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Thoughts on the History,  Principles and Practices of SRI -- and Its Importance for the Present Scenario   National SRI Sy...
The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a ‘work in progress’ –  not yet finished <ul><li>SRI methods usually enable ri...
What  Intensification  is involved?  <ul><li>Usual meaning is to intensify  EXTERNAL INPUTS  – but these are  reduced  wit...
The System of Rice Intensification is more about PRODUCTIVITY than YIELD <ul><li>It raises simultaneously the productivity...
SRI = Just Five Fundamental Ideas <ul><li>If you transplant, use  young seedlings  --  but  direct seeding  is now being d...
Review of SRI Results, 2003-05: <ul><li>Bangladesh  –  IRRI-funded evaluation (N=1,073) </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia  –  GTZ...
128% 25% 44% 52% 11 studies, 8 countries 412% 24% 40% 84% INDO-NESIA Total Area  = 1,363 ha N = 1,849 The largest study wa...
Eastern Indonesia --- Nippon Koei Irrigation Project 2004
Two Different Paradigms of Production   <ul><li>GREEN REVOLUTION   strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Change the  genetic pot...
Ms. Im Sarim, Cambodia, with rice plant grown from a single seed, using SRI methods and traditional variety -- yield of 6....
Morang District, Nepal - 2005
Mahto Oraon, Malai village, Gumla district, Jharkhand state, India --  Khandagiri (110-day variety) with 65 tillers, grown...
FFS farmer in D ông Trù village, Hanoi Province, Vietnam, 2005
47.9% 34.7% “ Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field” Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Researc...
Linear regression relationship between N uptake and grain yield for SRI and  conventional methods using QUESTS model (Bari...
COST  OF  CULTIVATION  PER  HA. (TNAU STUDY,  N=100) COST SAVING  in SRI system vs. conventional system =  Rs. 2,369 ( 11 ...
Economic Evaluation (US$/ha)  [Tamil Nadu Agric. Univ. study, N=100]   $ 519 $ 242 Net return $ 414 $ 466 - Cost of cultiv...
SRI  gets MORE from LESS  by  mobilizing  biological processes <ul><li>SRI requirements include: </li></ul><ul><li>More la...
Additional Benefits of SRI <ul><li>Resistance to biotic/abiotic stresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought tolerance, resistan...
Madagascar SRI field, traditional variety, 2003 – no lodging
Rice fields in Sri Lanka: same variety, same irrigation system, and  same drought  : conventional methods (left), SRI (rig...
Rice plots in Tamil Nadu, India: normal rice in foreground; SRI plot in center, no lodging
Effect of Weeding  = Soil Aeration <ul><li>412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005 </li><...
Effect of Young Seedling <ul><li>51 SRI farmers in Morang district, Nepal, who planted popular  Bansdhan  variety (usual m...
Farmer Innovation Is Important <ul><li>New and better  implements  – are reducing SRI labor requirements </li></ul><ul><li...
 
 
Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations
Cono-weeder re-designed by H. M. Premaratna, Sri Lanka, locally manufactured for < $10
Four-row weeder developed by Gopal Swaminathan, Cauvery Delta, Tamil Nadu, India; Gopal also devised the Kadiramangalam  v...
Weeder designed by Nong Sovann, Kampong Spreu province, Cambodia; built for $3, getting a $20 increase in value of rice
S. Ariyaratna also developed a system for sowing germinated seed and then thinning with weeder to save transplanting time
Super-simple weeder made by Govinda Dhakal , Indrapura-6, in Morang District, Nepal  this cost him  10 Rs.  to make, and 4...
SRI direct-seeder designed and built by Luis Romero in Cuba; his transplanted rice gave him 14 t/ha; 40x40 cm spacing was ...
Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in his  raised-bed, zero-till  SRI field; measured yield was 13.4 t...
SRI RAGI (FINGER MILLET), Rabi 2004-05 60 days after sowing – Varieties 762 and 708 VR 762 VR 708 10   15   21* *Age at wh...
System of Finger Millet Intensification on left; regular management of improved variety and of traditional variety on righ...
 
 
 
SRI ISSUES <ul><li>LABOR REQUIREMENTS –  how to save labor? </li></ul><ul><li>WATER REQUIREMENTS –  reduce still more? </l...
THANK YOU <ul><li>Web page:  http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email:  [email_address]   or  [email_address...
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0610 Thoughts on the History, Principals and Practices of the System of Rice Intensification and its Importance for the Present Scenario

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Presenter: Norman Uphoff

Audience: 1st National SRI Symposium Hyderabad

Subject Country: Tripura, India

Published in: Education, Technology
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0610 Thoughts on the History, Principals and Practices of the System of Rice Intensification and its Importance for the Present Scenario

  1. 1. Thoughts on the History, Principles and Practices of SRI -- and Its Importance for the Present Scenario National SRI Symposium, Hyderabad, November 17, 2006 Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD Cornell University, USA
  2. 2. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a ‘work in progress’ – not yet finished <ul><li>SRI methods usually enable rice farmers to: </li></ul><ul><li>Raise their production by 50% or more </li></ul><ul><li>While reducing their requirements for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed -- by 80 to 90% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation water -- by 25 to 50% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependence on agrochemicals , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs of production -- by 10 to 25% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This contributes to higher net income/ha , with favorable environmental impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Results depend on skill and SOIL BIOLOGY! </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Intensification is involved? <ul><li>Usual meaning is to intensify EXTERNAL INPUTS – but these are reduced with SRI </li></ul><ul><li>SRI involves the intensification of MANAGEMENT, SKILL, KNOWLEDGE </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, SRI requires some intensification of LABOR – but within a season or two, SRI even becomes labor-saving – along with saving of water, seed and capital </li></ul>
  4. 4. The System of Rice Intensification is more about PRODUCTIVITY than YIELD <ul><li>It raises simultaneously the productivity of: </li></ul><ul><li>Land – more output per unit of land </li></ul><ul><li>Labor – more output per day of work </li></ul><ul><li>Water – ‘more crop per drop’ -- and </li></ul><ul><li>Capital – higher returns from investment </li></ul><ul><li>This is quite unprecedented </li></ul><ul><li>While YIELD is important, not most relevant concern for farmers or for society </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCTIVITY is key to reducing poverty and to achieving rural development </li></ul>
  5. 5. SRI = Just Five Fundamental Ideas <ul><li>If you transplant, use young seedlings -- but direct seeding is now being developed as alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Use wider spacing – single seeding per hill </li></ul><ul><li>Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded </li></ul><ul><li>Add organic matter to soil as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Actively aerate the soil -- as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>These ideas transform our current rice practices </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend also other beneficial practices, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seedbed solarization – for healthier seedlings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed selection/priming -- better germination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine best variety for local conditions </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Review of SRI Results, 2003-05: <ul><li>Bangladesh – IRRI-funded evaluation (N=1,073) </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia – GTZ evaluation (N=500); CEDAC evaluation of long-term SRI users (N=120) </li></ul><ul><li>China – China Agricultural University (N=82) </li></ul><ul><li>India – ANGRAU (N=1,525), TNAU (N=100), IWMI-India (N=110) </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia – Nippon Koei evaluation (N=1,849) </li></ul><ul><li>Nepal – DADO Morang record-keeping (N=412) </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka – IWMI evaluation (N=120) </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam – farmer field school reporting (N=60) </li></ul>
  7. 7. 128% 25% 44% 52% 11 studies, 8 countries 412% 24% 40% 84% INDO-NESIA Total Area = 1,363 ha N = 1,849 The largest study was in Increase in Net Income Cost Reduction Water-Saving Yield Increase AVER-AGE
  8. 8. Eastern Indonesia --- Nippon Koei Irrigation Project 2004
  9. 9. Two Different Paradigms of Production <ul><li>GREEN REVOLUTION strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Change the genetic potential of plants, and </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, fertilizer, insecticides, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>SRI (AGROECOLOGY) changes the way that plants, soil, water and nutrients are managed to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) Promote the growth of root systems and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) Increase the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These produce bigger/better PHENOTYPES </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ms. Im Sarim, Cambodia, with rice plant grown from a single seed, using SRI methods and traditional variety -- yield of 6.72 t/ha
  11. 11. Morang District, Nepal - 2005
  12. 12. Mahto Oraon, Malai village, Gumla district, Jharkhand state, India -- Khandagiri (110-day variety) with 65 tillers, grown as ‘rainfed’ SRI rice
  13. 13. FFS farmer in D ông Trù village, Hanoi Province, Vietnam, 2005
  14. 14. 47.9% 34.7% “ Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field” Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
  15. 15. Linear regression relationship between N uptake and grain yield for SRI and conventional methods using QUESTS model (Barison, 2002)
  16. 16. COST OF CULTIVATION PER HA. (TNAU STUDY, N=100) COST SAVING in SRI system vs. conventional system = Rs. 2,369 ( 11 % ) 19,060 21,429 167.5 222.5 85.5 52 2 2 8.5 9.5 Total 3,500 3,500 75 75 12.5 12.5 - - 1 1 Harvesting 660 660 2 2 2 2 - - - - Plant Protection 240 300 - - 6 7.5 - - - - Irrigation 1,520 3,200 - 80 38 - - - - - Weeding 3,200 2,400 75 55 5 5 - - - - Transplanting 7,254 7,254 10 10 7 7 - - - - Manures & Fertilizers 2,005 2,005 - - 12 12 2 2 7.5 7.5 Main Field Preparation 681 2,110 5.5 0.5 3 6 - - - 1 Nursery Preparation SRI Conv. SRI Conv. SRI Conv SRI Con SRI Conv. Cost (Rs.) Women’s Labour @ Rs. 40 / man-day Men’s Labour @ Rs. 40 / man-day Bullock pair @ Rs. 200 / hr Tractor hours @ Rs. 150 / hr Practices
  17. 17. Economic Evaluation (US$/ha) [Tamil Nadu Agric. Univ. study, N=100] $ 519 $ 242 Net return $ 414 $ 466 - Cost of cultivation $ 933 $ 708 Gross return $ 63 $ 49 Income from straw (Rs. 0.25 / kg) $ 870 $ 659 Income from grain (Rs. 5.00 / kg) SRI practices Conventional practices
  18. 18. SRI gets MORE from LESS by mobilizing biological processes <ul><li>SRI requirements include: </li></ul><ul><li>More labor while learning the method, but SRI can become labor-saving </li></ul><ul><li>Water control needed for best results </li></ul><ul><li>Access to biomass for compost to get best results -- can use fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Skill and motivation from farmers! </li></ul><ul><li>Crop protection in some cases </li></ul>
  19. 19. Additional Benefits of SRI <ul><li>Resistance to biotic/abiotic stresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought tolerance, resistance to lodging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance to pests and diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher milling outturn from SRI paddy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less unfilled grains, less shattering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 15% more milled rice per bushel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HYVs and hybrids give highest yield, but local varieties respond very well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With yields in Sri Lanka of 6-12 t/ha </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Madagascar SRI field, traditional variety, 2003 – no lodging
  21. 21. Rice fields in Sri Lanka: same variety, same irrigation system, and same drought : conventional methods (left), SRI (right)
  22. 22. Rice plots in Tamil Nadu, India: normal rice in foreground; SRI plot in center, no lodging
  23. 23. Effect of Weeding = Soil Aeration <ul><li>412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Ave. SRI yield = 6.3 t/ha, vs. control = 3.1 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Data showed how WEEDINGS can raise yield </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>No. of No. of Average Range </li></ul><ul><li>weedings farmers yield of yields </li></ul><ul><li>1 32 5.16 (3.6-7.6) </li></ul><ul><li>2 366 5.87 (3.5-11.0) </li></ul><ul><li>3 14 7.87 (5.85-10.4) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Effect of Young Seedling <ul><li>51 SRI farmers in Morang district, Nepal, who planted popular Bansdhan variety (usual maturity @ 145 days), monsoon season, 2005 – with doubled yield </li></ul><ul><li>Age of N of Days to Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>seedling farmers harvest (in days) </li></ul><ul><li>> 14 d 9 138.5 6.5 </li></ul><ul><li>10 - 14 d 37 130.6 14.4 </li></ul><ul><li>8 - 9 d 5 123.6 21.4 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Farmer Innovation Is Important <ul><li>New and better implements – are reducing SRI labor requirements </li></ul><ul><li>New and better methods of crop establishment -- also saving labor </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of SRI concepts and practices to other crops </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer-to-farmer dissemination – significant for the spread of SRI </li></ul>
  26. 28. Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations
  27. 29. Cono-weeder re-designed by H. M. Premaratna, Sri Lanka, locally manufactured for < $10
  28. 30. Four-row weeder developed by Gopal Swaminathan, Cauvery Delta, Tamil Nadu, India; Gopal also devised the Kadiramangalam version for high-temperature conditions
  29. 31. Weeder designed by Nong Sovann, Kampong Spreu province, Cambodia; built for $3, getting a $20 increase in value of rice
  30. 32. S. Ariyaratna also developed a system for sowing germinated seed and then thinning with weeder to save transplanting time
  31. 33. Super-simple weeder made by Govinda Dhakal , Indrapura-6, in Morang District, Nepal this cost him 10 Rs. to make, and 4 person can weed 1 acre. vs. 10-12 persons weeding the field by hand = 60% reduction
  32. 34. SRI direct-seeder designed and built by Luis Romero in Cuba; his transplanted rice gave him 14 t/ha; 40x40 cm spacing was too wide; his neighbor built 12-row seeder to be ox-drawn
  33. 35. Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in his raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield was 13.4 t/ha; in 2001, his SRI yield of 16 t/ha set yield record for Sichuan
  34. 36. SRI RAGI (FINGER MILLET), Rabi 2004-05 60 days after sowing – Varieties 762 and 708 VR 762 VR 708 10 15 21* *Age at which seedlings were transplanted from nursery Results of trials being being done by ANGRAU
  35. 37. System of Finger Millet Intensification on left; regular management of improved variety and of traditional variety on right, picture courtesy of PRADAN, Jharkand
  36. 41. SRI ISSUES <ul><li>LABOR REQUIREMENTS – how to save labor? </li></ul><ul><li>WATER REQUIREMENTS – reduce still more? </li></ul><ul><li>WEED CONTROL – can be made more manageable </li></ul><ul><li>MOST APPROPRIATE VARIETIES -- evaluate </li></ul><ul><li>SOIL FERTILITY ENHANCEMENT – this is key </li></ul><ul><li>INTENSIFICATION -> DIVERSIFICATION?? </li></ul><ul><li>BIOLOGICALLY-BASED APPROACHES -> POST-MODERN AGRICULTURE? </li></ul><ul><li>SRI IS NOT FINISHED -- STILL DEVELOPING </li></ul>
  37. 42. THANK YOU <ul><li>Web page: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] or [email_address] or </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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