Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Impact of Emerging Transboundary Diseases Using
African Swine Fever...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Impact of emerging transboundary
diseases
Using African Swine Fever...
• Virological disease
• Cause symptoms in
domestic pigs
• High mortality
• No vaccines
• No treatments
• Emerging trans-bo...
Transmisson and spread
• Three mechanisms of transmission
– Sylvatic cycle: warthogs – soft shelled ticks
– Domestic cycle...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Virus host
Symptoms
Peracute – acute infection
• Incubation 5-15 days
• High fever
• Inappetens
• Discoloration of the skin
• Very hi...
• Mainly in enzootic areas (areas where
the disease is present)
• Fluctuating fever
• Red discoloration of the skin
• Depr...
Pig production in Uganda
• Exotic pigs were introduced in Uganda in
the 1950s and 1960s
• Today the pig population stands ...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
ASF in Uganda
APAC
OYAM
AMURU
GULU
PADER
AMURIA
KATAKWI
SOROTI
KIBA...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Project objective
• To provide an in-depth assessment of the
impact...
1. A longitudinal survey of ASF in
domestic pigs in two districts
• This is the key activity in the project.
• Serological...
Distribution of samples
Diagnostic laboratory work, ongoing
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
A 0,417 2,703 2,654 2,324 2,343 2,384 2,395 2,207 2,373
B 0,356 2,59...
2. A study on the role of wild pigs in the
epidemiology of ASF
• Collect and analyse of samples
• Use tracking devices to ...
Tracking of bush pigs
Tracking of bush pigs
3. A study on virus diversity in the
different hosts
• Domestic pigs
• Buh pigs and wart hogs
• Ticks
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Additional components planned in the
project
1. A study on ASF base...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
Conclusion
• ASF is an example of a TAD of
growing importance for f...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
This project is funded by SLU
– In their strategy to increase colla...
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
www.slu.se
SLU researchers involved
Dept. of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinar...
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!!!
Rural pigs, without and with ASF, in
central Uganda October 2010
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Impact of Emerging Transboundary Diseases, using African Swine Fever in Uganda as a specific Case

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This study was presented during the conference “Production and Carbon Dynamics in Sustainable Agricultural and Forest Systems in Africa” held in September, 2010.

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Impact of Emerging Transboundary Diseases, using African Swine Fever in Uganda as a specific Case

  1. 1. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Impact of Emerging Transboundary Diseases Using African Swine Fever in Uganda as a specific case Sofia Boqvist, DVM, Ass Prof., Karl Ståhl, DVM Dept of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, SLU ABSTRACT: Pig farming is one of the fastest growing livestock activities in the rural areas of Uganda and has become very attractive throughout the country as a means of increasing food, income and employment. In addition to the increased local demand, exported pork generates additional incomes for the farmer and the country. However, infectious diseases such as African Swine Fever (ASF) represent serious potential constraints to the further development of the pig industry. There are also concerns regarding the negative effects of livestock production on the global climate, and efficiency of production has been identified as a key issue. Infectious disease is a major limiting factor for livestock production with severe negative economic consequences both at micro (smallholder producers) and macro (regional and international) economic levels. ASF is an economically important and frequently lethal viral disease of domestic pigs. The virus is maintained either through a sylvatic cycle involving warthogs and soft ticks or in a domestic cycle that involves pigs of local breeds, with or without tick involvement. Since there is no currently available control measure other than diagnosis and slaughter, the disease poses a serious constraint to the development of both smallholder and industrial pig industries in Africa. ASF is also perceived as an important disease based on stakeholder perceptions. The magnitude of the threat now needs to be better defined through systematic collection of baseline data that will provide a framework for a more rigorous assessment of the impact of the disease. This two-year project is performed in collaboration with several partners in Kenya, Uganda and at SLU. The aim is to provide an in-depth assessment of the impact of ASF in constraining the development of the smallholder pig industry in Uganda at defined benchmark sites. The approach will involve a combination of participatory epidemiology and molecular characterisation of viral diversity. DISCUSSION AFTER PRESENTATION: Questions concerned the disease transmission pathways, the possibility of transmission to humans (it cannot be transmitted to any animals other than domestic pigs) and whether there are any support systems for affected farmers (there are no such systems and neither do effective survey systems exist, which means that the authorities are often unaware of outbreaks).
  2. 2. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Impact of emerging transboundary diseases Using African Swine Fever in Uganda as a specific case Sofia Boqvist, DVM, Ass Prof Karl Ståhl, DVM Dept of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, SLU
  3. 3. • Virological disease • Cause symptoms in domestic pigs • High mortality • No vaccines • No treatments • Emerging trans-boundary diseases African Swine Fever (ASF)
  4. 4. Transmisson and spread • Three mechanisms of transmission – Sylvatic cycle: warthogs – soft shelled ticks – Domestic cycle: domestic pigs – domestic pigs – Domestic pigs –ticks - domestic pigs • Wild African pig species and soft shelled ticks are the natural hosts of the virus
  5. 5. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Virus host
  6. 6. Symptoms Peracute – acute infection • Incubation 5-15 days • High fever • Inappetens • Discoloration of the skin • Very high mortality
  7. 7. • Mainly in enzootic areas (areas where the disease is present) • Fluctuating fever • Red discoloration of the skin • Depression and loss of appetite • Secondary infections • Mortality mainly among young individuals Symptoms Subacute – chronic infection
  8. 8. Pig production in Uganda • Exotic pigs were introduced in Uganda in the 1950s and 1960s • Today the pig population stands at about 3.2 million pigs – in Africa second only to Nigeria • Demand for pork products steadily increasing • Production dominated by rural free-range small holder systems
  9. 9. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se ASF in Uganda APAC OYAM AMURU GULU PADER AMURIA KATAKWI SOROTI KIBAALE KASESE KANUNGU RAKAI KABULA MUKONO W AKISO KAMPALA MUBENDE KIBOGA NAKASEKE NAKASO NG O LA KAMULI TORORO SIRONKO LUWEERO IG ANG A JIN JA PALLISA BUTALEJA MPIGI MITYANA KALIRO 100 0 100 200 Kilometers Districts ASF distribution N District distribution of African Swine Fever 2004 Key
  10. 10. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Project objective • To provide an in-depth assessment of the impact of African swine fever (ASF) in constraining the development of the smallholder pig industry in Uganda at defined benchmark sites. • The approach will involve a combination of: – participatory epidemiology, including farmer interviews – in-depth field sampling – molecular characterization of viral diversity.
  11. 11. 1. A longitudinal survey of ASF in domestic pigs in two districts • This is the key activity in the project. • Serological study – This activity will be repeated twice during the duration of the project • Questionnaire study – with the participating farmers/stakeholders
  12. 12. Distribution of samples
  13. 13. Diagnostic laboratory work, ongoing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A 0,417 2,703 2,654 2,324 2,343 2,384 2,395 2,207 2,373 B 0,356 2,592 2,13 0,149 2,168 2,163 2,144 2,231 2,224 C 2,176 2,191 2,1 2,009 2,091 2,107 2,091 2,167 2,834 D 2,246 1,969 2,186 2,175 2,19 2,143 2,193 2,131 2,772 E 2,104 1,831 2,161 2,051 2,265 2,06 2,159 2,268 2,839 F 2,234 2,246 1,991 2,165 2,463 2,129 2,176 2,239 2,861 G 2,113 2,189 2,235 2,101 1,953 2,123 2,214 2,182 2,837 H 2,475 2,314 2,19 2,29 2,273 2,265 2,223 2,077 2,935 KYA7:3
  14. 14. 2. A study on the role of wild pigs in the epidemiology of ASF • Collect and analyse of samples • Use tracking devices to study the interaction between wild and domestic pigs
  15. 15. Tracking of bush pigs
  16. 16. Tracking of bush pigs
  17. 17. 3. A study on virus diversity in the different hosts • Domestic pigs • Buh pigs and wart hogs • Ticks
  18. 18. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Additional components planned in the project 1. A study on ASF based on abattoir sampling. 2. Outbreak investigations
  19. 19. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se Conclusion • ASF is an example of a TAD of growing importance for food security and household income. • This project will contribute with new knowledge about the impact and spread of ASF in Uganda. • It is highly relevant for Swedish scientists to study TADs in areas where they are prevalent.
  20. 20. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se This project is funded by SLU – In their strategy to increase collaboration with CGIAR institutes. Institutions involved
  21. 21. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences www.slu.se SLU researchers involved Dept. of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, SLU Ass Prof. Sofia Boqvist, DVM, PhD Karl Ståhl, Prof. Mikael Berg, Prof. Sándor Belák Dept. of Clinical Sciences, SLU Prof. Ulf Emanuelsson Dept. of Animal Breeding and Genetics, SLU Ass Prof. Erik Bongcam-Rudloff, PhD student Martin Norling National Veterinary Institute Ass Prof. Jean-Francois Valarcher
  22. 22. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!!! Rural pigs, without and with ASF, in central Uganda October 2010
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