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Singapore's housing policies

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Despite its relatively small land and unpromising outlook as a nation, Singapore progressed from a third world status in the 1960s to one of the highest income countries in the world today. Singapore has achieved a great and remarkable success in the housing sector; its successful development has been thanks to far-sighted and careful management of the economy by the government as well as well established policies.

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Singapore's housing policies

  1. 1. Singapore’s Housing Policies … Housing a nation : Holistic policies for affordable homes Presented by : Aliaa M. Shamallakh
  2. 2. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 2 Outlines … 1 • Singapore's profile … 2 • Housing policies and history in Singapore … 3 • Goals and principles of housing policies … 4 • Housing policies outcomes … 5 • Problems and challenges …
  3. 3. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 3 Singapore’s Profile … Name: Republic of Singapore. Capital City : Singapore. Type: Parliamentary Republic. Founding : 1819. Self-government : 1959. Independence from UK: 1963. Merge with Malaysia: 1963. Expulsion from Malaysia 1965
  4. 4. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 4 Singapore’s Profile … Location: Southeast Asia, it is a city-state and island country between Malaysia and Indonesia. Area: 718.3 km2 (projected to grow by another 100 km2 by 2030). Climate: equatorial, a tropical rainforest climate; hot and humid. Natural resources: Fish, deepwater ports. Industries: Electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade. Currency: Singapore Dollar (S$, SGD)
  5. 5. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 5 Singapore’s Profile … 1960s Today The “miracle” transformation: from 3rd world to 1st in one life time !
  6. 6. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 6 Singapore’s Profile … Population 5.4 million 61.12 % Citizen 23% Foreign born 38.88 % permanent residents The average household size is 3.47 persons Population density is 7,615/km2
  7. 7. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 7 Singapore’s Profile … Ethnic Groups Chinese 77 % Malay 14 % Indian 8 % Religions Buddhist Muslim Christian Hindu Sikh Taoist Confucianist
  8. 8. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 8 Singapore’s Profile …  Singapore has a highly developed market economy, based historically on extended entrepôt trade. The Singaporean economy is known as one of the freest, most innovative, most competitive, and most business-friendly.  Singapore is the 14th largest exporter and the 15th largest importer in the world.  There are more than 7,000 multinational corporations from the United States, Japan, and Europe in Singapore.  Roughly 44 % of the Singaporean workforce is made up of non-Singaporeans.
  9. 9. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 9 Singapore’s Profile …  Singapore ranked 5th on the Tax Justice.  Unemployment rate has not exceeded 4% in the past decade.  Singapore has the world's highest percentage of millionaires, with one out of every six households having at least one million US dollars in disposable wealth. This excludes property, businesses, and luxury goods, which if included would increase the number of millionaires.  Acute poverty is rare in Singapore. The government has rejected the idea of a generous welfare system, stating that each generation must earn and save enough for its entire life cycle.
  10. 10. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 10 Housing Policies … Slums and living in (Kampongs) 1920s
  11. 11. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 11 Housing Policies … Shortage of Housing: - Rapidly increasing population. - Singapore Improvement Trust (SIT) in 1927 provided affordable public housing. It built only 23,000 housing units in its 32 years of existence .
  12. 12. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 12 Housing Policies … 14-storey block - Queenstown – Downson estate in 1956/ by SIT.
  13. 13. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 13 Housing Policies … Key institutions in Singapore’s housing system Housing and Development Board (HDB) - 1960  HDB town planning.  Build as many low-cost housing units .  sells subsidized public housing (99 year leasehold).  Offer mortgages loans Central Provident Fund (CPF) - 1968  Collects employees’ and employer contributions.  20% Employees, 13 % employers.  Members can withdraw funds for approves purposes, including housing finance. Commercial Banks, Finance Housing  Provides market interest rate mortgages to buyers.  Make loans to private sector developers for construction and investments.
  14. 14. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 14 Housing Policies … Selegie House & Bukit Ho Swee estate by HDB (1962 – 1964)
  15. 15. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 15 Housing Policies … CPF Mobilization of Savings for Housing
  16. 16. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 16 Housing Policies … Housing Stock (2009) Owner occupied unit Rental Units Public-sector 884,000 units 78% 95% 5% Dominance of HDB in housing  HDB began offering housing units for sale at below market prices, on 99-year leasehold basis, under its Home Ownership Scheme (HOS). The HDB was able to price its units below market prices mainly because HDB flats are built on state owned land.
  17. 17. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 17 Housing Policies … Government Land Acquisition (GLA) -1966  More than 90% of the land in Singapore belongs to the state.  Land Acquisition Act (LAA) which permitted the state and its agencies to acquire land for any public purpose or for any work which is of public benefit.  Government Land Sales (GLS): the government amalgamates land, inserts infrastructure, provides planning and urban design guidelines, and releases the land for sale to private (including foreign) developers.
  18. 18. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 18 Housing Policies … Resale Market Deregulation (1979 - early 1990s)  In 1971, a resale market was created when the HDB allowed owners who had resided in their flats for a minimum of three years to sell their flats at market prices to buyers of their choice who satisfied the HDB eligibility requirements for homeownership.  The minimum occupancy period before resale was increased to five years in 1973 and has remained in place since.  The debarment period was abolished in 1979 thereby greatly facilitating exchanges within the public housing sector.
  19. 19. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 19 Housing Policies … Resale Market Deregulation (1979 - early 1990s)  Only citizens, non-owners of any other residential property, households with a minimum size of two persons with household incomes below the income ceiling set by the HDB were eligible to purchase new or resale HDB flats prior to 1989.  In 1989, residential mobility was enhanced when the income ceiling restriction was removed for HDB resale flats; the resale market was opened to permanent residents as well as private property owners who had to owner-occupy their HDB flat.  From 1991, single citizens above the age of 35 have been allowed to purchase HDB resale flats for owner-occupancy.
  20. 20. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 20 Housing Policies … Housing Price Inflation Financial Liberalization Resale Transaction  The transaction volume of resale HDB flats increased from fewer than 800 units in 1979, to 13000 units in 1987, 60000 units in 1999, and 31000 in 2004.  Loan financing prior to 1993 was based on 80% of 1984 HDB new flat (posted) prices. In 1993 granting loan financing of up to 80% of current valuation or the declared resale price of the flat
  21. 21. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 21 Housing Policies … transaction volume of resale HDB flats increased from CBF Housing Grants Executive Condominiums Anti-speculation measures  Shift from total reliance on subsidies tied partial reliance on subsidies tied to resale flats.  $30000 to purchase a HDB resale flat close to either parents' or married child's residence. And $40000 for eligible households does not need to satisfy this criterion.  a hybrid public-private house type in 1995.  The government auctioned the land off for the development of EC units to housing developers who are responsible for design, construction, pricing, arrangements for financing and estate management.  housing prices continued to soar.  anti-speculation measures included capital gains taxes on the sale of any property within three years of purchase, stamp duty on every sale and sub-sale of property, limitation of housing loans to 80 % of property value, and limiting foreigners to non S$ denominated housing loans.
  22. 22. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 22 Goals & Principles … 1.Developing Vibrant Towns Comprehensive Town Planning Rejuvenation/Upgrading -Planning for Self-Sufficiency. - Neighbourhood Concept . - Concept of Hierarchy. - Planning for Connectivity. - Checkerboard Concept . - Continually ensure that old towns and developments do not lag behind newer towns. - Facilities are added, existing ones being upgraded. - Some areas would be re- planned and redeveloped to optimize land use.
  23. 23. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 23 Goals & Principles …
  24. 24. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 24 Goals & Principles …
  25. 25. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 25 Goals & Principles …
  26. 26. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 26 Goals & Principles … 2. Providing Affordable Homes Promoting Home Ownership in Singapore Wide Range of Housing Choices - Assisting Lower-Income Families. -Promoting Family Ties . - Giving Incentives to Singles Living with Parents. - Providing more Options for the Elderly . - Helping Singles. - For All Pockets. - For Different Life Stages. - New Typologies
  27. 27. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 27 Goals & Principles … New Typologies / Central Horizon in Toa Payoh
  28. 28. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 28 Goals & Principles … New Typologies / Pinnacle@Duxton
  29. 29. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 29 Goals & Principles … New Typologies / The Interlace (Private housing for upper-midieum income
  30. 30. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 30 Goals & Principles … 3. Cohesive Communities Hardware Software Heartware - Integrate the communities. - varying types of flats for households of different income and social profiles. - Open/void ground floor. - The Residents’ Committees (RCs) Centre. - Playgrounds, fitness corners and precinct pavilions. - Commercial and recreational facilities. - Promoting extended family living. - Multi-Tier Family Housing Scheme. - Married Child Priority Scheme. - Third Child Priority Scheme . - Ethnic Integration Policy (EIP). This creates a balanced mix of residents from various ethnic groups. - enhance the sense of belonging in HDB towns . - Instilling a stronger sense of ownership in residents. - Involve residents in the management of HDB estates. - participate in the decision making process. - Involved in shaping the physical environment. - forums, consultation, and regular surveys.
  31. 31. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 31 Goals & Principles … Void Spaces’ activities (elderly care, meeting, parties, ..est.
  32. 32. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 32 Goals & Principles …
  33. 33. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 33 Goals & Principles …
  34. 34. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 34 Policies’ Outcomes… 1. UNDER THE LEE KUAN YEW GOVERNMENT, 1959 – 1990:  Improvements in the urban environment and the standards of housing in Singapore .  success of the economic development and housing strategy .  squatter settlements were cleared and entire neighborhoods and villages were resettled in HDB new towns.  Increase in Savings Rate.  Increase in Quantity and Quality of Housing Stock.  Increase in Homeownership Rate.
  35. 35. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 35 Policies’ Outcomes…  Development of Mortgage Market  Racial Integration  Impact on Economic Distribution 2. The Goh Chok Tong Government, 1990 – 2004:  The housing shortage problem was solved.  Housing policies under Goh Chok Tong’s term as the Prime Minister were marked as market deregulation, “asset enhancement” and “upgrading” policies.
  36. 36. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 36 Policies’ Outcomes… 3. The Lee Hsien Loong Government, from 2004:  Hold off increasing housing supply which subsequently led to a housing shortage in 2010.  Elderly Households: Monetizing Housing Assets: the Lease Buyback Scheme (LBS) in 2009 to allow the low income elderly (age 63 or older) living in 3-room or smaller flats to unlock the equity in their homes.  Lower Income Households: Additional and Special Housing Grants.  Property Investors: Curbing Housing Investment Demand.
  37. 37. 5/6/2015 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department 37 Problems & Challenges … 1. Crowding out. 2. Housing sector impacts. 3. Consumption inefficiencies. 4. Retirement financing. 5. Lack of unemployment insurance. 6. Financial Sector development. 7. Governance issues. 8. Un-equitable social engineering. 9. Speculative gains eroding work ethic. 10. Policies impeding talent attraction. 11. Politicization of HDB.
  38. 38. For Listening ….. 5/6/2015 38 Aliaa M. Shamallakh | IUG | Faculty of Engineering | Architecture Department

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