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world habitat day

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  1. 1. Housing & Sanitation scenario in urban India Department of Civil Engg GURU NANAK DEV ENGG COLLEGE Email ID: by Er. Kulbir Singh gill
  2. 2. Urbanisation and Development “ Urban” in India is defined as a human settlement with a minimum population of 5000 persons, with 75% of the male working population engaged in non-agricultural activities and a population density of at least 400 persons per sq. km. Further, all statutory towns having a Municipal Corporation, Municipal Council or Nagar Panchayat as well as a Cantonment Board are classified as “URBAN”
  3. 3. Urbanisation and Development <ul><li>99% of the housing shortage of 24.7 million at the end of the 10th Plan pertains to the Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) and Low Income Groups (LIG) sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) 61st Round reports that the number of urban poor has risen by 4.4 million persons, between 1993-94 to 2004-05. </li></ul><ul><li>From 12 in 1981 with 26.8% share of the total urban population, the number of million plus cities has increased to 35 in 2001 with 37% share of the total urban population. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rural to Urban shift of labour <ul><li>It is important to highlight the fact that the informal sector in urban areas is growing exponentially. In the decade 1991-2001, workers classified as “marginal workers” registered an increase of 360% as compared to an increase of only 23% for workers classified as “main workers.” As a consequence, the ratio of marginal workers to total workers increased from 2.2% in 1991 to 7.9% in 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>T he proportion of female workers to total workers rose from 14.3% in 1991 to 16% in 2001 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Urban India: Statistical Profile 2008 <ul><li>Urban Population 286 Million </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Population % 28% </li></ul><ul><li>No of Urban Agglomerations/Towns 5,161 </li></ul><ul><li>No of Metropolitan Cities 35 </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Population Share 38% </li></ul><ul><li>Share of Cities with Population > 50000 74% </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Contribution to GDP 60% </li></ul>
  6. 6. Urban India: Slums & Poverty Scenario Slum Population 1991 : 42 Million 2001 : 62 Million Growth in Urban Population 1991-2001 : 58 Million Growth in Slum Population 1991-2001 : 20 Million Poverty Scenario: Urban BPL Population 1973-1974 : 60 Million 1999-2000 : 67 Million
  7. 7. Share of Slum Population in City Population: Select Cities <ul><li> Mumbai 54% </li></ul><ul><li>Faridabad 46% </li></ul><ul><li>Aligarh 45% </li></ul><ul><li>Meerut 44% </li></ul><ul><li>Warangal 43% </li></ul><ul><li>Amaravati 43% </li></ul><ul><li>Raipur 37% </li></ul><ul><li>Nagpur 36% </li></ul><ul><li>Guntur 33% </li></ul><ul><li>Kolkata 32% </li></ul>
  8. 8. Urban India: Growth in Population & Slum Population <ul><li>Decadal Total Population Growth 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Decadal Urban Population Growth 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Decadal Metro-Population Growth 79% </li></ul><ul><li>Decadal Slum Population Growth 70% </li></ul>
  9. 9. Poverty and Housing needs <ul><li>According to the Census 2001, 61.82 million persons or 23.1% of the urban population resides in slums. During the 11th Plan, the Group estimated that the total housing requirement (including backlog) will be to the tune of 26.53 million units for 75.01 million households. </li></ul><ul><li>One fourth of the country’s total urban population, numbering 80.7 million persons is below the poverty line. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Access to Housing 2001 Housing Scenario in India Household having: %age of Households No Exclusive Room 2.3 One Room 35.1 Two Rooms 29.5 More than Two Rooms 33.1
  11. 11. Total Housing Shortage Housing shortage at the beginning of 11th Five Year Plan (1.4.2007) 24.71 million dwelling units Additional Housing Requirement for the 11th Plan ( 2007-2012) 1.82 million dwelling units Total housing requirement during 11th Plan Period including the carried over housing shortage 26.53 Million dwelling units
  12. 12. Category-wise Housing Shortage Estimated Urban Housing Unit Shortage as on 1.4.2007: More than 99% shortage is for EWS/LIG segments Total : 24.71 m 100.00% EWS : 21.78 m 88.14% LIG : 2.89 m 11.69% MIG&HIG: 0.04 m 0.16%
  13. 13. Financial Investment Required for Overcoming Shortage For 24.71 million Dwelling Units. Rs.14719.50 million Additional housing requirement (1.82 million Units) during 11th Plan Rs.21412.31 million Total Rs.36131.81 million
  14. 14. * The figure in Parenthesis is the total housing stock (in Million) Quality of Housing Stock
  15. 15. 12.65 19.86 23.43 20.07 19.44 9.70 15.20 17.24 12.82 11.65 1.95 4.66 6.19 7.25 7.89
  16. 16. Growth of Slums Slum Population as %age of total urban population is given in parenthesis 28 46 61.8
  17. 17. Balanced Regional Development <ul><li>The way to bring about a symbiotic development between rural and urban areas is by adopting “a Regional Planning approach.” </li></ul><ul><li>In view of the fact that 50% of India’s population is forecasted to be living in urban areas by 2041, it is necessary to develop new integrated townships. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of sustainable habitat is closely related to the adoption of ‘ the Regional Planning approach ’ while preparing Master Plans of towns/ cities, District Plans and Regional/Sub-Regional Plans. </li></ul><ul><li>The new Habitat Policy reaffirms the importance of small and medium urban agglomerates/towns which have potential for future urban growth . </li></ul>
  18. 18. National Urban Housing & Habitat Policy 2007
  19. 19. <ul><li>Affordable Housing for All </li></ul><ul><li>Spotlight on EWS Housing for promoting social inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Special focus on SC,ST,BC, Minorities & empowerment of women within ambit of urban poor </li></ul>VISION
  20. 20. <ul><li>The Cooperative Sector </li></ul><ul><li>The Labour Housing sector </li></ul><ul><li>The Employee Welfare Housing Sector </li></ul><ul><li>The Employer Housing Sector ,and </li></ul><ul><li>The Private Sector </li></ul>Public partnerships with
  21. 21. Focus Areas The new policy considers the 74 th Amendment Act in terms of preparation of District Plans by District Planning Committees (DPCs) as a vital determinant of systematic urban planning.
  22. 22. Addressing the special needs of women headed households, single women, working women and women in difficult circumstances in relation to housing serviced by basic amenities. Special Provision for Women
  23. 23. Public-Private Partnerships Forging strong partnerships between public, private and cooperative sectors for accelerated growth in the Housing Sector and sustainable development of habitat
  24. 24. Healthy Environment <ul><li>Developing cities/towns in a manner which promotes a healthy environment, encouraging use of renewable energy resources and ensuring effective solid waste management in collaboration with persons involved in recycling activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting our cultural heritage and architecture as well as promoting traditional skills with suitable adaptation to modern technologies. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Research & Development Organisations <ul><li>Undertake research to respond to different climatic conditions with a focus on transition from conventional to innovative, cost effective and environment friendly technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Intensify efforts for transfer of innovative technologies and materials from lab to field </li></ul>
  26. 26. JnNURM at a Glance No. of Houses Sanctioned 1.046 million No. of Houses under Progress 0.265 million Budget for 2007-08-Rs.1991 Crores (BSUP+IHSDP) 99.7 % achieved Urban Reforms: Earmarking of 25% of Municipal Budget as BSUP Fund; Timeline Target of 27 cities 27 cities achieved Urban Reform: Earmarking of 20-25% of developed land for EWS/LIG; Timeline Target of 16 cities 16 cities achieved
  27. 27. <ul><li>Minimum 25 Sq mtrs Carpet area under BSUP and Covered area under IHSDP, </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum provision of Two rooms, Kitchenette, Toilet & Bath, </li></ul><ul><li>Vector-free housing layout, </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of Basic Physical Amenities: Water Supply,Drainage, sanitation, Roads/Streets, street Lighting, Solid Waste management & appropriate Green Spaces, </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of Social Infrastructure: Community Centre, Livelihood Centre & Informal Sector Market, and </li></ul><ul><li>Eco friendly Habitat which promotes Social Cohesiveness. </li></ul>Eco friendly design & layouts for the Urban Poor Inclusive Planning & Architecture
  28. 28. <ul><li>Total cost of a Low Cost Sanitation Unit with superstructure is pegged at Rs.10,000 in plains & Rs.12500 in hilly or difficult terrains. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidy by Central Govt. is 75%; Subsidy by State Govt. is 15%; & Beneficiary contribution is 10%. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong involvement of NGOs. </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of a Citywide Approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative Sanitation Systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of Rs.600 crores for urban areas during the 11 th Plan Period. </li></ul>Integrated Low Cost Sanitation
  29. 29. Urban Infrastructure Challenges
  30. 30. Social Housing <ul><li>The two lowest monthly per capita expenditure classes </li></ul><ul><li>Saving capacity of EWS & LIG </li></ul><ul><li>The subsidy gap & </li></ul><ul><li>Converting need to demand. </li></ul>…
  31. 31. Conclusions <ul><li>Now government can’t bear the responsibility to provide 100% habitat for the urban residents . </li></ul><ul><li>Strong will </li></ul><ul><li>Participation of N.G.O’s and private sector </li></ul><ul><li>Role of religious bodies </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Thanks </li></ul>