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Cultivated genetic diversity and farmers’ knowledge – keys to cassava breeding

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  • 1. Cultivated genetic diversity and farmers’ knowledge – keys to cassava breeding 1Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Linnean Center for Plant Biology, Uppsala, Sweden 2Plant Resources Center, Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hanoi, Vietnam Anna Westerbergh1, Hoang Thi Nga2, Per-Olof Lundquist1, Vu Linh Chi2
  • 2. Cassava diversity and farmers’ knowledge Pre-breeding Identification of genotypes/plants with desirable traits and genes controlling these traits in wild crop relatives and local farmers’ varieties
  • 3. Cyanogenic glycosides Bitter Sweet Cassava diversity and farmers’ knowledgeCyanogenic glycosides Bitter Sweet wild cassava
  • 4. Pre-breeding Breeding Dissemination to farmers Adoption by farmer - production Licensing and release of improved varietiey Time Identification of plants with desirable traits and genes controlling these traits I. Crossing of selected plants ll. Selection of progenies with desirable traits combining trait evaluation and genetic markers From ”wild” plant to a cultivated crop ? Consumption, marketing
  • 5. Cassava diversity and farmers’ knowledge • But will these new improved cultivars be adopted by the farmers? • Are there other characteristics/traits and varieties important for the farmers?
  • 6. Cassava diversity and farmers’ knowledge Interdiciplinary approach Farmer interviews Field observations • name of cultivated varieties • origin • morphological description • primary use • desirable traits • cultivation practices Molecular markers – genetic bar code – genetic diversity
  • 7. Cassava diversity and farmers’ knowledge ..... for comparative studies Sắn xanh local variety Sắn cao sản improved Sắn lá tre improved Sắn trắng improved Less genetic diversity within fields Varieties in separate plots Majority of improved varieties Description – leaf, stem, root morphology & taste Local – sweet Improved – bitter Constraints – climate, NOT diseases Compared to findings in Uganda, the cassava in Vietnam had:
  • 8. Cassava diversity and farmers’ knowledge Utilization and processing of bitter and sweet varieties
  • 9. Cassava diversity and farmers’ knowledge Colonization and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhiza in cassava roots Glomeromycetes
  • 10. Farmer-researcher collaboration in pre-breeding and cassava improvement
  • 11. Thanks to Colleagues at Plant Resource Center and Vietnam Academy of Forest Sciences Forest Hanoi,Vietnam Med Biotech Laboratories , Kampala, Uganda International Center of Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia SLU Funders UD (Swedish Ministry of Forein Affairs) Formas (Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning) Sida (Swedish Agency for Development Cooperation) ......and You for listening