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  • 1. Chapter 7 Consumer Attitude Formation and Change Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition Schiffman/Kanuk/Das Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 2. Opening Vignette  The impact of SARS on tourism - real risk was low, but perceived risk was high - led to negative attitude towards Canada, especially Toronto  Attitude change through - value-expressive appeals - use of celebrities Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-2
  • 3. Attitudes  A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object  A positive attitude is generally a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for purchase – Mercedes seen as ‘top of class’ but intention to purchase was low Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-3
  • 4. Characteristics of Attitudes  Attitudes have an “object”  Attitudes are learned – Can ‘unlearn’  Attitudes have behavioural, evaluative and affective components – Predisposition to act – Overall evaluation – Positive or negative feelings » continued Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-4
  • 5. Characteristics of Attitudes  Attitudes have consistency  Attitudes have direction, degree, strength and centrality – – – – Positive or negative Extent of positive or negative feelings Strength of feelings Closeness to core cultural values  Attitudes occur within a situation Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-5
  • 6. Four Basic Functions of Attitudes  The Utilitarian Function – How well it performs  The Ego-defensive Function – To protect one’s self-concept  The Value-expressive Function – To convey one’s values and lifestyles  The Knowledge Function – A way to gain knowledge Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-6
  • 7. How are attitudes learned?  Classical conditioning - through past associations  Operant conditioning - through trial and reinforcement  Cognitive learning – through information processing – Cognitive dissonance theory – Attribution theory Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-7
  • 8. Attitude Models  Structural Models of Attitudes – Tri-component Attitude Model – Multi-attribute Attitude Model – Both assume a rational model of human behaviour  Other models of attitude formation – Cognitive dissonance model – Attribution theory Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-8
  • 9. The Tri-component Model  Cognitive Component – knowledge and perceptions acquired – through direct experience and information from various sources.  Affective component – Emotions and feelings about the object  Conative or Behavioural Component – Action tendencies toward the object Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-9
  • 10. Conation Cognition Affect Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-10
  • 11. Multi-attribute Attitude Models  Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.  Examples – Attitude-toward-object Model – Attitude-toward-behaviour Model – Theory-of-Reasoned-Action Model Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-11
  • 12. Attitude-toward-object model  Attitude is function of evaluation of product-specific beliefs and evaluations n – Ao= WiXib i=1 – Where: Ao= Attitude towards the object O Wi = importance of attribute i Xib = belief that brand b has a certain level of attribute I continued Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-12
  • 13. Theory of Reasoned Action – A comprehensive theory of the interrelationship among attitudes, intentions, and behaviour Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-13
  • 14. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-14
  • 15. Attitude-Toward-Behaviour Model A consumer’s attitude toward a specific behaviour is a function of how strongly he or she believes that the action will lead to a specific outcome (either favorable or unfavorable). Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-15
  • 16. Cognitive Dissonance Theory  Holds that discomfort or dissonance occurs when a consumer holds conflicting thoughts about a belief or an attitude object.  Post-purchase Dissonance – Cognitive dissonance that occurs after a consumer has made a purchase commitment Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-16
  • 17. Why Might Behaviour Precede Attitude Formation?  Cognitive Dissonance Theory  Attribution Theory Behave (Purchase) Form Attitude Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Form Attitude 7-17
  • 18. Attribution Theory  Examines how people assign casualty to events and form or alter their attitudes as an outcome of assessing their own or other people’s behaviour.  Examples – Self-perception Theory – Attribution toward others Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-18
  • 19. Self-Perception Theory  Attitudes developed by reflecting on their own behaviour  Judgments about own behaviour  Internal and external attributions » Continued Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-19
  • 20. Self-Perception Theory  Consumers are likely to accept credit for successful outcomes (internal attribution) and to blame other persons or products for failure (external attribution).  Foot-In-The-Door Technique Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-20
  • 21. How We Test Our Attributions  Distinctiveness  Consistency over time  Consistency over modality  Consensus Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-21
  • 22. Attitudes and Marketing Strategy  Appeal to motivational functions of attitudes  Associate product with a special group, cause or event  Resolve conflicts among attitudes  Influence consumer attributions » Continued Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-22
  • 23. Attitudes and Marketing Strategy  Alter – – – – components of the attitude Change relative evaluation of attributes Change brand beliefs Add an attribute Change overall brand evaluation  Change beliefs about competitors’ brands » Continued Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-23
  • 24. Attitudes and Marketing Strategy  Change affect first through classical conditioning  Change behaviour first through operant conditioning Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education 7-24