Cocoa Breeding in Ghana - September 2012

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Presentation by George Ameyaw, Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana
Delivered at the B4FA Media Dialogue Workshop, Accra, Ghana - September 2012
www.b4fa.org

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Cocoa Breeding in Ghana - September 2012

  1. 1. BREEDING FOR TOLERANT VARIETIES FOR COCOA SWOLLEN SHOOT VIRUS DISEASE (CSSVD) IN GHANA George Ameyaw and Abu Dadzie CRIG, New Tafo, Akim, E/R
  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE • Cocoa production in Ghana • Important diseases of the cocoa plant • Breeding for CSSVD tolerant/resistant varieties • Methods for breeding and selection for tolerance • Supply of CSSVD tolerant varieties to farmers
  3. 3. Cocoa growing regions in the world
  4. 4. Cocoa production in Ghana • Ghana is the 2nd largest producer of cocoa beans after Ivory Coast • Western region of Ghana produces 55% of total cocoa beans from Ghana • Cocoa is a major foreign exchange earner for the country
  5. 5. RESEARCH ON COCOA • CRIG is structured into scientific divisions/units and supporting divisions/units to facilitate research on various aspects of cocoa and other mandate crops Scientific Division Scientific Unit Supporting Division/Unit Agronomy Soil Science Plant Breeding Plant Pathology Entomology Physiology/Biochemis try Social Science and Statistical Unit New Products Development Unit Plantation Management Administration General Services Accounts Audit Scientific Information 6
  6. 6. Important cocoa diseases in Ghana • Black pod disease and Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease (CSSVD) are the most economically important diseases of cocoa in Ghana.
  7. 7. INTEGRATEDCONTROL CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL RESISTANT VARIETIES CULTURAL Black pod Phytophthoramegakarya Black pod Phytophthorapalmivora Warty pod Charcoal pod rot Mealy pod Stem canker Root rot Pink disease Cushion gall MistletoeWhite thread blight disease ’Advanced stage’ Phytophthoraleaf blight Seedling leaf blight White thread blight disease ’Early stage’ Pictures courtesy A.Y. Akrofi, Plant Pathology Div., CRIG, Akim Tafo FUNGAL DISEASES OF COCOA 8
  8. 8. Sympt oms of cocoa swol l en shoot disea se BARRIER CROPPING RESISTANT VARIETIES CUTTING OUT REMOVALOF ALTERNATIVE HOST PLANTS INTEGRATEDCONTROL VEINCLEARINGIN MATUREDLEAVES REDVEIN-BANDINGIN YOUNG LEAVES SWELLINGSON CHUPONS ROUNDEDPOD ROOT SWELLING DIE-BACKAND DEATH OF CSSV INFECTEDTREES MEALY BUGS-VECTORSOF CSSV V I R U L O G Y S E C T I O N 9
  9. 9. CSSVD in Ghana • CSSVD was reported in Ghana in 1936 •The disease is spread by mealybugs (Homoptera) insects as a vector • More than 250 million cocoa trees have died as a result of CSSV infection in Ghana (Approximately annual loss of about 50 million metric tonnes of raw cocoa beans)
  10. 10. CSSVD control in Ghana • CSSVD is mainly managed through “cutting out” of infected trees from affected areas (The oldest and most used strategy) • Other interventions include: Use of resistant/tolerant varieties Barrier cropping Eradication of wild host Mealybug control (Biological means of managing the vectors) Mild strain cross protection
  11. 11. Use of resistant varieties to control CSSVD Local materials (Amelonado) were susceptible to the CSSVD Hence, breeding for CSSVD resistance became the focus of research activities of the British Research Team (BRT) between 1969 and 1978 Some CSSVD tolerant hybrids (crosses between two parents) were released to farmers in 1987 to control CSSVD
  12. 12. Use of resistant varieties Nonetheless, tolerance levels of the released materials decreased over time. Hence the search for new cocoa genotypes with high level of tolerance/resistance to the disease. screening of new cocoa genotypes using conventional breeding methods and molecular methods. It is considered that resistant/tolerant cocoa varieties hold the key to CSSVD management
  13. 13. Screening of new cocoa genotypes Methods for screening of new genotypes includes: Natural selection of cocoa trees which are not showing symptoms in endemic areas. Using them as parents to generate best performing offspring's (tolerant to the disease). The hybrids are evaluated both in the Lab and on the field Best performing genotypes are selected and multiplied for farmers through the Seed Production Unit (SPU) of Ghana Cocoa Board.
  14. 14. Current Breeding activities Effect of CSSVD mild strains on growth and yield of cocoa • Determination and selection of cocoa progenies which show tolerance and also perform better when inoculated with mild strains of the virus Assessment of the protective capability of mild CSSVD strain against severe strains • Determining the natural spread of CSSVD in different cocoa progenies. Evaluation of some international clones for CSSVD resistance. (materials from cocoa growing countries in the world)
  15. 15. Current Achievement Through these breeding techniques: Current cocoa seedling supply to farmers from SPU have some level of tolerance to the CSSVD disease New candidates for CSSVD resistance have been identified These types of cocoa yield more and can live longer in the mist of occurrence of the disease
  16. 16. Breeding on other aspects of cocoa Breeding on other aspects of cocoa e.g. Drought tolerance Pest resistance Disease resistance High yield Best flavour Etc Etc are among some of the on going activities at CRIG for more improved cocoa varieties for farmers
  17. 17. THANK YOU 20

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