4. SRI practices already can meet these needs : <ul><li>Higher yields -- 50-100% (or more?) </li></ul><ul><li>Water reduction -- 25-50% (also rainfed) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced input need - good for poor farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no need for agrochemical inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Induced pest and disease resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Drought tolerance; little or no lodging </li></ul><ul><li>Better grain quality -- less chalkiness </li></ul><ul><li>Lower costs of production by 10-20%  which leads to higher farmers’ income </li></ul>
  5. 5. SRI is many things: <ul><ul><li>SRI derives from a certain number of INSIGHTS , based on experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI can be explained in terms of PRINCIPLES having scientific bases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI gets communicated to farmers in terms of specific PRACTICES that improve the growing environment for their rice plants - at same time, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI offers an alternative PARADIGM a different approach to agriculture - pointing toward post-modern agriculture </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>SRI is NOT A TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SRI practices may look like a PACKAGE or even like a RECIPE, but they are much better understood as a MENU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers are encouraged to use as many of the practices as possible, as well as possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each practice contributes to higher yield as seen from the accumulating evidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But there is evidence of some synergy in effect among the practices – so that the best results come from using them together </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>SRI is NOT YET FINISHED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Since SRI was empirically developed , we are continually improving scientific understanding of SRI concepts/theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Since SRI is farmer-centered , it is being modified, improved, extended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are now also rainfed versions of SRI and zero-till, direct-seed, raised-bed forms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SRI ideas are extrapolated to other crops : wheat, sugar cane, millet, teff, beans, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha. In 2001, his SRI yield set provincial yield record: 16 t/ha
  9. 10. <ul><li>SRI was developed for smallholders in Madagascar, but it is relevant at all scales </li></ul><ul><li>- Fr. Henri de Laulanié arrived there from France in 1961 with some agricultural training </li></ul><ul><li>- He started working with farmers to raise yields, without dependence on external inputs </li></ul><ul><li>In 1983-84 season, he learned the effects of transplanting young seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>In late 1980s, when fertilizer subsidies were removed, he switched over to compost </li></ul>
  10. 11. Fr. de Laulani é making field visit
  11. 12. Status of SRI: As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
  12. 13. Before 1999: Madagascar 1999-2000: China, Indonesia 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba, Laos, Cambodia, Gambia, India, Nepal, Myanmar, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Peru, Moz 2004-05: Senegal, Mali, Vietnam, Pakistan 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil 2008: Rwanda, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana 2009: Malaysia Timor Leste 2010: Kenya, DPRK, Panama? Solomon Islands? 2010: SRI benefits have now been validated in 39 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
  13. 14. The Six Basic Ideas for SRI <ul><li>Transplant young seedlings to preserve their growth potential -- but DIRECT SEEDING is now an option </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly and shallow, not inverting root tips, which halts growth </li></ul><ul><li>Give plants wider spacing -– one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve ‘edge effect’ everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded –- soil should be mostly aerobic and not continuously saturated </li></ul><ul><li>Actively aerate the soil as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>1+2+3 stimulate plant growth overall, while 4+5+6 enhance the growth of plants’ ROOTS and of soil BIOTA  better PHENOTYPES </li></ul>
  14. 15. Cuban farmer with two plants of same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
  15. 16. Single-seed SRI rice plant Variety: Ciherang Fertile tillers: 223 Sampoerna CSR Program, Malang, E. Java, 2009
  16. 17. Additional benefits of SRI practice: <ul><li>Reduced time to maturity , by 1-2 weeks, less exposure to pests and diseases, and to adverse climate; can replant sooner </li></ul><ul><li>Higher milling outturn – by about 15% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer broken grains, less chaff (unfilled grains) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human resource development for farmers through participatory approach – we want farmers to become better managers of their resources, experimenting, evaluating… </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification and modernization of smallholder agriculture; can adapt SRI to larger- scale production thru mechanization </li></ul>
  17. 18. Requirements/Constraints <ul><li>Water control to apply small amounts of water reliably; may need drainage facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Supply of biomass for making compost – but can use fertilizer if compost is insufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Crop protection may be necessary, although usually more resistance to pests & diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical weeder is desirable as this can aerate the soil at same time it controls weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Skill & motivation of farmers most important; need to learn new practices; once techniques are mastered, SRI can become labor-saving </li></ul><ul><li>Support of experts? have faced opposition </li></ul>
  18. 19. 47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
  19. 20. CHINA: Factorial trials by China National Rice Research Institute, 2004 and 2005 using two super-hybrid varieties -- seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields <ul><li>Standard Rice Mgmt </li></ul><ul><li>30-day seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>20x20 cm spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100% chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Rice Mgmt (SRI) </li></ul><ul><li>20-day seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>30x30 cm spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% chemical, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% organic </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Average super-rice yields (kg/ha) with new rice management (SRI) vs.standard rice management at different plant densities ha -1 NRM plants are different phenotype , responding positively to less seed, less water, less fertilizer  now being wasted
  21. 22. 2009 Report from Aga Khan Foundation : Baghlan Province, Afghanistan 2008: 6 farmers got SRI yields of 10.1 t/ha vs. 5.4 t/ha regular 2009: 42 farmers got SRI yields of 9.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha regular 2 nd year SRI farmers got 13.3 t/ha vs. 5.6 t/ha 1 st year SRI farmers got 8.7 t/ha vs. 5.5 t/ha
  22. 23. AFGHANISTAN : SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
  23. 24. SRI field at 30 days
  24. 25. SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
  25. 26. IRAQ: Comparison trials, Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
  26. 27. BHUTAN: Report on SRI in Deorali Geog , 2009 Sangay Dorji, Jr. Extension Agent, Deorali Georg, Dagana SRI @ 25x25cm 9.5 t/ha SRI random spacing 6.0 t/ha SRI @ 30x30cm 10.0 t/ha Standard practice 3.6 t/ha
  27. 28. MALI: SRI nursery in Timbuktu region – 8-day seedlings ready for transplanting
  28. 29. SRI transplanting in Timbuktu, Mali
  29. 30. MALI: Farmer in Timbuktu region showing difference between regular and SRI rice plants -- First SRI yields 8.98 t/ha (2007)
  30. 31. <ul><li>* adjusted to 14% grain moisture content </li></ul>MALI: Next year results - rice grain yield for SRI, control, and farmer-practice plots Goundam circle, Timbuktu region, 2008   SRI Control Farmer Practice Yield t/ha* 9.1 5.49 4.86 Standard Error (SE) 0.24 0.27 0.18 % Change compared to Control + 66 100 - 11 % Change compared to Farmer Practice + 87 + 13 100 Number of Farmers 53 53 60
  31. 32. Two Paradigms for Agriculture: <ul><li>GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to: </li></ul><ul><li>* Change the genetic potential of plants, and </li></ul><ul><li>* Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and insecticides </li></ul><ul><li>SRI (AGROECOLOGY) instead changes the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* To promote the growth of root systems , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* To increase the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The goal is to produce better PHENOTYPES </li></ul>
  32. 33. MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
  33. 34. CAMBODIA: Rice plant grown from a single seed in Takeo province
  34. 35. NEPAL: Single rice plant grown with SRI methods, Morang district
  35. 36. IRAN: SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in color as well as size
  36. 37. INDONESIA: Rice plants of same age and same variety in Lombok province
  37. 38. Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of on-farm comparative evaluations of SRI by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06 <ul><li>No. of trials: 12,133 </li></ul><ul><li>Total area covered: 9,429.1 hectares </li></ul><ul><li>Ave. increase in yield: 78% (3.3 t/ha) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in water requirements : 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in fertilizer use : 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in costs of production : 20% </li></ul>
  38. 39. SRI LANKA: rice fields after three weeks without water; same rice variety, same irrigation system, same drought -- conventional methods on left; SRI on right
  39. 40. VIETNAM: D ông Trù village, Hanoi province, after typhoon has passed over -- SRI plant/field on left; conventional plant/field on right
  40. 41. Nie Fu-qiu, Bu Tou village, Zhejiang In 2004, SRI gave highest yield in province: 12 t/ha In 2005, his SRI rice fields were hit by three typhoons – yet he was still able to harvest 11.15 tons/ha -- while other farmers’ fields were badly affected by the storm damage In 2008, Nie used chemical fertilizer - and crop lodged
  41. 42. Time to flowering, maturity, and plant lodging percentage as affected by AWDI and ordinary irrigation practice combined with different age of seedlings and spacing in Chiba, 2008 (Chapagain and Yamaji, 2009) Irrigation method Seed-ling age Spacing (cm 2 ) Time to flowering Time to maturity Plant lodging percentage Partial Complete Total Inter-mittent irrigation (AWDI) 14 30x30 75 118 6.67 0 6.67 30x18 74.67 118.67 40.00 6.67 46.67 21 30x30 72.67 117.67 26.67 20 46.67 30x18 74.33 117 13.33 13.33 26.67 Ordinary irrigation (continu-ous flooding) 14 30x30 73.33 122 16.67 33.33 50.00 30x18 72 121 26.67 53.33 80.00 21 30x30 72 120.67 20 76.67 96.67 30x18 72.67 121 13.33 80 93.33
  42. 43. Incidence of Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program: average of data from on-farm trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06: * Insects/m 2 Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ-ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder * 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper * 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7%
  43. 44. Theory of Trophobiosis <ul><li>(F. Chaboussou, Healthy Crops , 2004) deserves more attention and empirical evaluation than it has received to date </li></ul><ul><li>Its propositions are well supported by published literature over last 50 years -- and by long-standing observations about adverse effects of nitrogenous fertilizers and chlorinated pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Theory does not support strictly ‘organic’ approach because nutrient amendments are approved where soil deficits exist </li></ul>
  44. 45. Theory of ‘Trophobiosis’ <ul><li>Explains incidence of pest and disease in terms of plants’ nutrition : </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient imbalances and deficiencies lead to excesses of free amino acids in the plants’ sap and cells, not yet synthesized into proteins – and more simple sugars in sap and cytoplasm not incorporated into polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>This condition attracts and nourishes insects, bacteria, fungi, even viruses </li></ul>
  45. 46. Resistance to cold temperatures: Yield and meteorological data from ANGRAU, A.P., India + Sudden drop in minimum temp. for 5 days (16–21 Dec. = 9.2-9.9 o C ) * Low yield was due to cold injury (see below) Period Mean max. temp. 0 C Mean min. temp. 0 C No. of sunshine hrs 1 – 15 Nov 27.7 19.2 4.9 16–30 Nov 29.6 17.9 7.5 1 – 15 Dec 29.1 14.6 8.6 16–31 Dec 28.1 12.2 + 8.6 Season Normal (t/ha) SRI (t/ha) Kharif 2006 0.21* 4.16 Rabi 2005-06 2.25 3.47
  46. 47. Measured Differences in Grain Quality Conv. Methods SRI Methods Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings) Difference Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on “Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,” Haerbin, 8/2004 Chalky kernels (%) 39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 - 30.7% General chalkiness (%) 6.74 – 7.17 1.02 – 4.04 - 65.7% Milled rice outturn (%) 41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 +16.1% Head milled rice (%) 38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 +17.5%
  47. 48. NEPAL: Crop duration (from seed to seed) of different rice varieties with SRI (6.3 t/ha) vs. conventional methods (3.1 t/ha) - 125 days vs. 141 days (16 days less) Varieties (N = 412) Conventional duration SRI duration Difference Bansdhan/Kanchhi 145 127 (117-144) 18 (28-11) Mansuli 155 136 (126-146) 19 (29- 9) Swarna 155 139 (126-150) 16 (29- 5) Sugandha 120 106 (98-112) 14 (22- 8) Radha 12 155 138 (125-144) 17 (30-11) Barse 3017 135 118 17 Hardinath 1 120 107 (98-112) 13 (22- 8) Barse 2014 135 127 (116-125) 8 (19-10)
  48. 49. Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spaced SRI LANKA: Best use of transplanting methods
  49. 50. SRI LANKA: Soil-aerating hand weeder costs <$10
  50. 51. Effect of Active Soil Aeration <ul><li>412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>SRI yield = 6.3 t/ha vs. control = 3.1 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Data show how WEEDINGS can raise yield </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>No. of No. of Average Range </li></ul><ul><li>weedings farmers yield of yields </li></ul><ul><li>1 32 5.16 (3.6-7.6) </li></ul><ul><li>2 366 5.87 (3.5-11.0) </li></ul><ul><li>3 14 7.87 (5.85-10.4) </li></ul>
  51. 52. Impact of Weedings on Yield with SRI Methods Ambatovaky, Madagascar, 1997-98 Mechanical Weedings Farmers (N) Area (ha) Harvest (kg) Yield (t/ha) None 2 0.11 657 5.973 One 8 0.62 3,741 7.723 Two 27 3.54 26,102 7.373 Three 24 5.21 47,516 9.120 Four 15 5.92 69,693 11.772
  52. 53. Mechanization of weeding, i.e., soil aeration , is also possible
  53. 54. INDIA: Roller-marker devised by L. Reddy, East Godavari, AP, to save time in transplanting operations; yield in 2003-04 rabi season was 16.2 t/ha paddy (dry weight)
  54. 55. SRI seedlings ready for transport to field, for mechanical transplanting in COSTA RICA
  55. 56. Fig 1 Trasplantadora motorizada AP100 Yanmar Mechanical transplanter used in COSTA RICA
  56. 57. COSTA RICA - Mechanically transplanted SRI field 8 t/ha yield
  57. 58. PAKISTAN: Making raised beds for rice-growing with adapted SRI methods on laser-leveled field
  58. 59. Mechanical transplanter for dropping seedlings into holes made by machine, Water is sprayed in hole after 10-day seedling is lput in, adding compost.
  59. 60. Mechanical weeder set for spacing 9x9 inch (22.5x22.5 cm) – can give very good soil aeration
  60. 61. Rice crop at 71 days in Punjab, Pakistan Seedlings planted into dry soil = 70% water reduction Average yield = 13 tons/ha (7 to 22 tons/ha)
  61. 62. Role of Soil Biota <ul><li>Bacteria and fungi perform many services for crop (under aerobic conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient cycling and mobilization </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen fixation </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus solubilization </li></ul><ul><li>Water and nutrient acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Competition with pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Phytohormone production (auxins, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Induced systemic resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Also previously unappreciated benefits </li></ul>
  62. 64. Total bacteria Total diazotrophs Microbial populations in rhizosphere soil in rice crop under different management at active tillering, panicle initiation and flowering (SRI = yellow; conventional = red) [units are √ transformed values of population/gram of dry soil] Phosphobacteria Azotobacter
  63. 65. CFU = colony forming units PSM = Phosphate-solubilizing microbes BF = Bio-organic fertilizer Values with the different letters in a column are significantly different by LSD at the 0.05 level. Treatments : T0 = 20x20 cm spacing, 30 day seedlings, 6 seedlings/hill, 5 cm flooding depth of water, fertilized with inorganic NPK (250 kg urea, 200 kg SP-18, 100 kg KCl ha -1 ); T1, T2, T3 = All 30x30 cm spacing, 6-10 day seedlings, 1 seedling/hill, moist soil or intermittent irrigation, with different fertilization : T1 = same inorganic NPK as T0 ; T2 = 5 t ha -1 of organic fertilizer (compost); T3 = Inorganic NPK as in T0 + 300 kg ha -1 bioorganic fertilizer. Total microbes and numbers of beneficial soil microbes (CFU g -1 ) under conventional and SRI rice cultivation methods, Tanjung Sari, Bogor district, Indonesia, Feb-Aug 2009 (Iswandi et al., 2009) Treatments Total microbes (x10 5 ) Azotobacter (x10 3 ) Azospirillum (x10 3 ) PSM (x10 4 ) Conventional (T0) 2.3a 1.9a 0.9a 3.3a Inorganic SRI (T1) 2.7a 2.2a 1.7ab 4.0a Organic SRI (T2) 3.8b 3.7b 2.8bc 5.9b Inorg. SRI + BF (T3) 4.8c 4..4b 3.3c 6.4b
  64. 66. Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia,from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology Feng Chi et al., Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278 Rhizo-bium test strain Total plant root volume/ pot (cm 3 ) Shoot dry weight/ pot (g) Net photo-synthetic rate (μmol -2 s -1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm 2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/ pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36 A 63 ± 2 A 16.42 ± 1.39 A 3.62 ± 0.17 BC 17.64 ± 4.94 ABC 86 ± 5 A SM-1021 180 ± 26 A 67 ± 5 A 14.99 ± 1.64 B 4.02 ± 0.19 AB 20.03 ± 3.92 A 86 ± 4 A SM-1002 168 ± 8 AB 52 ± 4 BC 13.70 ± 0.73 B 4.15 ± 0.32 A 19.58 ± 4.47 AB 61 ± 4 B R1-2370 175 ± 23 A 61 ± 8 AB 13.85 ± 0.38 B 3.36 ± 0.41 C 18.98 ± 4.49 AB 64 ± 9 B Mh-93 193 ± 16 A 67 ± 4 A 13.86 ± 0.76 B 3.18 ± 0.25 CD 16.79 ± 3.43 BC 77 ± 5 A Control 130 ± 10 B 47 ± 6 C 10.23 ± 1.03 C 2.77 ± 0.69 D 15.24 ± 4.0 C 51 ± 4 C
  65. 67. Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid line) plants. Arrows indicate the times when root hair development started. Ratio of root and shoot growth in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic rice plants (symbiotic plants were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum ) Russell J. Rodriguez et al., ‘Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction,’ Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
  66. 68. Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings. On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant inoculation procedures, see Rodriguez et al., Communicative and Integrative Biology , 2:3 (2009).
  67. 69. Extensions of SRI to Other Crops: Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, India Rajma (kidney beans) Manduwa (millet) Crop No. of Farmers Area (ha) Grain Yield (t/ha) % Incr. 2006 Conv. SRI Rajma 5 0.4 1.4 2.0 43 Manduwa 5 0.4 1.8 2.4 33 Wheat Research Farm 5.0 1.6 2.2 38 2007 Rajma 113 2.26 1.8 3.0 67 Manduwa 43 0.8 1.5 2.4 60 Wheat (Irrig.) 25 0.23 2.2 4.3 95 Wheat (Unirrig.) 25 0.09 1.6 2.6 63
  68. 70. Sugar cane grown with SRI methods (left) in Andhra Pradesh Reported yields of 125-235 t/ha compared with usual 65 t/ha
  69. 71. <ul><li>ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative : at least 20% more cane yield, with: </li></ul><ul><li>30% reduction in water, and </li></ul><ul><li>25% reduction in chemical inputs </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The inspiration for putting </li></ul><ul><li>this package together is </li></ul><ul><li>from the successful </li></ul><ul><li>approach of SRI – System </li></ul><ul><li>of Rice Intensification.’ </li></ul>
  70. 72. HIGH-TILLERING TRAIT IN TEFF WHEN TRANSPLANTED WITH WIDER SPACING Report of Dr. Tareke Berhe, Senior Rice Advisor, Sasakawa Africa Association, Addis Ababa, from experiments applying SRI methods for teff
  71. 73. 1 ST S.T.I. TRIALS, 2008 Duplication of Earlier Findings YIFRU ( 1998 ) M. Sc. THESIS Reported yield of 4-5 tons/ha for non-lodged teff vs. 2-3 t/ha for lodged teff Even higher yields with addition of some macronutients (NPK) and micronutrients (Zn, Cu, S, Mg) – evaluations continuing VARIETY SOWING METHOD PELLETING YIELD (Kg/Ha) Cross 37 Broadcast None 1,014 Broadcast Yes 483 20 cm x 20 cm None 3,390 20 cm x 20 cm Yes 5,109 Cross 387 Broadcast None 1,181 Broadcast Yes 1,036 20 cm x 20 cm None 4,142 20 cm x 20 cm Yes 4,385
  72. 74. <ul><li>SRI is pointing the way toward a paradigm shift?  toward ‘post-modern agriculture’? </li></ul><ul><li>Less genocentric and more fundamentally biocentric </li></ul><ul><li>More interest in epigenetics </li></ul><ul><li>Re-focus biotechnology and bioengineering to utilize the benefits of biodiversity and ecological interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Less chemical-dependent and more energy-efficient </li></ul><ul><li>More oriented to health of humans and the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Intensification of production </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on greater factor productivity and sustainability </li></ul>
  73. 75. THANK YOU <ul><li>Can check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] or [email_address] </li></ul>
  74. 78. How to “speed up the biological clock” (adapted from Nemoto et al. 1995) <ul><li>Shorter phyllochrons Longer phyllochrons </li></ul><ul><li>Higher temperatures > cold temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Wider spacing > crowding of roots/canopy </li></ul><ul><li>More illumination > shading of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Ample nutrients in soil > nutrient deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Soil penetrability > compaction of soil </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient moisture > drought conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient oxygen > hypoxic soil conditions </li></ul>

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