Photosynthesis

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photosynthesis in brief

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Photosynthesis

  1. 1. carbon dioxide sunlight oxygenREACTANT FROM AIR TO AIR OR USED FOR RESPIRATION PRODUCT 1. Definition of Photosynthesis Photo means ‘light’ and synthesis means ‘to make’ Process in which plants convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars using solar energy water glucose photosynthesis REACTANT FROM SOIL USED BY PLANT PRODUCT Photo means ‘light’ and synthesis means ‘to make’ Process in which plants convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars using solar energy
  2. 2. 2. Chemical process of photosynthesis 6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O Sun lightSun light ChlorophyllChlorophyll
  3. 3. 3. Photosynthesis Machinery
  4. 4. a. Chloroplasts
  5. 5. b. Chlorophyll - Absorbs red & blue light - Reflects green light
  6. 6. 4. Mechanism of Photosynthesis 1. Happen only in sunlight – Hence they depend on light. 2. Light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules 3. The energy generates molecules of ATP 4. Including PS I and PS II a. Light (dependent)Reactionsa. Light (dependent)Reactions 1. Happen only in sunlight – Hence they depend on light. 2. Light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules 3. The energy generates molecules of ATP 4. Including PS I and PS II
  7. 7. Components Inside the Thylakoid 1. PS II : absorb wavelength 680 nm. Composed of complex antenna and chlorophyll. 2. Plastoquinon (PQ)enzyme. 3. Cytochrome b6f Complex. 4. Plastocyanin enzyme 5. PS I : absorb wavelength 700 nm. Composed of complex antenna and chlorophyll. 6. Ferredoxin (Fd) enzyme. 7. Ferredoxin NADP Reductase. 8. ATP Synthase Complex. 1. PS II : absorb wavelength 680 nm. Composed of complex antenna and chlorophyll. 2. Plastoquinon (PQ)enzyme. 3. Cytochrome b6f Complex. 4. Plastocyanin enzyme 5. PS I : absorb wavelength 700 nm. Composed of complex antenna and chlorophyll. 6. Ferredoxin (Fd) enzyme. 7. Ferredoxin NADP Reductase. 8. ATP Synthase Complex.
  8. 8. The differences between PS I and PS II Photosystem I Photosystem II Used 4 photons 1 ADP 1 Phosphate 1 H2O 1NADP+ 2 photons 1 ADP 1 Phosphate Product 1 ATP 1 NADPH + H+ ½ O2 Product 1 ATP 1 NADPH + H+ ½ O2 1 ATP Reaction Capture energy in the formation of ATP and NADPH, hydrogen transfer in dark reaction Capture energy in the formation of ATP Wavelength 700 nm 680 nm
  9. 9. b. Light Independent Reactions • Happen in sunlight, and in the dark. – Hence “independent of light” 1. ATP generated by sunlight drives the Calvin Cycle. 2. Monosaccarides (eg. glucose) are manufactured in the cycle. 3. Monosaccarides are used to “build” polysaccharides (eg. Starch). • Happen in sunlight, and in the dark. – Hence “independent of light” 1. ATP generated by sunlight drives the Calvin Cycle. 2. Monosaccarides (eg. glucose) are manufactured in the cycle. 3. Monosaccarides are used to “build” polysaccharides (eg. Starch).
  10. 10. C4 Cycle • In C4 plants, it increase photosynthetic yield two to three times more than C3 plants. • In C4 plants, it performs a high rate of photosynthesis even when the stomata are nearly closed. • It increases the adaptability of C4 plant to high temperature and light intensity. • It increases the rate of CO2 fixation at 25° - 30°C in C4 plants as compared to C3 plants. • It reduces the rate of photorespiration at 25° - 30°C. • Example of C4 plants : rice, corn, weat, sugarcane, etc. • In C4 plants, it increase photosynthetic yield two to three times more than C3 plants. • In C4 plants, it performs a high rate of photosynthesis even when the stomata are nearly closed. • It increases the adaptability of C4 plant to high temperature and light intensity. • It increases the rate of CO2 fixation at 25° - 30°C in C4 plants as compared to C3 plants. • It reduces the rate of photorespiration at 25° - 30°C. • Example of C4 plants : rice, corn, weat, sugarcane, etc.
  11. 11. Hatch-Slack Cycle
  12. 12. The Differences Between C3 Cycle with C4 Cycle No. C3 Cycle C4 Cycle 1. The primary CO2 acceptor is a 5C compound ribulose biphosphate (RuBP). The primary CO2 acceptor is a 3C compound phosphoenol pyruvic acid (PEP). 2. The first stable compound formed is phosphoglyceric acid (PGA) which contain 3C atoms. The first stable compound formed is a 4C Oxaloacetic acid (OAA). 3. C3 cycle is completed in only one type of chloroplast present in mesophyll cell. C3 cycle is completed in to types of chloroplast, one occurring in mesophyll cells and other in bundle sheath cells. C3 cycle is completed in only one type of chloroplast present in mesophyll cell. C3 cycle is completed in to types of chloroplast, one occurring in mesophyll cells and other in bundle sheath cells. 4. It takes place at comparatively low temperature. It takes place at high temperature and more light intensities. 5. Photorespiration occurs in C3 plants. Photorespiration is not occurs in C4 plants. 6. The rate of photosynthesis is comparatively lower. The rate of photosynthesis is comparatively higher. 7. It occurs in C3 plants which show normal anatomy. It occurs in C3 plants which show Kranz anatomy.
  13. 13. 5. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis Rate External factors 1. Light intensity 2. Carbondioxide concentration 3. Temperature 4. Water Internal factors 1. Chlorophyll 2. Protoplasm 3. Photosynthesis product (photosynthate) 1. Light intensity 2. Carbondioxide concentration 3. Temperature 4. Water 1. Chlorophyll 2. Protoplasm 3. Photosynthesis product (photosynthate)
  14. 14. 6. Photosynthesis Experiment Ingenhousz experiment (1799) photosynthesis produces Oxygen (O2)
  15. 15. Sachs experiment (1860) “Photosynthesis produces amilum”

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