Imperialism

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Imperialism

  1. 1. IMPERIALISM Rajat Dixit
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • IMPERIALISM ESSENTIALLY CONNECTSTHE IDEA OF SUBORDINATE, “A POWER RELATIONSHIPWITHOUT MORAL IMPLICATION OF ANY KIND”. • IT ISAN URGE OF STATE TO ACQUIRE JURISDICTION AND EXERCISE DOMINATION OVER THE OTHER STATES.
  3. 3. • IT HASBEEN A TRADITIONAL INSTRUMENT OF NATIONAL POLICY. • IT WASJUSTIFIED ASA MORAL AND LEGITIMATE INSTRUMENT AND USED IT FOR SECURING THE GOALSOF NATIONAL INTERESTS.
  4. 4. • IMPERIALISM ISESTABLISHED BY A SUPER POWER AND IT ISBASED ON SUPERIOR SUBORDINATE RELATIONSHIP. • IMPERIALISM DOESNOT COME IN A STANDARD FORM. THE TIGHT FORM IMPERIALISM ISCOLONIALISM. THE WEAKER FORM OF CONTROL ISNEO- COLONIALISM.
  5. 5. MEANING • THE POLICY OF FORCEFULLY EXTENDING A NATION’SAUTHORITY BY TERRITORIAL GAIN OR BY THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DOMINANCE OVER OTHER NATIONS.
  6. 6. DEFINITION • THE ATTEMPT TO CONQUER OTHER COUNTRIES. - N.L. BUKHARIN
  7. 7. • IMPERIALISM ISTHE EMPLOYMENT OF THE ENGINESOF GOVERNMENT DIPLOMACY TO ACQUIRE TERRITORIES, PROTECTORATES, AND/OR SPHERESOF INFLUENCE OCCUPIED USUALLY BY OTHER RACESOR PEOPLES, AND TO PROMOTE INDUSTRIAL, TRADE, AND INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES. - CHARLESA. BEARD
  8. 8. • IMPERIALISM ISA POLICY WHICH AIMSAT CREATING, ORGANISING, MAINTAINING AN EMPIRE THAT IS, A STATE OF VAST SIZE COMPOSED OF VARIOUSMORE OR LESS DISTRICT NATIONAL UNITSAND SUBJECTS TO A SINGLE CENTRALIZED WILL. - MORITZ JULIUS BONN
  9. 9. • IT ISAN EXPANSION OF A STATE’SPOWER BEYOND IT’SBORDER. - HANSMORGENTHAU
  10. 10. FEATURES OF IMPERIALISM • IT MAY OR MAY NOT HAVE ECONOMIC MOTIVE. • WIDER AND LIMITED OPERTIONS. • IT MAY BE PLANNED OR UNPLANNED. • THERE MAY OR MAY NOT BE DIFFERENCE OF RACES. • IT MAY BE PROFITABLE OR UNPROFITABLE. • IT MAY BE DEVELOPMENTAL OR EXPLOITATIVE.
  11. 11. METHODS OF IMPERIALISM 1. MILITARY IMPERIALISM: • OLDEST & CRUDEST FORM • IT ISA GAMBLE PLAYED FOR THE HIGHEST STAKE.
  12. 12. 2. ECONOMIC IMPERIALISM: • OUTCOME OF MODERN AGE. • INDIRECT METHOD TO GAIN FOOTHOLD IN FOREIGN TERRITORIES.
  13. 13. 3. CULTURAL IMPERIALISM : • IT DOESNOT ATTEMPT TO CONQUER TERRITORIESRATHER IT ATTEMPTSTO CONQUER THE MINDSOF PEOPLE ASA MEANSOF CHANGING THE POWER RELATIONS.
  14. 14. MOTIVES OF IMPERIALISM 1. ECONOMIC GAINS 2. POWER AND PRESTIGE 3. HUMANITARIAN MOTIVE 4. PSYCHOLOGICAL SATISFACTION 5. SECURING OF NATIONAL DEFENCE 6. ADJUSTMENT OF SURPLUSPOPULATION.
  15. 15. THEORIES OF IMPERIALISM • MARXIST THEORY: IT ISA PRODUCT OF CAPITALISM. • LIBERAL THEORY: ACCEPTSTHAT CAPITALIST ECONOMY LEADSTO IMPERIALISM BUT DOESNOT ACCEPT THAT IMPERIALISM ISNATURAL RESULT OF EXPANSION OF CAPITALISM.
  16. 16. • DEVILSTHEORY: RESULT OF CONSPIRACY OF BIG BUSINESSMEN FOR THE PURPOSE OF PRIVATE GAIN.
  17. 17. MERITS OF IMPERIALISM • WHITE MAN’SBURDEN. • POLITICAL UNITY • ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT • TRAINING FOR SELF GOVERNMENT. • PROMOTESINTERNATIONALISM. • NATURAL PHENOMENON IN IR.
  18. 18. DEMERITS OF IMPERIALISM • POLITICAL DOMINATION. • ECONOMIC EXPLOITATION. • DESTROYSNATURAL CULTURE AND MORALITY. • RACIAL DISCRIMINATION ENCOURAGES. • INTRODUCESINTERNATIONAL WAR AND RIVALRY.
  19. 19. • INHUMAN. • ANTI-DEMOCRATIC AND ANTI-LIBERAL.
  20. 20. IMPERIALISM AND COLONIALISM • WHAT ISCOLONIALISM? COLONIALISM ISA NATURAL OVERFLOW OF NATIONALITY, IT’STEST ISTHE POWER OF THE COLONOLISTSTO TRANSPLANT THE CIVILISATION THEY REPRESENT TO THE NEW NATURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT ISWHICH THEY FIND THEMSELVES.
  21. 21. RELATION BETWEEN IMPERIALISM AND COLONIALISM: •COLONIALISM AND IMPERIALISM, BOTH ARE IDENTICAL IN SO FAR BOTH INVOLVE FOREIGN RULE, ECONOMIC EXPLOITATION AND CULTURAL SUBORDINATION.
  22. 22. DIFFERENCE B/W IMPERIALISM&COLONIALISM IMPERIALISM • OLDER SYSTEM • BASIC OBJECTIVE ISTO ACQUIRE POWER • IMPOSITION OF ALIEN RULE UPON OTHER PEOPLE • POLITICAL CONTROL IS MORE AGGRESSIVE, RIGID AND AUTOCRATIC COLONIALISM • MODERN SYSTEM • BASIC OBJECTIVE ISTO ACQUIRE ECONOMY. • NATURAL OVERFLOW OF ALIEN NATIONALITY IN THE SUBJECT TERRITORY • DOMINATION OF LIFE & CULTURE OF ORGANISED PEOPLE
  23. 23. NEO-IMPERIALISM • IT ISDESIGNED TO HIGHLIGHT CONTINUATION OF ECONOMIC OR POLITICAL DEPENDENCIESOF FORMER COLONIESBY THEIR MASTERS.
  24. 24. FEATURES OF NEO-IMPERIALISM • INTERFERING THE INTERNAL AFFAIRSOF THE SMALL AND NEW STATES. • SUPPLY OF ARMSAND WEAPONS. • FOREIGN AID AND LOANS. • CONTROL OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONSTHROUGH MNC’s. • CREATING ECONOMIC DEPENDENCIESAND SATELLITE STATES.
  25. 25. CONCLUSION IMPERIALISM ISINHERENTLY INHUMAN, ANTI- LIBERAL, ANTI-DEMOCRATIC IN NATURE AND SCOPE. IT ISA CURSE AND SLUR ON COLONIALISM ASWELL AND NATIONAL LIBERATION MOVEMENTSHAVE BEEN SUCCESSFUL IN LIQUIDATING SVERAL SINSOF TRADITIONAL IMPERIALISM AND COLONIALISM FROM INTERNTIONAL RELATIONSOF OUR TIMES. MUCH, HOWEVER, STILL RREMAINSTO BE DONE. THE NEW FORCE OF IMPERIALISM-COLONIALISM i.e., COLONIALISM ISYET TO BE ELIMINATED
  26. 26. REFERENCES • AN INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS- GULAM MOHAMMAD DAR • INTERNATIONAL RELATIONSED. II- PEU GHOSH • THE GLOBALIZATION OF WORLD POLITICS: AN INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS- JOHN BAYLIS, STEVE SMITH, PATRICIA OWENS • www.historylearningsite.com

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