12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGInformal Settlements – Understanding + Interacting (AP-322)HOUSING IN DELHIDISCUSSION 1Nipesh P Narayanan
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGHOUSING SCENARIO IN DELHI
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGHOUSING TYPE IN DELHIBased on the morphology, living condition and legal status, housing inDelhi can be classified into SEVEN types–1. Homeless2. JJ Cluster3. Resettlement Colonies4. Regularized & Unauthorized colonies5. Urban Villages6. Walled city and extension7. Planned colonies
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGPOPULATION DISTRIBUTION ACROSS THE TYPESRef:microHomeSolutions0 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000HomelessJJ ClusterResettlement ColonyUnauthorized & Regularized ColoniesUrban VillagesWalled CityPlanned Colonies# of peoplePopulationPopulation76%ofpeopleinDelhiliveinsubstandardhousing
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGSUPPLY OF HOUSING IN DIFFERENT TYPES• HOUSING SUPPLY– Owners– Renters37% of housing units in Delhi are rental
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGSUPPLY OF HOUSING IN DIFFERENT TYPESRef:microHomeSolutions0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000HomelessJJ ClusterResettlement ColonyUnauthorized & Regularized ColoniesUrban VillagesWalled CityPlanned Colonies# of unitsRenters vs. OwnersRentersOwners
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGSAFETY HAZARD DUE TO SELF-CONSTRUCTION• Delhi falls under Zone IV of the Seismic zones• Poor quality of construction fall even without earthquake (majorlydue to unsafe and ill-equipped self-construction practices)
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGSAFETY HAZARD DUE TO SELF-CONSTRUCTIONRef:microHomeSolutions0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000HomelessJJ ClusterResettlement ColonyUnauthorized & Regularized ColoniesUrban VillagesWalled CityPlanned Colonies# of unitsSelf-ConstructionSelf-Constructed UnitsNot-Self-Constructed74% of housing units areself-constructed
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGHOUSING SUPPLY AS PER INCOMERef:microHomeSolutions0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000HomelessJJ ClusterResettlement ColonyUnauthorized & Regularized ColoniesUrban VillagesWalled CityPlanned Colonies# of unitsIncome0-5k5-15k15>
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGHURDLES & WAY FORWARD IN DIFFERENTHOUSING TYPES
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGHOMELESS – Situation as of now• 64 permanent shelters and 87 temporary tent shelters– Total existing = 151– Total required = 168 (As per MPD 2021 norm of 1 night shelter per 1 Lakh population)
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGHOMELESS – Hurdles to overcome• Sustainable operation of homeless shelter• Up-liftment of the homeless to the main stream• Insulating the homeless from drugs and other socially degradingactivities
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGHOMELESS – Way forward• Permanent homeless shelter to be made:– These shelters should NOT be free of cost. A minimal fee shall be charged based onthe location, and those who cannot pay, should have an option of paying it in termsof labour. Paying in terms of labour will ensure sustainability of the shelter and willmake the food production, cleaning and maintenance a lot more smoother.• Employment opportunities should be linked to homelessshelters:– The quality of life can be improved for homeless if the shelter provisions could belinked to job opportunities. Shelters can be testing grounds for emerging conceptslike urban farming and also for skill up gradation projects.• Shelter should include food and medical facilities:– Food facility could be subsidized, but should be charged in a manner to make itsustainable.• NGOs already working in this sector should be involved
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGJJ CLUSTER– Situation as of now
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGJJ CLUSTER– Hurdles to overcome• Improvement of quality of life• Ensuring structural safety• Discouraging future growth of slums
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGJJ CLUSTER– Way forwardRAY tries to address this problem, RAY is for the entire nation and Delhibeing a mega city posses different set of problems.• Land title cannot be given to slums in Delhi as the densities in Delhislums are very high.• Beneficiary contribution as per RAY is very low, which is fine at anational level. Delhi slums have higher income levels and there arerenters (10 to 15% of the total population are renters in any givenslum in Delhi).• Cooperative housing societies should be constituted for in-situredevelopment of slums. And houses should NOT be subsidized.• Clear property title should be given on the housing unit, whichcould be sold or mortgaged.• Rental units should be an integral part of any slum redevelopmentprogram in Delhi.
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGRESETTLEMENT COLONIES – Situation as of nowWith each subsequentwave, resettlement colonies movedfurther away from the city centercreating further problems includingpoor housing, unemploymentand transportation issuesRef:microHomeSolutions
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGRESETTLEMENT COLONIES – Hurdles to overcome• The main issue with a resettlement colony that the land is on leaseto the occupants and they are not allowed to sell it.• Once trading is restricted they informally trade the land withPoA (Power of Attorney), which is an accepted practice onground, but is not acceptable by formal institutions. Thus the newowners can’t have housing loans and are bound to build in an unsafemanner by taking high interest housing loans from the informalmoney lenders.• This practice leads to social and economical degradation of theresidents as well as the houses built are very poor in terms ofquality and safety.
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGRESETTLEMENT COLONIES – Way forward• Take the land rights form the dwellers and give them clear mortgage-able/sellable right to the house.• Allow land pooling for residential development, which willprovide option for the residents to pool in and make groups to approach anarchitect (or urban designer) for a sustainable wholesome developmentplan.• NGOs/CBOs should be contacted to create a community drivenredevelopment process financed by a formal Housing FinanceCompany. The pooling of stake holders and subsidizing the processing costwould encourage private developers and practicing architects to jump intothis sector without subsidizing the development and infrastructure cost.• Associate the micro financing for housing with technical assistance sothat the construction could be safer.
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGREGULARIZED & UNAUTHORIZED COLONIES – Situation as of now• All unauthorized colonies are to be regularized as per MPD 2021• Since the buildings were never sanctioned, hence they are highlyunsafe and in most of the areas are not conducive for a healthy living.
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGREGULARIZED & UNAUTHORIZED COLONIES – Hurdles to overcome• Rampant and dangerous rate of construction due to highdemand for affordable and rental housing.• No compliance of the building codes and safety regulationsstipulated by BIS leading to highly unsafe structures and poor qualityhouses.• Lack of infrastructure due to unaccounted density in any givensettlement.
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGREGULARIZED & UNAUTHORIZED COLONIES – Way forward• Ensure Safety of existing structures• Ensure compliance with building byelaws for better qualityhousing.
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGURBAN VILLAGES – Situation as of now• No building byelaws are followed hence buildings are– Structurally unsafe– Poor living condition (lack basic amenities like ventilation and lighting)
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGURBAN VILLAGES – Hurdles to overcome• High density unsafe construction• Poor Quality houses
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGURBAN VILLAGES – Way forward• Structural safety of all the existing buildings should be ensured• Urban villages provide the maximum rental housing available in themarket, hence new rental units should be provided todecongest the urban villages• New housing should be constructed to decongest the urbanvillages
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGWALLED CITY & EXTENSION – Situation as of now• Special area plan still to be prepared.• Reducing residential population• Degrading living conditions
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGWALLED CITY & EXTENSION – Hurdles to overcome• Reducing residential population• Accommodating the huge agglomeration of unskilled and semi-skilledlaborers• Improving the living condition
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGWALLED CITY & EXTENSION – Way forward• Huge agglomeration of un-skilled and semi-skilled laborers live inwalled city and its extension. Affordable rental units to beprovided to them.• Large number of floating population comes to this section, hencedormitory accommodation needs to be provided• Structural safety of existing buildings• Plot amalgamation and cooperative housing developmentfor reviving the residential neighborhood• Adaptive reuse of the defunct buildings
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGPLANNED COLONIES – Situation as of now• Housing Deficit of about 5.6 Lakh units exists as of 2011• 2 Lakh low income migrants move into Delhi each year (Ministry of Healthand Family Welfare, Government of India)
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGPLANNED COLONIES – Hurdles to overcome• Segregated housing development• Missing options for affordable housing addressing all income groups.– EWS– LIG– Single working men/women– Newly married couples– Lower middle class– MIG (options exists, but limited number)– HIG (options exists)• Huge deficit for rental units
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGPLANNED COLONIES – Way forward• Provide ‘rental’ and ’to be owned ’ units targeting all incomegroups.• Incentivize the market to provide affordable housing to the poor.• Increase density in government colonies (e.g Kidwai Nagar, R.KPuram, Sarojini Nagar etc.) and promote mixed use development.• Provide new housing stock along the MRTS influence zonewith a judicial mix of rentals and affordable units.
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGHOUSING REQUIREMENT
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGHOUSING REQUIREMENT• Population of Delhi as per 2011 census : 16753235• Decadal Growth rate : 40%• Population by 2017 : 20774033• Housing Deficit as of 2011 : 5.6 Lakhs (Deduced from MPD 2021)• 2 Lakh low income migrants move into Delhi each year (Ministry ofHealth and Family Welfare, Government of India)
12th Five Year Plan HOUSINGHOUSING REQUIREMENT• Housing requirement to be fulfilled by 2017 : 13.6 Lakh (2.72 Lakhunits per year) (54% for EWS) (Assuming 1 unit per 5 person of the growing population +existing housing deficit)• 30 % of the new housing should be rental• New homeless shelters to be built by 2017: 57 (11.4 shelters per year) (asper MPD norm of 1 homeless shelter per 1 Lakh population + existing deficit)• Rental units/dorm-beds need to be built every year: 2 Lakh• Provide localized sustainable waste management systems• Storm water management at a local level by reducing runoff• Fine grain fabric and integrated mixed use development along MRTS