Review of Insect Problems in
Field Crops in 2013

Janet Knodel, Venkata Chapara
and Patrick Beauzay
Extension Entomology
F...
Forages – Alfalfa Weevil
Increasing numbers in ND,
especially SW, SC and NC!
Field Damaged by Alfalfa Weevil
Reduces crop yield, crop quality, protein
content, and digestibility
Primarily on 1st cutt...
Alfalfa Weevil
Sampling – Stem Counts
• Bucket 30-stem method

• Select 30 stems from 5 sites
• Beat stems into bucket
• D...
Alfalfa Weevil IPM in ND
• Early harvest!
• Do not apply insecticide unless
weevils are at ECONOMIC
THRESHOLD levels
– Bef...
Red Sunflower
Seed Weevil
Adult
•
•

•

Larva

Drop into soil to overwinter

Increasing pressures in SC, SW and NC ND
Stud...
European
Corn Borer
Increasing problem in
NC Region of ND
where non-Bt corn is
Newly laid egg mass
grown

Female moth

Egg...
European
Corn Borer

Tunneling ECB larva

Entry hole in stalk

ECB pupa in stalk
Corn Borer Damage . . .

• Shot-hole damage to whorl
• Broken stalks
• Dropped ears
Greatest Yield Impact: physiological
l...
Corn Rootworms in Corn
Western Corn Rootworm
Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte

Northern Corn Rootworm
Diabrotica bar...
Corn Rootworm - Damage

⅛-½ inch long

Goose-necked Corn
Corn Rootworm Damage
This photograph was taken near Arthur, ND in 2013!

Photo courtesy by Dr. Joel Ransom, NDSU Extension...
Western Corn Rootworm
Diabrotica virgifera virgifera
• Gassmann et al. 2011 Field-Evolved Resistance
to Bt Maize by Wester...
North Dakota in 2012-2013
• Increasing numbers of adult
WCRWs in SE ND
• Concerned about CRW resistance
to Bt corn (not be...
‘High’ Risk Corn Fields for
CRW Resistance
• Continuous corn for more
than 3 years
• Same Bt trait (e.g., Cry3Bb1)
for mor...
CRW Trap Survey in ND
• Monitoring for adult CRWs
• Determine species and
abundance
• Pherocon AM (yellow trap)
• Scentry ...
Soybean Aphid
• „Hot‟ spots in 2013, mainly eastern ND
• ND Soybean Council Study to determine „best‟
pest management stra...
• 2013 Wheat
Midge Risk
forecast was for
low populations
in 2013 due in
part to drought
of 2012
• 2013 soil
samples are
be...
New Insect Pest Detections in 2013
• Spotted wing Drosophila (see next slide)
• Japanese Beetle
– Not detected in pheromon...
Spotted-wing Drosophila
(fruit fly)
• First detection in CA in 2008
• Attacks healthy fruits
– Raspberries
– Strawberries
...
Protect our Pollinators!
New EPA Bee Advisory Box on
pesticide labels to help
protect pollinators
„New‟ Extension Publications
• E1676 IPM of Alfalfa Weevil in ND
• E1640 Dry Bean Grower Survey of
Production, Pest Proble...
Upcoming Extension
Entomology Publications
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Spotted wing Drosophila
European Corn Borer (revised)
Corn Roo...
NDSU Crop & Pest Report
• Free to subscribers with email but MUST SIGN-UP ON WEBSITE!!!
(Do not need to re-sign up if you ...
Thank you!
2013 insect update fall ext conf jan compressed
2013 insect update fall ext conf jan compressed
2013 insect update fall ext conf jan compressed
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Update on field crop insect pest problems in North Dakota in 2013.

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2013 insect update fall ext conf jan compressed

  1. 1. Review of Insect Problems in Field Crops in 2013 Janet Knodel, Venkata Chapara and Patrick Beauzay Extension Entomology Fall Extension Conference October 22-25, 2013
  2. 2. Forages – Alfalfa Weevil Increasing numbers in ND, especially SW, SC and NC!
  3. 3. Field Damaged by Alfalfa Weevil Reduces crop yield, crop quality, protein content, and digestibility Primarily on 1st cutting Occasionally re-growth of 2nd cutting Frosted Appearance
  4. 4. Alfalfa Weevil Sampling – Stem Counts • Bucket 30-stem method • Select 30 stems from 5 sites • Beat stems into bucket • Determine average # of larvae/stem (see next 2 slides) • Determine average height of alfalfa Nominal Threshold (not as accurate) IF, 30-40% damaged stems
  5. 5. Alfalfa Weevil IPM in ND • Early harvest! • Do not apply insecticide unless weevils are at ECONOMIC THRESHOLD levels – Before 1st Cutting • Calculated ET for larvae/stem from 30-stem bucket method (or nominal threshold = 30-40% of stems damaged) – After 1st cutting, 50% of crowns have weevil feeding or 8 or more larvae/ft2 (6/ft2 on sandy soil); and larvae are suppressing regrowth • E1676 „IPM of Alfalfa Weevil in ND‟
  6. 6. Red Sunflower Seed Weevil Adult • • • Larva Drop into soil to overwinter Increasing pressures in SC, SW and NC ND Studies with Prevathon (new sunflower insecticide) from Dupont for control of RSSW • Rynaxypyr® new mode of action • Ryanodine receptor activator (IRAC Group 28) • Active against a broad range of chewing insects 2013 data being tabulated for NSA Forum in Jan. 2014
  7. 7. European Corn Borer Increasing problem in NC Region of ND where non-Bt corn is Newly laid egg mass grown Female moth Egg mass at “black-head “ stage
  8. 8. European Corn Borer Tunneling ECB larva Entry hole in stalk ECB pupa in stalk
  9. 9. Corn Borer Damage . . . • Shot-hole damage to whorl • Broken stalks • Dropped ears Greatest Yield Impact: physiological loss from tunneling damage that stops flow of sap, water, nutrients through stalks (> all the above combined).
  10. 10. Corn Rootworms in Corn Western Corn Rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte Northern Corn Rootworm Diabrotica barberi Smith
  11. 11. Corn Rootworm - Damage ⅛-½ inch long Goose-necked Corn
  12. 12. Corn Rootworm Damage This photograph was taken near Arthur, ND in 2013! Photo courtesy by Dr. Joel Ransom, NDSU Extension Cereals
  13. 13. Western Corn Rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera • Gassmann et al. 2011 Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Maize by Western Corn Rootworm PloS ONE 6(7): e22629 – Cry3Bb1 protein – Iowa – 2012 - Illinois, Minnesota, Nebraska – Continuous corn > 3 years – Relied on a single Bt trait for control CRW – Increased lodging and root feeding on Bt hybrids with CRW-resistant trait
  14. 14. North Dakota in 2012-2013 • Increasing numbers of adult WCRWs in SE ND • Concerned about CRW resistance to Bt corn (not been documented in ND yet) • Study funded by ND Corn Council to examine Bt-traits and efficacy against CRWs in ND – In collaboration with Dr. Ransom and Dr. Boetel
  15. 15. ‘High’ Risk Corn Fields for CRW Resistance • Continuous corn for more than 3 years • Same Bt trait (e.g., Cry3Bb1) for more than 3 years • Lots of volunteer corn in soybean fields (good food source for resistant CRW)
  16. 16. CRW Trap Survey in ND • Monitoring for adult CRWs • Determine species and abundance • Pherocon AM (yellow trap) • Scentry Multigard (green trap) • Mid-August to September • Results being tabulated
  17. 17. Soybean Aphid • „Hot‟ spots in 2013, mainly eastern ND • ND Soybean Council Study to determine „best‟ pest management strategies: – Seed treatments (insecticides and fungicides) – Different modes of action (OP, pyrethroid and neonicotinoid) for foliar insecticide application – Different timings (R1, ET of 250 aphids/plant, 100 aphids/plant) – Rag1 aphid-resistant variety • Results will be presented at “2014 Getting It Right Soybean Production Meetings” at Velva, Mohall and Wishek.
  18. 18. • 2013 Wheat Midge Risk forecast was for low populations in 2013 due in part to drought of 2012 • 2013 soil samples are being collected for laboratory counting of cocoons
  19. 19. New Insect Pest Detections in 2013 • Spotted wing Drosophila (see next slide) • Japanese Beetle – Not detected in pheromone traps (not overwintering) – Re-introduced again in 2013 from trucks from MN nursery with JB-infested nursery stock – Stark, Burleigh, Ward, Grand Forks and Cass • Cereal Leaf Beetle – Confirmed in 3 new counties • Ward County at NCREC in Minot, Burke County near Flaxton, and Renville County near Mohall – Export concern of cereal hay to Canada and CA
  20. 20. Spotted-wing Drosophila (fruit fly) • First detection in CA in 2008 • Attacks healthy fruits – Raspberries – Strawberries – Other soft & hard fruits • Confirmed in ND in 2013 – 13 counties so far – Burke, Burleigh, Cass, Cavalier, Grand Forks, Foster, Stark, Logan, McLean, Mercer, Morton, Pembina, Stark
  21. 21. Protect our Pollinators! New EPA Bee Advisory Box on pesticide labels to help protect pollinators
  22. 22. „New‟ Extension Publications • E1676 IPM of Alfalfa Weevil in ND • E1640 Dry Bean Grower Survey of Production, Pest Problems and Pesticide Use in MN and ND • E1143 ND Field Crop Insect Management Guide • PP1635 Dutch Elm Disease in ND: A New Look • A1636 Growing Lentils in ND • E1634 Emerald Ash Borer Biology and IPM in ND • E1631 IPM of Japanese Beetle in ND
  23. 23. Upcoming Extension Entomology Publications • • • • • • • • Spotted wing Drosophila European Corn Borer (revised) Corn Rootworms Spider mites in Soybean, Dry Bean and Field Corn Cereal Leaf Beetle (revised) Honey bee & pesticide safety (revised) Grasshoppers (revised) Wireworms (revised)
  24. 24. NDSU Crop & Pest Report • Free to subscribers with email but MUST SIGN-UP ON WEBSITE!!! (Do not need to re-sign up if you subscribed in 2013) • Remember to sign-up and encourage others! – http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/cpr/
  25. 25. Thank you!

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