ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWE FEEL IMMENSE PLEASURE IN EXPRESSING OUR GRATITUDE AND HEARTLY THANKFUL TO PROF. S C MAHAPATRA & PROF. P K BHOWMICK FOR THEIR SUPPORT IN THE COMPLETION & COMPILATION OF THIS PROJECT REPORT.
THE REPORT IS BASED ONTHE SURVEY CONDUCTED ATTHE VILLAGE OFGALGHORIA, LOCATEDABOUT 4 KM FROM THEIIT CAMPUS. THE REPORTIS BASED ON CHILDLABOUR IN RURAL AREAS.FROM OUR OBSERVATION,WE FOUND THAT CHILDLABOUR IS ONE OF THEPROBLEMS IN RURALINDIA. SO HERE, WEHAVE FOCUSED OURPRESENTATION ONIMPROVING THE CONDITIONOF THE CHILDREN INRURAL INDIA.
DEFINITION Child labor is employing children who are under aged to work as determined laws of a state. This practice is considered to be exploitative in many countries and international organizations. Effects include a loss of potential and dignity in self, which is harmful to a child’s physical and mental development.
HISTORY OF CHILD LABOURCHILD LABOUR IS NOT AN INDIA-SPECIFICPROBLEM, BUT HAS BEEN A PROBLEM IN ALL THEDEVELOPED COUNTRIES DURING THE EARLY STAGES OFINDUSTRIALISATION, AS WE ARE FACING NOW.EUROPE, NORTH AMERICA AND JAPAN ARE EXAMPLES FORTHIS.CHARLES DICKENS, IN DAVID COPPERFIELD HASPORTRAYED THE CHILD LABOUR PROBLEM IN ENGLANDDURING THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION.
DURING THE EARLY STAGES OF INDUSTRIALISATION, EACH OF THESECOUNTRIES EXPERIENCED A POPULATION EXPLOSION DUE TO DECLINING DEATHRATES ACCOMPANIED BY HIGH TOTAL FERTILITY RATES. THESE IMBALANCES AFFECTED THEIR POPULATION PYRAMIDS, INCREASINGTHE PROPORTION OF CHILDREN (0-14 YEARS) IN TOTAL POPULATION FROMABOUT 30 PER CENT TO OVER 40 PER CENT. IT PEAKED AT ABOUT 42-45PER CENT IN ALL CASES WHEN THE PROPORTION STARTED DECLINING. INCIDENCEOF CHILD LABOUR (VARIOUSLY DEFINED) WAS AT ITS PEAK WHEN THEPROPORTION OF CHILD POPULATION WAS AROUND 42-45 PER CENT ANDVIRTUALLY DISAPPEARED WHEN IT DECLINED TO UNDER 30 PER CENT. HISTORICALLY, TIME TAKEN FOR THIS CHANGE HAS DIFFERED FROMCOUNTRY TO COUNTRY. TRANSITION IN THE UK DRAGGED FOR ALMOST A CENTURY WHILE THAT INJAPAN WAS IN LESS THAN FIFTY YEARS. SOUTH KOREA AND CHINA AREATTEMPTING TO DO SO IN ONE GENERATION. DEMOGRAPHERS HAVE STUDIED THIS PHENOMENA AS THEORY OFDEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. A SIMILAR CASE IS OBSERVED IN INDIA AS WELL.
STRUCTURAL CHANGE BY INDUSTRIALISATION MADE MORE AND MORE PEOPLE CHANGE OVER FROMAGRICULTURAL TO NON-AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES, AND URBANISATION IMPROVED. BUT, AS A BY- PRODUCT, THE FACILITIES IN THE CITIES SUFFERED. THIS HAS ALSO LED TO A PHENOMENA TERMED AS "STREET URCHINS"
CHILD LABOR IN INDIA The constitution of India guarantees free and compulsory education to children between the age of 6 to 14 and prohibits employment of children younger than 14 in any hazardous environment. Child labor is prevalent in almost all informal sectors of the Indian economy. OUT OF A TOTAL ESTIMATED CHILD POPULATION OF 175.9 MILLION IN INDIA 85.8 PER CENT ARE IN RURAL AREAS AND 14.4 PER CENT IN URBAN AREAS. OUT OF A TOTAL ESTIMATED FULL-TIME CHILD LABOR (USUAL ACTIVITIES STATUS DEFINITION) OF 8.9 MILLION, 90.9 PER CENT WERE IN RURAL AREAS AND ONLY 9.1 PER CENT WERE IN URBAN AREAS.
TOTAL CHILD LABOR 2/3 OF THE CHILD LABOURERS IN RURAL INDIA AREINVOLVED IN THE FAMILY ENTERPRISES AS NON-WAGE WORKERS. THE REST WORK AS WAGE-BASED WORKERS. THE FAMILY ENTERPRISE BASICALLY
CHILDREN WHO NEITHER GO TO SCHOOL, NOR ARE INVOLVED IN ANY LABOR FORCE LARGE INCIDENCE OF SUCH NOWHERE CHILDREN.JUST HELP THEIR PARENTS IN THE NO-WHERE AGRICULTURAL LABOR WORK. CHILDREN
CONSEQUENCES OF CHILD LABOR The presence of a large number of child laborers is regarded as a serious issue in terms of economic welfare. It is evident from India ranking at lowest quarter (122th) in World HDI in spite of its rapid economic growth. When children are working, they are put apart from the necessary education . Moreover, large number of low-paid Child labors lowers India’s per capita income. Their hazardous working condition lowers India’s welfare level. High illiteracy rate puts long-term economic growth at risk. According to the International Labor Organisation (ILO), there are tremendous economic benefits for developing nations by sending children to school instead of work. Without education, children do not gain the necessary skills.
STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENTNATIONAL AUTHORITY ON THE ELIMINATION OF CHILDLABOUR (NAECL)• ESTABLISHED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA IN SEPTEMBER 1994• TO ORCHESTRATE ITS POLICIES DEALING WITH THE ELIMINATION OF CHILD LABOUR.CHILD LABOUR PROHIBITION AND REGULATION ACT OF1986• EXEMPTS FROM PROHIBITION OVER 90 PER CENT OF CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA• THE INCIDENCE OF CHILD LABOUR IN THE PROHIBITED AND HAZARDOUS ACTIVITIES DOES NOT OCCUR FROM CHILDREN BORN AND BROUGHT UP IN THE VICINITY OF THESE ACTIVITIES.ILO (1996) TARGETING THE INTOLERABLE AND ITSPROPOSED CONVENTION• HAS AGAIN RESTRICTED ITSELF TO THE SO-CALLED HAZARDOUS AND INTOLERABLE FORMS OF CHILD LABOUR.
WHAT WE OBSERVED IN GOLGHORIA WE FOUND THAT MOST OF THE CHILD LABORERS IN GOLGHORIA ARE ACTUALLY NOWHERE CHILDREN. WHAT NEEDS TO BE FOCUSED ON IS THE MOTIVATION. PARENTS DOUBT THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION, AND FEEL THAT THEIR CHILDREN CAN LEARN MORE BY WORKING AS LABORERS. THE MOTIVATION OF THE PARENTS AND CHILDREN IS THE BASIC NECESSITY.
GOLGHORIA: AT A GLANCE Sarpanch: Sukhisaren 4 km from IIT campus Population: around 750-800 2 primary school present upto class 4th 250 school going children Balrampur and Gopali are the nearby village for higher education Out of 250 children (less than 15 years) 150 are going to school and 100 are school drop out.
GOLGHORIA PRIMARY SCHOOL Headmaster- ashok thapar 4 teachers are present School is upto 4th class 65 student studies in class 5th Out of 65, 40-45 goes to another village for higher education Rest are drop out
Places of works for child laborin Golghoria Cycle repair shop Mostly agriculture Ration shop Some Children work in Kharagpur at places like Tea shops, restaurants etc. Home laborers Servant in houses in Kharagpur.
INTERVIEWS… Name-Milind khiladi Age-13 Father is farm labor Went to school upto class 4 Working at cycle repair shop
INTERVIEWS… Name- shankar dulai Age-14 Father is rajmistri Went to school upto class 8 Working at cycle repair shop
REASON FOR CHILD LABOR No school for higher education within the village so parents hesitate to send girl child. Poverty Implementation of MGNREGA has been stopped after the mamta banergee govt came so, very less sources of income for the parents. Most of the child labor is agriculture labor, they work in the field with their family. Very less job opportunities Drinking problem Lack of professional education Farming and other agriculture activities is very labor intensive , so most of the parents use their children as laborer.
SOLUTION General public awareness is important, which involve door to door awareness and different programs and scheme to aware people. Incentive should be given to teachers by way of ‘Best Teacher Award for enrolment of child laborers and dropouts into Formal Schools. Parents should be motivated to send their children to schools by explaining them various government child welfare schemes. Night classes should be arranged for the children as during daytime children are involved in homely activities(these type of night classes is occuring in golghoria by two retired teacher ). Parents and children should be made aware of different job opportunities and how they could earn a living from the education they are getting. Observance of a specific day as ‘Anti Child Labour Day’. (June 12th is being observed as Anti Child Labour Day by ILO) Motivation Parents should be made aware of harmful effect of drinking and steps should be taken to eradicate drinking.
HOW DO WE MOTIVATE THE PEOPLE PEOPLE SHOULD BE MADE AWARE OF BENEFITS OF EDUCATION SYSTEM, HOW THEIR DOWNTRODDEN LIVES CAN IMPROVE BY IT. CONDUCTION OF STREET PLAYS PROVIDES AN EXCELLENT CHANNEL TO DELIVER PROPER ESSENCE OF EDUCATION. TO GAIN THE TRUST OF THE PEOPLE IN ORDER TO MEET OUR OBJECTIVES. ESTABLISHMENT OF A GOOD SCHOOL, RUN BY AN NGO OR ANY VOLUNTARY ORGANISATION, WHICH MAY WIN THE TRUST OF THE PEOPLE.
CONCLUSION INCIDENCE OF FULL TIME CHILD LABOR IN INDIA HAS BEEN DECLINING FOR THE LAST DECADE BUT CONTINUES TO BE AN OVERWHELMINGLY RURAL PHENOMENA. PREPONDERANCE OF RURAL BOYS STILL WORKING WITHIN THE FAMILY MODES OF EMPLOYMENT. LARGE SEGMENT OF RURAL GIRLS ARE IN “NOWHERE” CATEGORY. CONCENTRATION OF CHILD LABOR IN THE AGE GROUP 10-14 YEARS IS A POINTER FOR AN URGENT NEED OF A FOCUSED POLICY. IT IS A CHALLENGE FOR THE POLICY-MAKERS AND LEADERS AT THE VILLAGE, REGIONAL, STATE AND THE NATIONAL LEVEL AS WELL AS AN OPPORTUNITY TO REDEEM THEMSELVES AND CONFIDENTLY CORRECT THE ERRORS OF NEGLECT OF MANY DECADES.