Marketing Research


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Marketing Research

  1. 1. Rubayet 1 Marketing Research vs. Market Research Market research deals specifically with the gathering of information about a market's size and trends. Marketing research covers a wider range of activities. While it may involve market research, marketing research is a more general systematic process that can be applied to a variety of marketing problems. Quantitative Vs. Qualitative Research – When to Use Which Qualitative research is by definition exploratory, and it is used when we don’t know what to expect, to define the problem or develop an approach to the problem. It’s also used to go deeper into issues of interest and explore nuances related to the problem at hand. Common data collection methods used in qualitative research are focus groups, triads, dyads, in-depth interviews, uninterrupted observation, bulletin boards, and ethnographic participation/observation. Quantitative research is conclusive in its purpose as it tries to quantify the problem and understand how prevalent it is by looking for projectable results to a larger population. Here we collect data through surveys (online, phone, paper), audits, points of purchase (purchase transactions), and click-streams. Here are some guidelines to use both types of research:
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  3. 3. Rubayet 3 Types of Research Designs General Structure and Writing Style The function of a research design is to ensure that the evidence obtained enables you to effectively address the research problem as unambiguously as possible. In social sciences research, obtaining evidence relevant to the research problem generally entails specifying the type of evidence needed to test a theory, to evaluate a program, or to accurately describe a phenomenon. However, researchers can often begin their investigations far too early, before they have thought critically about what information is required to answer the study's research questions. Without attending to these design issues beforehand, the conclusions drawn risk being weak and unconvincing and, consequently, will fail to adequate address the overall research problem. Given this, the length and complexity of research designs can vary considerably, but any sound design will do the following things: 1. Identify the research problem clearly and justify its selection, 2. Review previously published literature associated with the problem area, 3. Clearly and explicitly specify hypotheses [i.e., research questions] central to the problem selected, 4. Effectively describe the data which will be necessary for an adequate test of the hypotheses and explain how such data will be obtained, and 5. Describe the methods of analysis which will be applied to the data in determining whether or not the hypotheses are true or false. Action Research Design Definition and Purpose The essentials of action research design follow a characteristic cycle whereby initially an exploratory stance is adopted, where an understanding of a problem is developed and plans are made for some form of interventionary strategy. Then the intervention is carried out (the action in Action Research) during which time, pertinent observations are collected in various forms. The new interventional strategies are carried out, and the cyclic process repeats, continuing until a sufficient understanding of (or implement able solution for) the problem is achieved. The protocol is iterative or cyclical in nature and is intended to foster deeper understanding of a given situation, starting with conceptualizing and particularizing the problem and moving through several interventions and evaluations. What do these studies tell you?
  4. 4. Rubayet 4 1. A collaborative and adaptive research design that lends itself to use in work or community situations. 2. Design focuses on pragmatic and solution-driven research rather than testing theories. 3. When practitioners use action research it has the potential to increase the amount they learn consciously from their experience. The action research cycle can also be regarded as a learning cycle. 4. Action search studies often have direct and obvious relevance to practice. 5. There are no hidden controls or preemption of direction by the researcher. What these studies don't tell you? 1. It is harder to do than conducting conventional studies because the researcher takes on responsibilities for encouraging change as well as for research. 2. Action research is much harder to write up because you probably can’t use a standard format to report your findings effectively. 3. Personal over-involvement of the researcher may bias research results. 4. The cyclic nature of action research to achieve its twin outcomes of action (e.g. change) and research (e.g. understanding) is time-consuming and complex to conduct. Case Study Design Definition and Purpose A case study is an in-depth study of a particular research problem rather than a sweeping statistical survey. It is often used to narrow down a very broad field of research into one or a few easily researchable examples. The case study research design is also useful for testing whether a specific theory and model actually applies to phenomena in the real world. It is a useful design when not much is known about a phenomenon. What do these studies tell you? 1. Approach excels at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue through detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships. 2. A researcher using a case study design can apply a vaiety of methodologies and rely on a variety of sources to investigate a research problem. 3. Design can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research. 4. Social scientists, in particular, make wide use of this research design to examine contemporary real-life situations and provide the basis for the application of concepts and theories and extension of methods. 5. The design can provide detailed descriptions of specific and rare cases. What these studies don't tell you?
  5. 5. Rubayet 5 1. A single or small number of cases offers little basis for establishing reliability or to generalize the findings to a wider population of people, places, or things. 2. The intense exposure to study of the case may bias a researcher's interpretation of the findings. 3. Design does not facilitate assessment of cause and effect relationships. 4. Vital information may be missing, making the case hard to interpret. 5. The case may not be representative or typical of the larger problem being investigated. 6. If the criteria for selecting a case is because it represents a very unusual or unique phenomenon or problem for study, then your interpretation of the findings can only apply to that particular case. Causal Design Definition and Purpose Causality studies may be thought of as understanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements in the form, “If X, and then Y.” This type of research is used to measure what impact a specific change will have on existing norms and assumptions. Most social scientists seek causal explanations that reflect tests of hypotheses. Causal effect (nomothetic perspective) occurs when variation in one phenomenon, an independent variable, leads to or results, on average, in variation in another phenomenon, the dependent variable. Conditions necessary for determining causality:  Empirical association--a valid conclusion is based on finding an association between the independent variable and the dependent variable.  Appropriate time order--to conclude that causation was involved, one must see that cases were exposed to variation in the independent variable before variation in the dependent variable.  Nonspuriousness--a relationship between two variables that is not due to variation in a third variable. What do these studies tell you? 1. Causality research designs helps researchers understand why the world works the way it does through the process of proving a causal link between variables and eliminating other possibilities. 2. Replication is possible. 3. There is greater confidence the study has internal validity due to the systematic subject selection and equity of groups being compared. What these studies don't tell you?
  6. 6. Rubayet 6 1. Not all relationships are casual! The possibility always exists that, by sheer coincidence, two unrelated events appear to be related [e.g., Punxatawney Phil could accurately predict the duration of Winter for five consecutive years but, the fact remains, he's just a big, furry rodent]. 2. Conclusions about causal relationships are difficult to determine due to a variety of extraneous and confounding variables that exist in a social environment. This means causality can only be inferred, never proven. 3. If two variables are correlated, the cause must come before the effect. However, even though two variables might be causally related, it can sometimes be difficult to determine which variable comes first and therefore to establish which variable is the actual cause and which is the actual effect. Cohort Design Definition and Purpose Often used in the medical sciences, but also found in the applied social sciences, a cohort study generally refers to a study conducted over a period of time involving members of a population which the subject or representative member comes from, and who are united by some commonality or similarity. Using a quantitative framework, a cohort study makes note of statistical occurrence within a specialized subgroup, united by same or similar characteristics that are relevant to the research problem being investigated, rather than studying statistical occurrence within the general population. Using a qualitative framework, cohort studies generally gather data using methods of observation. Cohorts can be either "open" or "closed."  Open Cohort Studies [dynamic populations, such as the population of Los Angeles] involve a population that is defined just by the state of being a part of the study in question (and being monitored for the outcome). Date of entry and exit from the study is individually defined, therefore, the size of the study population is not constant. In open cohort studies, researchers can only calculate rate based data, such as, incidence rates and variants thereof.  Closed Cohort Studies [static populations, such as patients entered into a clinical trial] involve participants who enter into the study at one defining point in time and where it is presumed that no new participants can enter the cohort. Given this, the number of study participants remains constant (or can only decrease). What do these studies tell you? 1. The use of cohorts is often mandatory because a randomized control study may be unethical. For example, you cannot deliberately expose people to asbestos, you can only study its effects on those who have already been exposed. Research that measures risk factors often relies on cohort designs.
  7. 7. Rubayet 7 2. Because cohort studies measure potential causes before the outcome has occurred, they can demonstrate that these “causes” preceded the outcome, thereby avoiding the debate as to which is the cause and which is the effect. 3. Cohort analysis is highly flexible and can provide insight into effects over time and related to a variety of different types of changes [e.g., social, cultural, political, and economic, etc.]. 4. Either original data or secondary data can be used in this design. What these studies don't tell you? 1. In cases where a comparative analysis of two cohorts is made [e.g., studying the effects of one group exposed to asbestos and one that has not], a researcher cannot control for all other factors that might differ between the two groups. These factors are known as confounding variables. 2. Cohort studies can end up taking a long time to complete if the researcher must wait for the conditions of interest to develop within the group. This also increases the chance that key variables change during the course of the study, potentially impacting the validity of the findings. 3. Because of the lack of randomization in the cohort design, its external validity is lower than that of study designs where the researcher randomly assigns participants. Cross-Sectional Design Definition and Purpose Cross-sectional research designs have three distinctive features: no time dimension, a reliance on existing differences rather than change following intervention; and, groups are selected based on existing differences rather than random allocation. The cross-sectional design can only measure differences between or from among a variety of people, subjects, or phenomena rather than change. As such, researchers using this design can only employ a relative passive approach to making causal inferences based on findings. What do these studies tell you? 1. Cross-sectional studies provide a 'snapshot' of the outcome and the characteristics associated with it, at a specific point in time. 2. Unlike the experimental design where there is an active intervention by the researcher to produce and measure change or to create differences, cross-sectional designs focus on studying and drawing inferences from existing differences between people, subjects, or phenomena. 3. Entails collecting data at and concerning one point in time. While longitudinal studies involve taking multiple measures over an extended period of time, cross-sectional research is focused on finding relationships between variables at one moment in time.
  8. 8. Rubayet 8 4. Groups identified for study are purposely selected based upon existing differences in the sample rather than seeking random sampling. 5. Cross-section studies are capable of using data from a large number of subjects and, unlike observational studies, is not geographically bound. 6. Can estimate prevalence of an outcome of interest because the sample is usually taken from the whole population. 7. Because cross-sectional designs generally use survey techniques to gather data, they are relatively inexpensive and take up little time to conduct. What these studies don't tell you? 1. Finding people, subjects, or phenomena to study that are very similar except in one specific variable can be difficult. 2. Results are static and time bound and, therefore, given no indication of a sequence of events or reveal historical contexts. 3. Studies cannot be utilized to establish cause and effect relationships. 4. Provide only a snapshot of analysis so there is always the possibility that a study could have differing results if another time-frame had been chosen. 5. There is no follow up to the findings. Descriptive Design Definition and Purpose Descriptive research designs help provide answers to the questions of who, what, when, where, and how associated with a particular research problem; a descriptive study cannot conclusively ascertain answers to why. Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena and to describe "what exists" with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. What do these studies tell you? 1. The subject is being observed in a completely natural and unchanged natural environment. True experiments, whilst giving analyzable data, often adversely influence the normal behavior of the subject. 2. Descriptive research is often used as a pre-cursor to more quantitatively research designs, the general overview giving some valuable pointers as to what variables are worth testing quantitatively. 3. If the limitations are understood, they can be a useful tool in developing a more focused study. 4. Descriptive studies can yield rich data that lead to important recommendations. 5. Approach collects a large amount of data for detailed analysis.
  9. 9. Rubayet 9 What these studies don't tell you? 1. The results from a descriptive research cannot be used to discover a definitive answer or to disprove a hypothesis. 2. Because descriptive designs often utilize observational methods [as opposed to quantitative methods], the results cannot be replicated. 3. The descriptive function of research is heavily dependent on instrumentation for measurement and observation. Experimental Design Definition and Purpose A blueprint of the procedure that enables the researcher to maintain control over all factors that may affect the result of an experiment. In doing this, the researcher attempts to determine or predict what may occur. Experimental Research is often used where there is time priority in a causal relationship (cause precedes effect), there is consistency in a causal relationship (a cause will always lead to the same effect), and the magnitude of the correlation is great. The classic experimental design specifies an experimental group and a control group. The independent variable is administered to the experimental group and not to the control group, and both groups are measured on the same dependent variable. Subsequent experimental designs have used more groups and more measurements over longer periods. True experiments must have control, randomization, and manipulation. What do these studies tell you? 1. Experimental research allows the researcher to control the situation. In so doing, it allows researchers to answer the question, “what causes something to occur?” 2. Permits the researcher to identify cause and effect relationships between variables and to distinguish placebo effects from treatment effects. 3. Experimental research designs support the ability to limit alternative explanations and to infer direct causal relationships in the study. 4. Approach provides the highest level of evidence for single studies. What these studies don't tell you? 1. The design is artificial, and results may not generalize well to the real world. 2. The artificial settings of experiments may alter subject behaviors or responses. 3. Experimental designs can be costly if special equipment or facilities are needed. 4. Some research problems cannot be studied using an experiment because of ethical or technical reasons. 5. Difficult to apply ethnographic and other qualitative methods to experimental designed research studies.
  10. 10. Rubayet 10 Exploratory Design Definition and Purpose An exploratory design is conducted about a research problem when there are few or no earlier studies to refer to. The focus is on gaining insights and familiarity for later investigation or undertaken when problems are in a preliminary stage of investigation. The goals of exploratory research are intended to produce the following possible insights:  Familiarity with basic details, settings and concerns.  Well-grounded picture of the situation being developed.  Generation of new ideas and assumption, development of tentative theories or hypotheses.  Determination about whether a study is feasible in the future.  Issues get refined for more systematic investigation and formulation of new research questions.  Direction for future research and techniques get developed. What do these studies tell you? 1. Design is a useful approach for gaining background information on a particular topic. 2. Exploratory research is flexible and can address research questions of all types (what, why, how). 3. Provides an opportunity to define new terms and clarify existing concepts. 4. Exploratory research is often used to generate formal hypotheses and develop more precise research problems. 5. Exploratory studies help establish research priorities. What these studies don't tell you? 1. Exploratory research generally utilizes small sample sizes and, thus, findings are typically not generalizable to the population at large. 2. The exploratory nature of the research inhibits an ability to make definitive conclusions about the findings. 3. The research process underpinning exploratory studies is flexible but often unstructured, leading to only tentative results that have limited value in decision-making. 4. Design lacks rigorous standards applied to methods of data gathering and analysis because one of the areas for exploration could be to determine what method or methodologies could best fit the research problem.
  11. 11. Rubayet 11 Historical Design Definition and Purpose The purpose of a historical research design is to collect, verify, and synthesize evidence from the past to establish facts that defend or refute your hypothesis. It uses secondary sources and a variety of primary documentary evidence, such as, logs, diaries, official records, reports, archives, and non-textual information [maps, pictures, audio and visual recordings]. The limitation is that the sources must be both authentic and valid. What do these studies tell you? 1. The historical research design is unobtrusive; the act of research does not affect the results of the study. 2. The historical approach is well suited for trend analysis. 3. Historical records can add important contextual background required to more fully understand and interpret a research problem. 4. There is no possibility of researcher-subject interaction that could affect the findings. 5. Historical sources can be used over and over to study different research problems or to replicate a previous study. What these studies don't tell you? 1. The ability to fulfill the aims of your research are directly related to the amount and quality of documentation available to understand the research problem. 2. Since historical research relies on data from the past, there is no way to manipulate it to control for contemporary contexts. 3. Interpreting historical sources can be very time consuming. 4. The sources of historical materials must be archived consistently to ensure access. 5. Original authors bring their own perspectives and biases to the interpretation of past events and these biases are more difficult to ascertain in historical resources. 6. Due to the lack of control over external variables, historical research is very weak with regard to the demands of internal validity. 7. It rare that the entirety of historical documentation needed to fully address a research problem is available for interpretation, therefore, gaps need to be acknowledged. Longitudinal Design Definition and Purpose
  12. 12. Rubayet 12 A longitudinal study follows the same sample over time and makes repeated observations. With longitudinal surveys, for example, the same group of people is interviewed at regular intervals, enabling researchers to track changes over time and to relate them to variables that might explain why the changes occur. Longitudinal research designs describe patterns of change and help establish the direction and magnitude of causal relationships. Measurements are taken on each variable over two or more distinct time periods. This allows the researcher to measure change in variables over time. It is a type of observational study and is sometimes referred to as a panel study. What do these studies tell you? 1. Longitudinal data allow the analysis of duration of a particular phenomenon. 2. Enables survey researchers to get close to the kinds of causal explanations usually attainable only with experiments. 3. The design permits the measurement of differences or change in a variable from one period to another [i.e., the description of patterns of change over time]. 4. Longitudinal studies facilitate the prediction of future outcomes based upon earlier factors. What these studies don't tell you? 1. The data collection method may change over time. 2. Maintaining the integrity of the original sample can be difficult over an extended period of time. 3. It can be difficult to show more than one variable at a time. 4. This design often needs qualitative research to explain fluctuations in the data. 5. A longitudinal research design assumes present trends will continue unchanged. 6. It can take a long period of time to gather results. 7. There is a need to have a large sample size and accurate sampling to reach representativeness. Observational Design Definition and Purpose This type of research design draws a conclusion by comparing subjects against a control group, in cases where the researcher has no control over the experiment. There are two general types of observational designs. In direct observations, people know that you are watching them. Unobtrusive measures involve any method for studying behavior where individuals do not know they are being observed. An observational study allows a useful insight into a phenomenon and avoids the ethical and practical difficulties of setting up a large and cumbersome research project. What do these studies tell you?
  13. 13. Rubayet 13 1. Observational studies are usually flexible and do not necessarily need to be structured around a hypothesis about what you expect to observe (data is emergent rather than pre- existing). 2. The researcher is able to collect a depth of information about a particular behavior. 3. Can reveal interrelationships among multifaceted dimensions of group interactions. 4. You can generalize your results to real life situations. 5. Observational research is useful for discovering what variables may be important before applying other methods like experiments. 6. Observation researched signs account for the complexity of group behaviors. What these studies don't tell you? 1. Reliability of data is low because seeing behaviors occur over and over again may be a time consuming task and difficult to replicate. 2. In observational research, findings may only reflect a unique sample population and, thus, cannot be generalized to other groups. 3. There can be problems with bias as the researcher may only "see what they want to see." 4. There is no possibility to determine "cause and effect" relationships since nothing is manipulated. 5. Sources or subjects may not all be equally credible. 6. Any group that is studied is altered to some degree by the very presence of the researcher, therefore, skewing to some degree any data collected (the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle). Philosophical Design Definition and Purpose Understood more as a broad approach to examining a research problem than a methodological design, philosophical analysis and argumentation is intended to challenge deeply embedded, often intractable, assumptions underpinning an area of study. This approach uses the tools of argumentation derived from philosophical traditions, concepts, models, and theories to critically explore and challenge, for example, the relevance of logic and evidence in academic debates, to analyze arguments about fundamental issues, or to discuss the root of existing discourse about a research problem. These overarching tools of analysis can be framed in three ways:  Ontology -- the study that describes the nature of reality; for example, what is real and what is not, what is fundamental and what is derivative?  Epistemology -- the study that explores the nature of knowledge; for example, on what does knowledge and understanding depend upon and how can we be certain of what we know?
  14. 14. Rubayet 14  Axiology -- the study of values; for example, what values does an individual or group hold and why? How are values related to interest, desire, will, experience, and means-to-end? And, what is the difference between a matter of fact and a matter of value? What do these studies tell you? 1. Can provide a basis for applying ethical decision-making to practice. 2. Functions as a means of gaining greater self-understanding and self-knowledge about the purposes of research. 3. Brings clarity to general guiding practices and principles of an individual or group. 4. Philosophy informs methodology. 5. Refine concepts and theories that are invoked in relatively unreflective modes of thought and discourse. 6. Beyond methodology, philosophy also informs critical thinking about epistemology and the structure of reality (metaphysics). 7. Offers clarity and definition to the practical and theoretical uses of terms, concepts, and ideas. What these studies don't tell you? 1. Limited application to specific research problems [answering the "So what?" question in social science research]. 2. Analysis can be abstract, argumentative, and limited in its practical application to real-life issues. 3. While a philosophical analysis may render problematic that which was once simple or taken-for-granted, the writing can be dense and subject to unnecessary jargon, overstatement, and/or excessive quotation and documentation. 4. There are limitations in the use of metaphor as a vehicle of philosophical analysis. 5. There can be analytical difficulties in moving from philosophy to advocacy and between abstract thought and application to the phenomenal world. Sequential Design Definition and Purpose Sequential research is that which is carried out in a deliberate, staged approach [i.e. serially] where one stage will be completed, followed by another, then another, and so on, with the aim that each stage will build upon the previous one until enough data is gathered over an interval of time to test your hypothesis. The sample size is not predetermined. After each sample is analyzed, the researcher can accept the null hypothesis, accept the alternative hypothesis, or select another pool of subjects and conduct the study once again. This means the researcher can obtain a limitless number of subjects before finally making a decision whether to accept the null or alternative hypothesis. Using a quantitative framework, a sequential study generally utilizes
  15. 15. Rubayet 15 sampling techniques to gather data and applying statistical methods to analyze the data. Using a qualitative framework, sequential studies generally utilize samples of individuals or groups of individuals [cohorts] and use qualitative methods, such as interviews or observations, to gather information from each sample. What do these studies tell you? 1. The researcher has a limitless option when it comes to sample size and the sampling schedule. 2. Due to the repetitive nature of this research design, minor changes and adjustments can be done during the initial parts of the study to correct and hone the research method. Useful design for exploratory studies. 3. There is very little effort on the part of the researcher when performing this technique. It is generally not expensive, time consuming, or workforce extensive. 4. Because the study is conducted serially, the results of one sample are known before the next sample is taken and analyzed. What these studies don't tell you? 1. The sampling method is not representative of the entire population. The only possibility of approaching representativeness is when the researcher chooses to use a very large sample size significant enough to represent a significant portion of the entire population. In this case, moving on to study a second or more sample can be difficult. 2. Because the sampling technique is not randomized, the design cannot be used to create conclusions and interpretations that pertain to an entire population. Generalizability from findings is limited. 3. Difficult to account for and interpret variation from one sample to another over time, particularly when using qualitative methods of data collection. Marketing Research Proposal Background This marketing research discussed about TV advertisement. TV advertisement is a very important part of advertisement sector. Mainly we conducting this research based on Bangladesh TV advertisement sector. What are the reasons or why some ads are successful, find out those reasons is the main objective of this research. TV advertisement plays an important role in advertisement sector in Bangladesh. So this research can be found out successful reasons of TV advertisement. Approach to the problem Problem Definition:
  16. 16. Rubayet 16 Figure out the factors those influence successful advertisement. This research conducting to find out different criteria or reason which influence an advertisement to be successful. Here we select top 3 ad for conducting this research. Marketing research problem Here the researchers’ problem is to find out the effectiveness of those top 3 ads. We will present a final report with key findings clearly mentioned. We will draw conclusions based on these findings about customer attitude on advertisements. Advertisements: a) Grameen Phone ( Alo Ashbei- GP Internet ) b) Citycell Zoom (Ami Roop Nogorer Rajkonna) c) RC – Royal Crown (Tomar Jonno Morte Pari) Research Question and Hypothesis Ad.-1 GrameenPhone (Alo ashbei- GP internet) RQ.1 why this ad successful?  Jingle  Celebrity  Theme  Dialogue Ad.-2 City-cell Zoom RQ.1 why this ad successful?  Jingle  Celebrity  Theme  Dialogue Ad.-3 RC – Royal Crown Cola (Tomar Jonno Morte Pari) RQ.1 why this ad successful?  Jingle  Celebrity  Theme  Dialogue
  17. 17. Rubayet 17 Analytical Model Verbal Model: The consumer first becomes curious of about an advertisement. The consumers follow the celebrity. After that the consumer listen the jingle and the consumer understands and connects with the theme of advertisement and gets inspired to know more about the it. And consumer wants to enjoy the advertisement next time. Geographical Model: Research Design a) Type of research design: This research is mainly a causal research. b) Information needs: This research obtains some very important information about advertisement. Here we look for the causes and effect that makes an ad successful. c) Scaling techniques: We are applying non-comparative scaling technique. d) Questionnaire development and presenting:
  18. 18. Rubayet 18 This research based on survey method and personal questionnaire system. e) Sampling Techniques: In this research sample size is 30. Data Collection a) Field work and data collection: Data collection will be done from primary sources. The data collected by non interviewing questionnaire. The respondents see the questionnaire and given specific possible answer which is mention in questionnaire. Our team members will collect raw data. b) Data analysis: In this research we used SPSS software, frequency distribution, cross tabulation etc. Demographic segments such as age, sex, will analyze data from the survey. We will study: 1. Degree of customer attitude on advertisement. 2. Reasons for satisfaction or dissatisfaction. 3. Key factors for successful advertisement. Key Factors for a successful advertisement “Questionnaires” __________________________________ Please check or fill in the appropriate information as it pertains to you. Grameen Phone ( Alo Ashbei- GP Internet ) Name: 1. Sex: a) Male b) Female 2. Age: a) 24-29 b) 30-39 c) 40-49 d) 50-59 e) 60+ 3. Occupation: a) Student b)Housewife c) Service holder d) others
  19. 19. Rubayet 19 4. Which media gets your attention? a) Print b) Radio c) Television d) Words of other people 5. How much time do you spend on watching television everyday? a) 2-4 hours b) 4-8 hours c) 8-12 hours 6. Do you like this advertisement? (Grameen Phone ( Alo Ashbei- GP Internet ) a) Yes b) No 7. Why do you like this advertisement? a) Jingle b) Celebrity c) Theme 8. Who sang the song in this advertisement? a) Shaan b)Kumar Sanu c)Alka Yagnik d)Other City cell Zoom (Ami Roop Nogorer Rajkonna) Name: 1. Sex: a) Male b) Female 2. Age: a) 24-29 b) 30-39 c) 40-49 d) 50-59 e) 60+ 3. Occupation: a) Student b)Housewife c) Service holder d) others 4. Which media gets your attention? a) Print b) Radio c) Television d) Words of other people 5. How much time do you spend on watching television everyday? a) 2-4 hours b) 4-8 hours c) 8-12 hours 6. Do you like this advertisement? (Citycell Zoom – Ami roop nogorer rajkonna) a) Yes b) No 7. Why do you like this advertisement? a) Jingle b) Celebrity c) Theme
  20. 20. Rubayet 20 8. Who sang the song in this advertisement? a) Shaan b)Kumar Sanu c)Alka Yagnik d)Other RC – Royal Crown (Tomar Jonno Morte Pari) Name: 1. Sex: a) Male b) Female 2. Age: a) 24-29 b) 30-39 c) 40-49 d) 50-59 e) 60+ 3. Occupation: a) Student b)Housewife c) Service holder d) others 4. Which media gets your attention? a) Print b) Radio c) Television d) Words of other people 5. How much time do you spend on watching television everyday? a) 2-4 hours b) 4-8 hours c) 8-12 hours 6. Do you like this advertisement? (RC – Royal Crown (Tomar Jonno Morte Pari ) a) Yes b) No 7. Why do you like this advertisement? a) Jingle b) Celebrity c) Theme 8. Who sang the song in this advertisement? a) Shaan b)Kumar Sanu c)Alka Yagnik d)Other 9. Which Bengali model acts in this advertisement? a) Nobel b) Shimul c) Nirob 10. Which Bengali actress acts in this advertisement? a) Jessica Simpson b) Reshmi Ghosh c) Rani Mukherjee Questionnaire on the Technology and Engineering Company Queries
  21. 21. Rubayet 21 During the period of my internship I had some findings that are described here on the basis of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). I asked the Project Manager some questions. My queries, his answers, and my comments on the answers are given below: 1. Please name one of your Completed/Running Projects. Ans.UttaraValley (Running project) Comments: This the first and running project of the company 2. Does it satisfy the characteristics of project such as objective, fund, time etc? Yes, the project satisfies the characteristics of project which are  Purpose  Temporary  Unique  Resources  Cost Time Constraints  Interdependencies  Life Cycle – Tasks  Conflict  Risk Comments: It is an ongoing project and till now it satisfies objective, fund, time etc. But the project manager should be careful of monitoring the project himself as it is the first project and many uncertainties are all around the project. 3. What is the objective of this project? The project objective consists of the business benefits that an organization expects to achieve as a result of spending time and exerting effort to complete a project. A project objective is often referred to as the goal. The project objective serves as the marching orders or charge for the project leader and team. It provides information as to what, where, and when, as well as information about how much improvement or change needs to occur. At the completion of the project, any person should be able to refer back to the project objective and determine whether the project was successful. Project goals keep the focus on what is most important. However, on some teams these primary goals are lost in their meeting’s activities. Even if the progress is only inches rather than by huge leaps, the team must be pushing the project forward as quickly, safely, and reasonably as possible. Objectives or Goals of UTTARA Project Finish the project within the scheduled timetable. The objective of Uttara Valleyis be to finish the project within the timeframe agreed upon. This means the project manager must do everything possible to drive the project to the end and stay on time. He should
  22. 22. Rubayet 22 remember to avoid guessing and incompetence in the planning of the scope so as to have a reasonable time schedule with which to work. Finish the project within the scheduled budget. Budgets are set by UttaraValley project teams while others inherit them. Whether they set the budget or inherit it, they need to make sure they are doing their best to track their expenditures and know where the money is going. When they will finish the project within the scheduled budget, they will demonstrate their ability in running the project responsibly. Finish the project with the same level of quality. Unfortunately, when projects lag behind, quality is often sacrificed in order to catch up. Project leaders sometimes feel that in order to pick up speed, pieces of the project will need to be downsized or cut completely. True, the project plan will have to be revised when problems arise, but the revision should never compromise quality. While it is important to keep deadlines, it is equally important to keep the project’s quality high throughout the project. Finish the project within the specified guidelines. UttaraValley project makes sure they are meeting the customer’s needs. They must “wow” the customer! This can be done simply by finishing the project with the specifics the customer really wanted. The best way to solidify this is to verify their accomplishment by customer handoff and close down. Do the best you can with what you have been given. There is no such thing as a perfect project. Some projects run up against major odds and hurdles. For example, many recent projects in our country have endured major setbacks because of terror attacks, severe weather causing power outages, or a nation at war. Even against these catastrophes, projects were remarkably turned around and back on track because of great project team leaders and teams. Project goals were met because they did their best with what came their way. 4. In your project management, do you follow the four phases of project management? Four Phases of Project Management According to the project management there is four phases exist. THE ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY is going through with all the phases. 1. First they define the project in which they set up their goals according to the desire of their clients. Like this UttaraValley project, the top management defined it. This stage called D1. 2. After that at D2 stage they make the detail proposal for the project. They ensure the answer of these questions, like- 1. How to conduct the project? 2. Who will conduct the project activities? 3. When will they have to deliver the project to the clients?
  23. 23. Rubayet 23 3. In project right now is in D3 stage that means the project manager is implementing the project according to design criteria of the project. 4. The UttaraValley projectis the first project of the company and till now it is being implemented. So, the D4 stage will be completed. Comments: It is clear that they are following the four phases of project and has already completing three of four phases and the last phase is still left. Every phase of this project is important for the company as it is the first project. 5. Projects have become complex- how do you respond? Project Complexity is the extent to which a project, or one of its components, involves a large number of parts, and/or a large number of people, to be coordinated and/or interfaced. Successful land development requires the developer to go through a complex process of many interrelated parts. While land development is both an art and a science, the most important aspect of the process is its holistic nature. Each separate part influences the others and a viable solution must take into account market demands, budget constraints, and site conditions. The process usually begins with an idea for the creation of a new development that will serve the needs of the local market. This new development should take its place as a good neighbor within the local community by acknowledging its relationship to adjacent land uses. It should also become economically viable for both its inhabitants and the developer. Therefore, the project manager said that to produce a successful idea for his project, he begins with a thorough understanding of what his potential buyer needs and wants in a new development. Comments: As the projects have become complex for the reasons described above, there is another extra reason for the company and that is, the company is going to complete a project for the first time. Do you follow any time planning like Gantt chart, Activity on arrow or anything else? Ans. The Company follows only Gantt chart but no other A-O-A or A-O-N Diagram. Comments: We think that the company is not willing to reveal their secrecy and that is why they are hiding their strategies. Do you follow the Critical Path Analysis to complete the project in time? Ans. As there is no A-O-A or A-O-N Diagram, there is no critical path to be needed. 8. What kind of cost plan is used: Bottom up, Top down or anything else? Ans. The Top-down cost planning is used here as it is a real estate project and prices of lands are set before the project is completed.
  24. 24. Rubayet 24 Comments: It is a good decision to use top-down method as the price is fixed for the land and the project manager does not have the scope to increases cost and must use as needed. Cost is the main concern here, not the quality. 9. How do you estimate the cost of project- Experience, Forecasting etc? Estimating is the process of forecasting a future result in terms of cost, based upon information available at the time. Many techniques, books and software packages exist to help with estimating project costs. Cost estimating is one of the most important steps in project management. A cost estimate establishes the base line of the project cost at different stages of development of the project. A cost estimate at a given stage of project development represents a prediction provided by the cost engineer or estimator on the basis of available data. The costs of a UTTARA land development facility to the owner include both the initial capital cost and the subsequent operation and maintenance costs. Each of these major cost categories consists of a number of cost components. The capital cost for a UTTARA land development project includes the expenses related to the initial establishment of the facility:  Land acquisition, including assembly, holding and improvement  Planning and feasibility studies  Architectural and engineering design  Construction, including materials, equipment and labor  Field supervision of construction  Construction financing  Insurance and taxes during construction  Owner’s general office overhead  Equipment and furnishings not included in construction  Inspection and testing The operation and maintenance cost in subsequent years over the project life cycle includes the following expenses:  Land rent, if applicable  Operating staff  Labor and material for maintenance and repairs  Periodic renovations  Insurance and taxes  Financing costs  Utilities  Owner’s other expenses The magnitude of each of these cost components depends on the nature, size and location of the project as well as the management organization, among many considerations.
  25. 25. Rubayet 25 The project manager of Uttara Valley Project follows the following rules will to ensure that an accurate and realistic estimate is produced.  He assumes that resources will only be productive for 80 percent of his time.  Resources working on multiple projects take longer to complete tasks because of time lost switching between them.  People are generally optimistic and often underestimate how long tasks will take.  Make use of other people’s experiences and his own.  Obtain an expert view.  Include management time in any estimate.  Always build in contingency for problem solving, meetings and other unexpected events.  Cost each task in the Work Breakdown Structure to arrive at a total, rather than trying to cost the project as a whole.  Agree a tolerance with his customer for additional work that is not yet defined.  Communicate any assumptions, exclusions or constraints he have to his customer.  Provide regular budget statements to his customer, copying his team, so that they are always aware of the current position. Comments: There is no previous experience of the company as a whole, so they must be careful of estimating cash inflows and cash outflows and uncertainty involving these. 10. What kind of cost plan analysis you follow- payback method, discounted cash flow, IRR? Ans. Discounted Cash Flow method is being used to plan analysis here as it gives almost corrects estimation and considers time value of money. 11. How do you identify the risk of project? What are the probable risks of this project? What is your preparation? Several techniques are available that Project manager can employ to identify risks to his projects. He relies on regular team meetings, brainstorming sessions, reviews with stakeholders or experience from similar projects to identify risk of the project. Risks may result from high-level support, funding, resources, skills, hidden agendas and planning related issues. What are the probable risks of this project? Once he has identified the risks, he takes the following steps to overcome the situation: Risk Evaluation Once he has identified his risks, he writes them down in a risk log. The log is used to monitor and track his risks. He makes his risk log visible to the project stakeholders so they are able to see risks that concern them being addressed. They may flag new risks he hasn’t identified. The risk log should evolve over time with potential risks removed and new ones added as the project progresses.
  26. 26. Rubayet 26 Once he has filled out his risk log, then he evaluates his risks. He grades the risks on two levels, likelihood and severity. Assign a value to both the likelihood and severity of high, medium or low. It follows that he should concentrate his efforts on the high / high and high / medium risks. He looks at the financial implication of each risk as an additional factor. Corrective Actions Once he understands where his risks are coming from and which he should addresses first, then he takes corrective actions. He thinks of two actions for each risk. He documents the actions (in his risk log) he intends to take to minimize the impact from each risk. Risk Control Finally, he monitors and controls his risks. Risk control involves keeping a risk management plan, a record of risks handled, a description of his proposed corrective actions, costs involved and a risk escalation plan for when problems occur. He includes information about the risks in his progress reports. This keeps them visible and prevents any nasty shocks during the project. Nobody likes to think about what may go wrong in a project, especially early on, but to overlook risk management means that we chance an unnecessary project failure. Comments: Risk and uncertainty are all around this project as it is the first project of the company. A simple mistake can be very dangerous for the success of the project. So, steps should be taken carefully. 12. Do you prefer team work in project management? What do you do? The project manager of UttaraValley project prefers team work in project management. He believes that Human Resource Management is needed everywhere, at home, at the office, and especially when working on a project with a group of people. Using human resources during a project requires getting the most effective use of the people involved with the project. This includes everyone associated with the project: sponsors, customers, partners, and individual contributors. According to him, there are three major aspects of project human resource management: organizational planning, staff acquisition, and team development. Organizational Planning Organizational planning identifies, documents, and assigns project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships. Before the project begins, all role and responsibilities should be designated. This will cut down on any confusion after the project starts. Each team member will know what is expected of him or her and will be able to follow through on the assigned tasks. Having a staff development plan and an organizational chart will also decrease uncertainty and conflict. A staff development plan describes how and when human resources will be brought onto and taken off the project team. An organizational chart is a graphical way to breakdown the project reporting relationship. It diagrams who is to report to whom. There will not be any question as to the chain of command with a detailed organizational chart. Good
  27. 27. Rubayet 27 organizational planning also includes any supporting documents needed to outline each job title and description or any training needs. Staff Acquisition Staff acquisition is the process of getting the human resources needed assigned to and working on the project. Choosing the correct people for a project is almost as important as the project itself. Without a knowledgeable team, the project will be much more difficult. Some things to consider when picking your team are previous experience, personal interests, personal characteristics, availability, and competencies and proficiency. Your resources for finding team members are endless. They may come from negotiations with managers and other project teams, pre-assignment from another project, or even from outside the organization. He also needs to determine whether each team member will be working on the project full or part time. Thinking ahead of the ideal team members will save your valuable time later. Team Development Team development includes developing individual and group competencies to enhance project performance. By coming together as a true team, the project will be more successful. The project manager follows the following ways to achieve team Development:  Team building activities  General management skills  Reward and recognition systems  Collocation or frequent face-to-face meetings  Training Significant improvements in team morale will cause an increase in team mentality. Other improvements that will be seen include performance improvements, improvements in individual skills, improvements in team behaviors, and improvements in either individual or team competencies. Comments: It may become very tough to maintain team work because, team work is the result of working together for a specific time. As time passed and the team work will be more effective for this project. 13. What is the organizational structure of this project management? How do you maintain the control system of the project? A project control system is a tool that enables managers to recognize problems before they become unsolvable. In essence, it monitors and controls the actual work to be done along with the cost of doing the work and the time needed to do it. How elaborate a system is depends on the size and scope of the task to be managed, as well as the size and distribution of the team working on it. Comments: There is no written technique to be followed to control the project. 15. According to the project classification in which category this specific project belongs to?
  28. 28. Rubayet 28 There are three types of project, such as- 1. X category: Productive of self-sustaining & earn revenue. Example: power plant. 2. Y category: Productive but does not earn revenue. Example: Irrigation. 3. Z category: Service providing project non-visible product. Example: education, health etc. According to the project classification, the UttaraValley project belongs to “X category” because it is not only productive but also earns revenue. Comments: It is a private owned company and for-profit project 16. What are the key factors of your project? Project managers stay current with ever-changing development regulations and are responsible, either directly or indirectly, for key factors in land development project. The key factors of FDV land development projects are: Interface with public agencies The project manager of Uttara Valley project works with city and county planning departments, flood control and state agencies (for zoning, subdivision platting, street layouts, street dedications and other urban planning items), with public works departments (for water, sanitary sewer, storm sewer, streets and flood control issues), with state agencies (for utility environmental quality) and in some cases with the utility district authority. Environmental conditions Environmental issues must be dealt with before lenders will commit to financing, and typically prior to breaking ground. Every project should begin with an environmental report. Wetlands, live/inactive water bodies, burial sites, illegal dumping, pollution — natural or manmade — to name a few, are all environmental issues that have a major factor in the ultimate use of the property. Water bodies, flood- prone areas and areas that warrant special use can be protected to add an amenity and appeal to a project. Contracts with consultants and contractors Appropriate contracts for all subcontractors and consultants are critical to the legal and financial aspects of the project. Land, planning, landscape, architecture, amenity planning A project manager must be versed in various land-planning strategies to maximize use of the land and project appeal. Appropriate and pleasing landscape architecture and amenity design can determine the tone and impact that a developer is hoping to achieve. Designing amenities for the ultimate users such as
  29. 29. Rubayet 29 water features that act as storm water detention and amenities improves the marketability and sales velocity of a project. Development costs The project manager is generally responsible for providing a cost analysis for all aspects and each phase of a development project. Civil engineering It is the project manager’s responsibility to choose the projects civil/design engineer, who is ultimately responsible for the design and operation of all utility and infrastructure functions of the project. Water, sanitary sewer and storm sewer capacity must be determined from the appropriate utility provider, and governmental approvals must be obtained for every engineering and design-related construction item. Infrastructure construction The project manager works with the project engineer to coordinate the bidding for infrastructure construction, whether it is by publicly advertised bidding or selective bidding. In addition, the project manager and project engineer supervise the construction and progress payments throughout development of the project. Additionally, the project manager coordinates the extension and installation of electric service and street light installation (an increasingly difficult task since electricity deregulation), natural gas, telephone, cable television, telephone and, if available, bundled digital services. Subdivision restrictions The project manager supervises the creation and initial operation of the homeowners association, typically by hiring a professional firm that specializes in this. The project manager also supervises preparation of deed restrictions and serves on architectural control committees, if necessary. Amenities The project manager coordinates the design, financing, construction, maintenance and operations of amenities, which may include the subdivision entrance, parks, recreation areas, open space, landscaping and water features, plus active recreation features, such as golf courses. Market Analysis One of the first tasks of the project manager is to coordinate and direct a market analysis, which helps determine the demand for, absorption and price of the product. Financing district development The project manager should be versed in the various development-oriented financing districts, including municipal utility districts, tax increment reinvestment zones, public improvement districts, municipal management districts and road improvement districts.
  30. 30. Rubayet 30 Development regulations Project managers must be versed in all aspects of development regulations, including zoning, subdivision platting, environmental regulations (including wetlands), utility and infrastructure regulations and development financing regulations. Professional groups and politics Through activity in land development and real estate oriented professional groups, project managers stay current in development trends and changing regulations and take advantage of networking opportunities. Project managers also often are politically active so they can work to retain or improve property rights regulations that provide positive land development activity. 17. What are the key elements of your project? Key Elements in THE ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY The key elements of the land development process THE ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY are market research, site selection and analysis, project design, site engineering, project costs, and financial feasibility. Each element has a unique role to play. Market research involves determining which type of buyers to capture; understanding their buying power, lifestyle characteristics, and product demands; and matching housing types and master plan concepts with those characteristics. This part of the process can extend through to the marketing and selling of the project. Site selection and analysis involve developing a list of desirable site characteristics; analyzing site conditions; and evaluating all the physical, legal and political, and off-site characteristics of a particular site for their contribution to the project’s success. Project design matches marketing information on buyer preferences with site characteristics to produce a master plan and housing types that best satisfy these requirements. Site engineering deals with the physical handling of the topography and installing the infrastructure to support the master plan. Managing project costs involves determining both soft costs (fees, marketing, and testing and investigating site conditions) and hard costs (labor and materials) for the project together with the schedule for completing each task. From this information, one can then produce an accurate project cash flow. Financial feasibility refers to determining the profitability of the project from sales forecasting and project costs. 18. What your role and responsibility as a project manager? Roles and Responsibilities of UttaraValley project manager
  31. 31. Rubayet 31 A project manager is the person who has the overall responsibility for the successful planning and execution of a project. The UttaraValley project manager possesses a combination of skills including an ability to ask penetrating questions, detect unstated assumptions and resolve interpersonal conflicts as well as more systematic management skills. Key amongst his duties is the recognition that risk directly impacts the likelihood of success and that this risk must be both formally and informally measured throughout the lifetime of the project. Risk arises primarily from uncertainty and the successful project manager is the one who focuses upon this as the main concern. Most of the issues that impact a project arise in one way or another from risk. A good project manager can reduce risk significantly, often by adhering to a policy of open communication, ensuring that every significant participant has an opportunity to express opinions and concerns. It follows from the above that a project manager is one who is responsible for making decisions both large and small, in such a way that risk is controlled and uncertainty minimized. Every decision taken by the project manager should be taken in such a way that it directly benefits the project. Project managers use project management software, such as Microsoft Project, to organize their tasks and workforce. These software packages allow project managers to produce reports and charts in a few minutes, compared to the several hours it can take if they do not use a software package The role of the UttaraValley project manager encompasses many activities including:  Planning and Defining Scope  Activity Planning and Sequencing  Resource Planning  Developing Schedules  Time Estimating  Cost Estimating  Developing a Budget  Controlling Quality  Managing Risks and Issues  Creating Charts and Schedules  Risk Analysis  Benefits Realization  Scalability, Interoperability and Portability Analysis  Documentation  Team Leadership  Strategic Influencing  Customer Liaison Comments: These rules and responsibilities are defined by the top management. Questionnaire on Customer Service and Satisfaction QUESTIONNAIRES
  32. 32. Rubayet 32 Date of interview: / /2010 Dear Respondent, We are doing our post graduation in Business Administration (BA) at American International UniversityBangladesh and currently conducting this research as a part of the degree requirement. The information provided by you will be used for our report. All finding in line with law and research ethics, are confidential and anonymous. Express Your Opinion by giving (ü) marks. 1= Yes, 2= No Q.1 Are you a current customer of Prime Bank Ltd.? 1 2 3 4 5 ** If the Answer of the Question 1 is Yes please fill up the questions. 1 = Strongly Agree, 2 = Agree, 3 = Neutral, 4=Disagree, 5 = Strongly Disagree Q.2 Prime Bank Limited provides quick service to the customer. 1 2 3 4 5 Q.3 Employees of Prime Bank Ltd are efficient & responsive to serve their clients. 1 2 3 4 5 Q.4 Prime Bank Ltd. Office environment is very pleasant. 1 2 3 4 5 Q.5 Prime Bank Ltd has a convenient transaction hour.
  33. 33. Rubayet 33 1 2 3 4 5 Q.6 Management system of Prime Bank is well established. 1 2 3 4 5 Q.7 Employees of Prime Bank Limited are very Friendly & helpful. 1 2 3 4 5 Q. 8 Fees & services charges of the bank are reasonable compared to other banks. 1 2 3 4 5 Q.9 Prime Bank Ltd. is very committed to their customer. 1 2 3 4 5 Q.10 Prime Bank Ltd values its high profile clients more. 1 2 3 4 5 Q.11 Prime Bank Ltd. ignores its general customer’s wellbeing. 1 2 3 4 5 Q.12 Customers are satisfied with the service provided by Prime Bank Ltd 1 2 3 4 5
  34. 34. Rubayet 34 Q.13 What is your opinion to improve the services of the bank? ANS: Q.14 Place specify your belief of the different attributes of Bank in the spaces below. Write A for Prime Bank, O for others and “I” for Ideal. Low price __1_ __2__ _3__ _4__ _5__ High price Low Status __1_ __2__ _3__ _4__ _5__ High Status Low value added service __1_ __2__ _3__ _4__ _5__ High Value added service Low Facilities __1_ __2__ _3__ _4__ _5__ High facilities Q.15 How do you describe yourself? Place with a tick mark, where you stand in the spaces below: Harsh __1__ __2__ __3__ __4__ __5__ Delicate Dominating __1__ __2__ __3__ __4__ __5__ Submissive Youthful __1__ __2__ __3__ __4__ __5__ Mature Traditional __1__ __2__ __3__ __4__ __5__ Changing Colorless __1__ __2__ __3__ __4__ __5__ Colorful Q. 16 From which source you find about brand choice (who influenced you)? a) Family members b) Partners c) Print ads d) Friends/Neighbors
  35. 35. Rubayet 35 e) Experience f) TV/Radio Any other source(s) please specify………… Q. 17 What attributes/features would make a Bank most important to you? a) Quick service b) Low service charge c) Online service d) Debit/Credit card e) Different service f) Efficient employees g) Employee behavior h) Interior decoration i) Country of origin j) Brand reputation k) Available branch Q.18 Are you satisfied with the service of Prime Bank Ltd. Respondent’s Profile: 1. Age: a) 11-20 year b) 21-30 year c) 31-40 year d) 41-50 year e) 51+ year 2. Sex: a. Male b. Female 3. Monthly income: a) Less than 10,000
  36. 36. Rubayet 36 b) 10,000 to less than 30,000 c) 30,000 to less than 60,000 d) 60,000 to less than 1,00,000 e) 1,00,000 and above 4. Occupation: a) Business Man b) Student c) Teacher d) Government officer e) Doctor f) House wife g) Service Holder h) Others…………………………………… (Please specify) “Thank you for your cooperation”