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  1. 1. INTRODUCTIONThe design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear trainingobjective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to beachieved by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to beable to do at the end of their training.Training design or instructional design is the process of creating a blueprint forthe development of instruction. Whether the training is to be conducted in aclassroom, delivered using anelectronic format or using some combination ofmethods, the design process sets the stage for the development of a program thatproduces results.ViewpointOne key factor in designing training is viewpoint. The designer must considerthe training from the viewpoint of the learner.ElementsThe design phase of developing training includes establishing learningobjectives, planning the steps to achieve those objectives, sequencing andstructuring the steps to be taken including projects, lectures, videos,assignments, presentations, readings or other activities, and determiningevaluation procedures.ConsiderationsIn designing a training program, the designer considers a variety of factors thatwill impact the training, including the current knowledge level of the audience,availability of various technologies, time frames, available resources and howthe training may complement or conflict with existing programs.BenefitsThe benefit of good design is effective training that engages learners withvarious methods, flows logically for better learning, uses resources wisely andmeets learning objectivesModelADDIE, a common model used by training professionals, includes the designstep. Steps in the model are analysis, design, development, implementation andevaluation.
  2. 2. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING DESIGNIn addition to being guided by a thorough understanding of the problems, design alsoguided by certain general principles:  The principles that constitute the field of human performance improvement, which help to ensure that people achieve the best possible results on the job  The principle that underpin adult learning DESIGN STEPS FOR A TRAINING PROGRAMEight StepsStep1. Define purpose of the training and target audienceStep2. Determine participants’ needsStep3. Define training goals and objectivesStep4. Outline training contentStep5. Develop instructional activitiesStep6. Prepare the written training designStep7. Prepare participant evaluation form(s)Step8. Determine follow-up activities for the eventStep1. Define Purpose of the Training and Target Audience  Become clear about what your training needs to accomplish.  Purpose and audience will be clear—determined by funders or well- established professional development needs.  You may need to sort through and prioritize a spectrum of training needs before determining a training focus.  Once you have a clear sense of the training’s purpose and target audience, write it down! Then use this description to promote your program to prospective participants.Step2. Determine Participants’ NeedsSeveral ways to find out about the needs  A brief, written survey as part of their registration packet all participants to collect general information from all participants. pre-training assessment form  Survey a random sample of registrants by phone. This will allow you to collect detailed information from a few participants.  Review evaluation and feedback forms from past-related training events.
  3. 3. Step3. Define Training Goals and Objectives  Clarifying expected outcomes  Outlining training content  Planning specific training activities  Selecting/developing materials  Designing evaluation procedures  Communicating program intent to the training participants and others (such as program administrators and supervisors)  Ensuring that the training is realistic and appropriate for the purpose intendedSamples of goals and objectivesSample goal: to increase knowledge of HIV/AIDS among the health educators inPhildelphia.Sample objective: by the end of the training participants will be able to identify threeways that HIV is transmitted.Sample objective: by the end of the training participants will be able to list five ways todecrease the risk of becoming infected with HIV.STEP4. Outline training content  Introduction: establishes a positive learning environment  Learning components: participants engage in activities designed to accomplish the training objectives.  Wrap up and evaluation component: should help bridge the gap between training and implementation and promote a positive feeling of closure. Rules of thumb  Fill in known elements-such as meals and breaks  Start with simple concepts and proceed to more complex  Proceeds from less threatening to more sensitive topics  Schedule activities which require the greatest concentration when people will be focused and energetic  Give yourself- and participants- a break  Build in time for reflection, discussion and Q&A  Introduce the day’s events in the beginning  Schedule 8-10 minutes at the end of each day for feedback  Review your plan with a critical eye
  4. 4.  Be flexible! Although your design is a detailed road map, you may encounter detours along the way.STEP5.Develop Instructional ActivitiesAn effective training design incorporates a variety of training strategies, takinginto account;  Participants learning style  Principles of adult learning  Group size  Prior experience and /or education level of participants  Type of skill or information to be presented  Trainer’s styleWhen deciding which activities to use, consider these questions:  Do we know that this activity us effective?  Have we used it before?  Are we comfortable with this technique?  Do we have the expertise to use it effectively?  Does the activity require prior knowledge or skill on the part of participants?  Will we have the time, space and resources needed to accomplish the activity?  Will the activity encourage learning without confusing participants?STEP6. Prepare the Written Training Design  Create a written document that provides a detailed plan of the training session, including your goals and objectives.  Consider the skill expertise, training style and comfort level of each of your trainers in making this designation.  Also consider identifying specific trainer who will take the lead in fleshing out different sections of the training and creating the necessary supporting materials.  Use your written training design to stay in track during the training events, make mid course corrections and document training details.STEP7. Prepare Participant Evaluation FormsSome issues to address through the evaluation forms  Did the participants acquire the knowledge and skill that the trainer was supposed to provide?
  5. 5.  Were the trainers knowledgeable about training content?  Were the activities interesting and effective?  Was the training format appropriate?  Is more training on this or related topics needed to support participants in their work?STEP8. Determine Follow-up Activities for the EventSome follow up strategies include:  Newsletters and web site posting  Per observation and coaching, in which individuals observe one another performing a newly acquired skill,  Mentoring, in which individuals receives on site, personal support and technical assistance from someone with experience in the method being learned,  Study groups, in which individuals meet regularly to support one another during the implementation of new idea or practice,  Booster session, in which training participants are brought together two to three months after the training event to reinforce the knowledge and skills acquired during the training and  Ongoing communication between participants and trainers via phone or electronic mailFIVE STEPS OF THE DESIGN TRAINING PROCESSThe ADDIE method of instructional design consists of five phases that trainersand instructional designers may use to plan and implement training. The steps inthe process are Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate. The stepswork in conjunction with one another, which saves companies time and moneyby allowing revisions to be made throughout the process rather than after thetraining is launched.AnalyzeIn the analysis phase, the training team works with the business owners toanalyze and assess the goals and objectives for the training being developed.One question addressed in this phase is what type of training delivery methodwill be used. Will it be web-based or instructor led? Additional questions suchas who the audience is and what are their learning patterns may also bediscussed during the analysis phase. Deadlines and a project plan may bedetermined at this time as well
  6. 6. DesignAfter questions are assessed and answered during the analysis phase, thetraining designer begins to layout the training content and to develop the designdocument. This document, while not containing actual content, will contain theoutline of content, any groupings of content that may be necessary and medianotes. Quizzes or assessments will also be included in the design document aswill any types of training exercises the participants will be required to do.DevelopmentThe development phase is when storyboards for the training are developed, andgraphic designs are created or chosen. The graphics will be implemented intothe training and will enhance the training by giving the learning visuals tocomplement the content. The actual course content is written during thedevelopment phase. For web-based training, a small version of the course maybe put together at this time. This allows the web team to upload and test thecontent online and to make necessary adjustments. After the training content isdeveloped, it is then sent to the business owners and the subject matter experts(SME) for review and approval.
  7. 7. ImplementationAfter the course content is finalized and approved by the business owners, thetraining is ready to be launched. This occurs during the implementation phase.Facilitators must review and understand the curriculum as well as the testingprocess. Books, manuals and copies of software should be obtained if necessaryto be distributed during the training. Course scheduling and student enrollmentare completed during this time. Any necessary travel arrangements are made forfacilitators or participants during the implementation phase.EvaluationDuring the evaluation phase, feedback is generated by the participants of thecourse. This can be done by surveys, either paper based or electronic. Receivingparticipants feedback is important for the development of future courses. Theevaluation process will allow the instructional designers to find out if learningobjectives are being met and how well the course is being received. Long-termevaluations may be necessary to determine whether material was retained or ifworkers behavior changed in the workplace. This type of evaluation may bedone several months after the training has occurred. These types of evaluationsare summative and are completed after the training. Formative evaluations areongoing during each phase of the ADDIE method, which allow for errors to becaught early in the process. TRAINING DESIGN AND EXECUTION CYCLEHow do the best shooters constantly push themselves to the next level? Theyconstantly modify their training to meet their goals, and they constantly set thebar higher each time they accomplish a goal. What is this cycle? To put itbluntly, it is the cycle that MUST be gone through to continue to evolve to thenext level. Most people go through this cycle without even knowing it, but ifnot, our training cannot possibly evolve. This cycle is not the only way todesign and modify training to meet a goal, it is just a guideline.The training design and execution cycle is the process of initial design of aProgram based on goals > to the execution of the training > to the measurementof results > to the modification of the program to meet those results. Obviously,if we meet our initial goal, then the next step when redefining the goal is to setthe bar higher! This cycle repeats itself as many times as necessary to meet thegoal.
  8. 8. Following are the components of cycle:Define the Goal (training objective) - This is where we begin our designand execution cycle, by defining what our goal is. This isnt always completelyunder our control. A static goal is potentially a set score on a qualification, or aspecific accuracy requirement for those who have a specific numerical goal. Adynamic goal is something that is potentially changing and a bit lessmeasureable, such as a person’s performance during a particular event. Adynamic goal cannot be maximized, as theoretically there is always a higherlevel. Here are some considerations in defining a training goal:• Mission requirements• Personal requirements (competitive goal)• Time (that is available to meet the goal)• Resources (financial, or logistical issues that may impact our goal)Needs Analysis- This is where we get very specific about the details ofmeeting our target goal .We can refine, or possibly re-define its goal in this step(if our initial goal is flawed). This step is the analytical step where we definewhat we need to do and have to meet the goal. The detailed steps to this processare:• Do a current Skills Assessment• Set a target date for the first performance measurement. This may be a matchora qualification• Verify that the target date is realistic• Set the specific standards of performance
  9. 9. • List the available resources, and identify anything that may hamper usfromreaching the target goal (ammunition, money, training tools, etc.).• List the methods to overcome or compensate for things we have identifiedaspotential showstoppers in regards to our resources.• Restate or Redefine the goal based on an objective view of the steps above.• Now we have an actual goal that is measurable, documented, and achievable.Program Design-Now that we have analyzed and clearly stated our traininggoal, we will begin to design a program to meet our objectives. The steps toprogram design are:• Plot our time factors (set deadline on a calendar, and count the hours, days,orweeks we have to meet our goal).• List the skills and sub skills that are needed to reach our goal.• List the critical components of each skill (the things that will make thetechnique right or wrong).• List the time each skill will take to teach/train (estimated).• Build the Micro and Macro drills needed to train each skill.• Now plot the individual training blocks using a building block approach onthetraining dates/times defined above, incorporating the designed drillsasnecessary.Program Execution-Once we have designed our training, and now it is timeto execute ourprogram. This is the critical step in the process, and the followingmust be observed:• Execution must be perfect in order for us to receive the proper training benefit.• Failure to execute our training drill repetitions correctly will skew theactualresults.Measure Performance-This is where we assess whether or not our trainingblocks areeffective or not. Ineffective design and execution of a trainingprogram will always showup here. One of two things will happen during thisstep:• Fail to meet performance objective so we will then modify the design orexecution of the training program, and re-start the training program.• Meet performance objective so redefine and/or raise the standards measureand begin the cycle over!(This is how we keep pushing ourselves to the next level!)
  10. 10. Instructional Design DocumentsThe Role of the Design DocumentAt the end of the instructional design phase, the training specialist writes aninstructional design document. This document provides more than just a simplecourse outline; it provides a high-level overview of the entire training solution.A training specialists instructional design document provides detailedinstructions on how to build the course, but it doesnt contain any actual coursecontent; its similar to an architects blueprint or a software engineers designdocument.Generally, an instructional design document will perform the following tasks: Describe the overall learning approach Identify instructional media choices Cluster and sequence objectives Describe course exercises, activities, and assessmentsTogether these five elements create the overall instructional strategy for thecourse. A short course might have a very simple design document, but complexand lengthy courses can have very detailed design documents.The instructional design serves as a major quality assurance checkpoint. Thetraining specialist and the client discuss and agree to the design beforedevelopment begins. Its a lot easier to adjust the design than redevelopmaterials later in the project.Benefits of the Design DocumentTraining specialists use the instructional design document for four mainpurposes: Check that the design concepts are cohesive and complete Present the proposed training solution to the client Invite feedback about the design Provide instructions to other training specialists who may work on the development phase of the project
  11. 11. Instructional design documents may also contain additional project-specificelements. For example, if the course has an e-learning element, the instructionaldesigner might describe the interfaces appearance and functionality.How to Design a Training Program for a CompanyKeeping a company operating like a well-oiled machine is not an easy task,especially if your business has a high turnover rates, such as retail. In order toreduce the amount of time it takes to train your new employees to reach theirfull potential, we need to develop a training system that is streamed-lined,effective, and efficient and gives new employees the skills needed to be a goodemployee without overburdening them with too much information. Finding thebalance between too much and too little information is the key to designing themost effective training system for a company.Step One: Determine what training is needed.The first step in designing a training system for a company is to determine whatkinds of training is needed. You will need to conduct an organizational analysis,a task analysis, and a person analysis. This three-tiered examination of acompany’s training needs is required to identify: factors that will inhibit and aidtraining, to identify tasks that most employees will need to be trained in, and toidentify employees that need to be trained.Organizational AnalysisAn organizational analysis is used to identify company factors that cannegatively or positively impact the effectiveness of a training program. Thesefactors include such things as money available for training programs, personpower analysis and planning resources, employee relations and attitudes, andcompany resources available for training purposes.Task AnalysisA task analysis is a process of identifying what skills and activities need to betaught. To generate a list of skills that employees need to learn we can conduct ajob analysis. A job analysis is basically just an examination of a job and a listingof the "minimum" duties and skills that are required to successfully perform thejob.Example: Job Title: Secretary
  12. 12. Job Skills: Typing 55-65 w.p.m. 10-key Word processing General computer skills Operation of office machines Phone skills Spread sheet skills FilingAfter identifying what tasks are involved in each job, the next step is to identifywhat tasks need training. If an employee already has an identified skill it is awaste of money to train them in that skill. If you identify a skill that doesrequire additional training then you will need to formally identify it as a trainingobjective in writing. This objective should identify (1) what the skill is, (2) howthe trainee is to learn the skill, and (3) how proficient they need to be in the skillafter the training process is completed. This documentation is needed to notonly to let employees know what is expected of them, but also for personnel tomaintain a common standard of training for all employees, and to protect youagainst lawsuits if you need to discipline or terminate an employee for notmeeting the standards set out by the objectives.Person AnalysisThe final step in determining what training is needed is to conduct a personanalysis. A person analysis is the identification of people in your company thatneed training. There are many ways that this identification process can behandled. First an examination of past and current performance appraisals can bemade to identify employees that have areas that need improvements. Surveyscan also be used to identify skills that the employees themselves think that theyshould have or that they need to have to perform their jobs more successfully.Interviewing employees can also be used to identify skills that are needed ordesired by employees, as can skill and knowledge tests. The final way a personanalysis can be conducted is to evaluate and review critical incident reports thathave been filed in personnel. These incidents can pinpoint specific skills likecustomer service, assembly, etc. that specific employees or departments need toimprove.Step Two: Determine what training approach to use.After we have identified who needs to be trained in what areas, we will need todetermine what training methodology to use. Today there are many optionsmanagers and business owners can exercise to train their employees.
  13. 13. Seminars are a popular choice for large-scale training issues like professionalstandards updates and customer service issues. The benefits of this type oftraining methodology are: that they are usually given by an expert ororganization that has extended knowledge of the area, they cover all the issuesrelated to the issue is a short period of time, training materials are provided, andemployees enjoy the fact that they get out of work to attend the seminar. Thedrawbacks of seminars are based on the time and money that they require. In order to overcome pacing issues of training materials, programmedinstruction can be used to deliver training materials. Programmed instruction isbasically a hard copy format of training that is delivered either through: step-by-step booklets, latent ink booklets, or through computer-assisted instruction orcomputer-based training.Examining Case studies is another training methodology that can be used.Employee meetings can be held in which critical incidents are reviewed andalternative solutions or actions can be discussed.Simulationis yet another training methodology that can be utilized. Simulationis basically just walking an employee through the motions of a skill in acontrolled environment until they master the skill. The benefits of this trainingmethodology are that they train employees to perform specific skills needed fortheir job, and simulations help train employees to respond appropriately tounexpected events in a controlled environment. The drawbacks to simulation areagain based on money. In certain cases where simulating machines are needed,the cost can be extraordinarily high. Therefore simulation exercises that utilizethese kinds of devises are often times limited to larger businesses or tocompanies that are located close to companies that lend out simulators.Role-playingis an inexpensive training methodology that most companies canuse. In this case employees act out scenes from their job in which they facechallenges and situations that they normally will come across during theaverage day. The benefits of this type of training are: (1) it is relativelyinexpensive, and (2) it covers skills that are specific to the job in question. Thedrawbacks are that some employees may not feel comfortable in this situation,and they may not learn well under the pressure.Apprentice training is another category of training methodologies that can beused to train employees. In this type of training programs new employeesfollow the lead of an experienced employee in order to learn new skills and tolearn how to function properly in the job in question. This type of training ismost commonly used in trade and craft industries, however, it can be usedsuccessfully in office situations as well.
  14. 14. Step Three: Putting together your own training program.Once we have identified the skills that need to be focused on, the employeesthat need training, and the methodologies that will be used, you need to puteverything down in writing. Documentation is the key to protecting yourselfagainst lawsuits relating to employee relations. The following training materialsneed to be cemented in writing. 1. Training objectives: Training objectives need to identify (1) the skill, (2) how training is to be conducted, and (3) what proficiency the employee needs to attain by the end of the training process. 2. Training materials: Training materials, depending on the nature of the skill, should be written out in a manner that is easy to understand and easy to follow. Step-by-step instructions should be written out for every job, no matter how insignificant it may seem to the employer. An instruction sheet should include: (1) the skill title, (2) when it is to be performed, (3)who is to perform it, (4) what supplies are needed and where they can be found, (5) step-by-step instructions, and (6) what to do with the end product. 3. Evaluation materials: Evaluation materials are as important to a training program as the actual training materials. They will let us know how effective our training materials are and whether you need to adjust any of your methodologies. The evaluation materials that we need are: (1) evaluation procedures, (2) evaluation form for employees, (3) evaluation form for the employer (or manager), and (4) response (rebuttal) form. 4. Out-of-house material: If a company utilizes outside sources for training it will need the following materials: (1) purchase order for educational services, (2) expense forms, (3) approval forms, (4) evaluation forms, and (5) any professional organization forms.Step Four: Training employees.Now that we have all of your training materials in order we will need to let ouremployees know about the programs and their processes. They will need toknow what our training objectives are, how their progress will be monitored,what training methodologies are available and which ones are required, andwhat paper work is required. This documentation will help to protect you fromunfounded lawsuits.
  15. 15. Step Five: Evaluating the program.After an employee has completed a training program we will want to have themfill out an evaluation form of the program that goes over how well theinformation was presented, if they found the training helpful, if there are anyareas that need improvement, if there are any areas that seemed redundant orunnecessary, and if there are any other skills that they feel that they need toperform their jobs. A manager, will also need to fill out an evaluation form onthe employee’s progress and proficiency in the skill or skills that were focusedon during the training program. Proficiency tests can be used to measure theemployee’s abilities, or physical observation of the employee performance canbe used. If we notice that there are still areas that need to be trained in, then weshould make the changes to the training program as soon as possible so that thenext trainee will get all of the training that they need. Also we can use theevaluation forms to identify areas that really don’t need to be covered and youcan eliminate these things from your training program and save your companytime and money spent on employee training. CONCLUSIONDesigning formal training is time-consuming and expensive. Once it isdesigned, however, it needs updating only as operational changes areinstituted.Every new employee may then be trained using the training plan andall materials that are already prepared. There is an initial investment of time andmoney, of course, but thereafter training is consistent and convenient.The ideais similar to management delegating certain responsibilities. Once the initialeffort has been expanded, the employee can take the delegated responsibilityand free the manager for other tasks. Many employees excel when givenopportunities to take on more responsibility. And so with formal training—itbetter preparesan employee to do the job and, after the initial effort of design, isready and available for use every time a new employee joins the team.REFERENCES: 1. process.html 2. 3.