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Chapter 7
Consumer Attitude Formation
and Change
Consumer Behaviour
Canadian Edition
Schiffman/Kanuk/Das
Copyright © 2006 ...
Opening Vignette


The impact of SARS on tourism
- real risk was low, but perceived risk was high
- led to negative attit...
Attitudes
 A learned predisposition to behave in a

consistently favorable or unfavorable
manner with respect to a given ...
Characteristics of Attitudes
 Attitudes

have an “object”
 Attitudes are learned
– Can ‘unlearn’
 Attitudes

have behav...
Characteristics of Attitudes
 Attitudes

have consistency
 Attitudes have direction, degree, strength
and centrality
–
–...
Four Basic Functions of
Attitudes
 The

Utilitarian Function

– How well it performs
 The

Ego-defensive Function

– To ...
How are attitudes learned?
 Classical

conditioning - through past
associations
 Operant conditioning - through trial an...
Attitude Models
 Structural

Models of Attitudes

– Tri-component Attitude Model
– Multi-attribute Attitude Model
– Both ...
The Tri-component Model
 Cognitive

Component

– knowledge and perceptions acquired
– through direct experience and infor...
Conation

Cognition

Affect

Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education

7-10
Multi-attribute Attitude Models
 Attitude

models that examine the
composition of consumer attitudes in terms
of selected...
Attitude-toward-object model
 Attitude

is function of evaluation of
product-specific beliefs and evaluations
n

– Ao= W...
Theory of Reasoned Action

– A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship
among attitudes, intentions, and behaviour

C...
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education

7-14
Attitude-Toward-Behaviour
Model
A

consumer’s attitude toward a specific
behaviour is a function of how strongly he
or sh...
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
 Holds

that discomfort or dissonance occurs
when a consumer holds conflicting
thoughts about...
Why Might Behaviour Precede
Attitude Formation?
 Cognitive

Dissonance
Theory
 Attribution
Theory

Behave (Purchase)

Fo...
Attribution Theory
 Examines how people assign casualty to

events and form or alter their attitudes as an
outcome of ass...
Self-Perception Theory
 Attitudes

developed by reflecting on
their own behaviour
 Judgments about own behaviour
 Inter...
Self-Perception Theory
 Consumers

are likely to accept credit for
successful outcomes (internal attribution)
and to blam...
How We Test Our Attributions
 Distinctiveness
 Consistency

over time
 Consistency over modality
 Consensus

Copyright...
Attitudes and Marketing Strategy
 Appeal

to motivational functions of
attitudes
 Associate product with a special group...
Attitudes and Marketing Strategy
 Alter

–
–
–
–

components of the attitude

Change relative evaluation of attributes
Ch...
Attitudes and Marketing Strategy
 Change

affect first through classical
conditioning
 Change behaviour first through op...
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Transcript of "Schiff cb ce_07"

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  2. 2. Opening Vignette  The impact of SARS on tourism - real risk was low, but perceived risk was high - led to negative attitude towards Canada, especially Toronto  Attitude change through - value-expressive appeals - use of celebrities Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-2
  3. 3. Attitudes  A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object  A positive attitude is generally a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for purchase – Mercedes seen as ‘top of class’ but intention to purchase was low Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-3
  4. 4. Characteristics of Attitudes  Attitudes have an “object”  Attitudes are learned – Can ‘unlearn’  Attitudes have behavioural, evaluative and affective components – Predisposition to act – Overall evaluation – Positive or negative feelings » continued Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-4
  5. 5. Characteristics of Attitudes  Attitudes have consistency  Attitudes have direction, degree, strength and centrality – – – – Positive or negative Extent of positive or negative feelings Strength of feelings Closeness to core cultural values  Attitudes occur within a situation Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-5
  6. 6. Four Basic Functions of Attitudes  The Utilitarian Function – How well it performs  The Ego-defensive Function – To protect one’s self-concept  The Value-expressive Function – To convey one’s values and lifestyles  The Knowledge Function – A way to gain knowledge Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-6
  7. 7. How are attitudes learned?  Classical conditioning - through past associations  Operant conditioning - through trial and reinforcement  Cognitive learning – through information processing – Cognitive dissonance theory – Attribution theory Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-7
  8. 8. Attitude Models  Structural Models of Attitudes – Tri-component Attitude Model – Multi-attribute Attitude Model – Both assume a rational model of human behaviour  Other models of attitude formation – Cognitive dissonance model – Attribution theory Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-8
  9. 9. The Tri-component Model  Cognitive Component – knowledge and perceptions acquired – through direct experience and information from various sources.  Affective component – Emotions and feelings about the object  Conative or Behavioural Component – Action tendencies toward the object Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-9
  10. 10. Conation Cognition Affect Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-10
  11. 11. Multi-attribute Attitude Models  Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.  Examples – Attitude-toward-object Model – Attitude-toward-behaviour Model – Theory-of-Reasoned-Action Model Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-11
  12. 12. Attitude-toward-object model  Attitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluations n – Ao= WiXib i=1 – Where: Ao= Attitude towards the object O Wi = importance of attribute i Xib = belief that brand b has a certain level of attribute I continued Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-12
  13. 13. Theory of Reasoned Action – A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship among attitudes, intentions, and behaviour Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-13
  14. 14. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-14
  15. 15. Attitude-Toward-Behaviour Model A consumer’s attitude toward a specific behaviour is a function of how strongly he or she believes that the action will lead to a specific outcome (either favorable or unfavorable). Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-15
  16. 16. Cognitive Dissonance Theory  Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object.  Post-purchase Dissonance – Cognitive dissonance that occurs after a consumer has made a purchase commitment Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-16
  17. 17. Why Might Behaviour Precede Attitude Formation?  Cognitive Dissonance Theory  Attribution Theory Behave (Purchase) Form Attitude Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Form Attitude 7-17
  18. 18. Attribution Theory  Examines how people assign casualty to events and form or alter their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other people’s behaviour.  Examples – Self-perception Theory – Attribution toward others Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-18
  19. 19. Self-Perception Theory  Attitudes developed by reflecting on their own behaviour  Judgments about own behaviour  Internal and external attributions » Continued Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-19
  20. 20. Self-Perception Theory  Consumers are likely to accept credit for successful outcomes (internal attribution) and to blame other persons or products for failure (external attribution).  Foot-In-The-Door Technique Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-20
  21. 21. How We Test Our Attributions  Distinctiveness  Consistency over time  Consistency over modality  Consensus Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-21
  22. 22. Attitudes and Marketing Strategy  Appeal to motivational functions of attitudes  Associate product with a special group, cause or event  Resolve conflicts among attitudes  Influence consumer attributions » Continued Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-22
  23. 23. Attitudes and Marketing Strategy  Alter – – – – components of the attitude Change relative evaluation of attributes Change brand beliefs Add an attribute Change overall brand evaluation  Change beliefs about competitors’ brands » Continued Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-23
  24. 24. Attitudes and Marketing Strategy  Change affect first through classical conditioning  Change behaviour first through operant conditioning Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-24
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