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Introduction To Research

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Introduction To Research

  1. 1. Introduction to Research: Research Means in Search of knowledge. Or Research is an art of scientific investigation. Research is an academic activity & as such term should be used in a technical sense. Research comprises of defining & redefining problems, formulating hypothesis & suggesting solutions. Or we can say collecting, organizing & evaluating the data: making deductions & reaching conclusion, & carefully the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.  Research is Search for Knowledge  It is an Art of Scientific Investigation  According to Redman and Mory, Research is a “Systematized effort to gain new knowledge”  Research is an original addition to the available knowledge, which contributes to its further advancement  In sum, Research is the search for knowledge, using objective and systematic methods to find solution to a problem Scopes of Research: • Does the research cover a particular Objective of research or researcher? • Does the research cover a particular time period? • Does the study cover a specific geographical area? • If the study involves people, what age group, gender and place of origin are to be included? • Are all dates of publication to be included? • Is the research going to cover publications from other countries? • Will the research include other languages and scripts? (Language of research) • Are all perspectives to be considered? For example, philosophical, political, psychological, etc. Objectives of research:  To gain familiarity with new insights into a phenomenon  To accurately portray the characteristics of a particular individual, group, or a situation  To analyze the frequency with which something occurs  To examine the Hypothesis of a casual relationship between two variables Research Methods Vs Methodology:  Research Methods are the methods that the researcher adopts for conducting the research Studies  Research Methodology is the way in which research problems are solved systematically.  It is the Science of studying how research is conducted Scientifically
  2. 2. Types of research:  Descriptive  Analytical  Applied  Fundamental  Quantitative  Qualitative  Conceptual  Empirical  Other Types Descriptive Vs Analytical:  In Descriptive Research, the Researcher has to only report what is happening or what has happened.  In Analytical Research, the Researcher has to use the already available facts or information, and analyse them to make a critical evaluation of the subject Applied Vs Fundamental:  An attempt to find solution to an immediate problem encountered by a firm, an Industry, a business organization, or the Society is known as Applied Research  Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is ‘Pure’ or ‘Basic’ or ‘Fundamental’ Research Quantitative Vs Qualitative:  Quantitative Research involves the measurement of quantity or amount. (ex: Economic & Statistical methods)  Qualitative Research is concerned with the aspects related to or involving quality or Kind.(ex: Motivational Research involving behavioural Sciences) Conceptual Vs Empirical:  The Research related to some abstract idea or theory is known as Conceptual Research. (Ex: Philosophers and Thinkers using this to developing new concepts)  Empirical Research relies on the observation or experience with hardly any regard for theory and system. Other Types of Research;  One-time or Longitudinal Research (On the basis time)  Laboratory Research or Field-setting or Simulational Research (On the basis of environment)  Historical Research
  3. 3. The Importance of Knowing How to conduct Research;  Helps Researcher to develop disciplined thinking  The Researcher will confidently evaluate and utilize the Research Findings  Helps the Research consumer to evaluate Research and make rational decisions  The Researcher will be equipped with knowledge of different tools to conduct scientific Research Qualities of a Researcher:  Desire for accuracy of observation & precision of statement  An alert mind.  Must practice “The art of enduring intellectual hardships”  Making statements cautiously Significance of Research:  According to Hudson Maxim “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention” Research Process:  1. Formulating the Research Problem  2. Extensive Literature Survey  3. Developing Hypothesis  4. Preparing the Research Design  5. Determining Sample Design  6. Collecting Data  7. Execution of the Project  8. Analysis of the Data  9. Hypothesis Testing  10. Generalization and Interpretation  11. Preparation of the Report or Presentation of the Results
  4. 4. Research Problem:  Research Problem is an unanswered question that a researcher might encounter in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation. Components of a Research Problem:  There should be an individual or a group who have some difficulty or problem  There should be some objective to be pursued (A person or an organization who wants nothing cannot have a problem)  There should be more than one alternative means available to the Researcher.  There should be some doubt in the mind of the Researcher about the choice of alternative means Conditions for Research Problem:  X- an individual or an organization (to whom the problem is attributed)  Y-the environment where X is situated  Z-the uncontrolled variables which control Y  A1 & A2 two courses of action  B1 & B2 two possible outcomes of the said course (One outcome should be what Researcher Wants)
  5. 5. Research Design: It highlights decisions which include 1. The Name of the Study 2. The Purpose of the Study 3. The Location where the study would be conducted 4. The Nature of Data Required 5. From where the required Data can be collected 6. What time period the study would cover 7. The Type of Sample Design 8. The Techniques of Data Collection 9. The Methods of Data Analysis: Concepts Relating to Research Design:  A magnitude that varies is known as a variable (ex: income, height, weight..)  When changes in one variable depend upon the changes in other variable (s), it is known as dependent variable (ex: If Demand depends on Price, then Demand is a dependent variable, price is independent variable) Extraneous Variable:  The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as Extraneous Variables. (ex: Relationship between children’s school performance (dependent variable) and their Parent’s Income (Independent Variable). In this case Intelligence may also influence the school performance (Extraneous Variable) Types of Research Design:  Exploratory Research Design To formulate a Research Problem for an in-depth or more precise investigation To discover new ideas and insights Three methods considered for such Research Design a) a Survey of related Literature
  6. 6. b) experience survey c) analysis of insight-stimulating instances  Descriptive and Diagnostic Research Design Descriptive Research Design is Concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or a group. Diagnostic Research Design is determines the frequency with which a variable occurs or it’s relationship with other. Both Descriptive & Diagnostic Research design have common requirements  Hypothesis-testing Research Design The Researcher tests the Hypothesis of casual relationship between two or more variables These studies require unbiased attitude of the Researcher. Importance of Research Design:  It facilitates smooth conduct of the various stages of Research.  Makes Research Efficient to yield maximum information with minimum effort, time, expenditure  Plays a crucial role in attaining the reliability of the results obtained. Characteristics of a Good Research Design:  Flexible, Suitable, Efficient and Economical  Minimizes bias and Maximizes Reliability  No Experimental Error  Yields Maximum Information
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