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Training Design - Employee Training and Development PPT

Explained are the 5 steps that are followed in designing a training session, and the various steps of planning and focus on the context of the Training session. This slide brought to you by Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division.

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Training Design - Employee Training and Development PPT

  1. 1. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division CHAPTER-03 Training Design We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  2. 2. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Introduction • The first step involved in designing the training programme is to choose a strategy or a combination of strategies. • The second step is to break the general training objectives into constituent pasts • The third step is to use the specifications of different training methods. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  3. 3. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • The fourth step is to decide on different packages in which the programme could be offered. • The fifth step is to work detailed training events into sequences and finally into the shape of the total programme package We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  4. 4. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The ability to help a person learn is not a matter of direct trainer skills but the ability to coach a person, give lectures and lend discussions. These are essential skills but to use them effectively they should be based on well-designed training. The design and implementation of the training will be done by the trainer. The design is a vital part to the Systematic approach to training. The trainer needs to develop own approach to the following: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  5. 5. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • It is suitable to meet identified training needs. • Collaborate with client organization to meet their requirements • Use the resources effectively and efficiently. • Plan action for others and oneself. • Ensure satisfactory result of the training. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  6. 6. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Perspective for Designing Training Depending on the role and the status as a trainer one could design training in several different contexts. • One could be a human resource training manager • One could be an institutional trainer asked to design a training course on Multi Media. • One could be involved in a department’s Function. The design activities can be undertaken under training programme, Training course and Learning Unit. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  7. 7. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Learning Unit A Training need become more clearly defined by means of job and task analysis, more specific training can be provided. A learning unit can be designed for specific tasks or outcomes to provide a basic building block for both courses and programme. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  8. 8. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Training sessions There is an underlying need to design individual detailed training sessions. Sessions need to be designed to make optimum use of time and opportunities available. These sessions are short in duration, single location and achieve a limited objective. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  9. 9. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Building a Training Design Learning Objectives, Components and Methods Planning a training session involves: 1. Establishing learning objectives based upon identified training needs. 2. Identifying the components you want to cover in the session. Contd. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  10. 10. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 3. Assembling specific methods and activities in a coherent design that might be compared to a movie script. Learning objectives are statements of what we want a learner to know, feel or be able to do at the end of training. Learners will understand the basic principles of adult learning and be able to apply them by developing training strategies appropriate to different learners in a structured exercise. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  11. 11. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Learners will be able to describe their own individual learning styles and general styles of other learners. Learning components are statements of what will be covered in the training session. For the same session, components might be: • Relationship of principles of learners own experience • Discovery of individual styles • Practice with selecting training strategies • Experience in working with peers. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  12. 12. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division A training design arranges specific methods and activities in order to accomplish the learning objectives. A training design may include: • Census: Learners are asked to remember their adult life when they started to learn something and then abandoned it. Contd. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  13. 13. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Flip Charts: Presentation of basic adult learner characteristics. • Exercise: Participants are divided into groups to go through various training exercises. • Review: Major points that have come up in the session. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  14. 14. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Types Of Training: Location Based Approved Training methods and locations can be discussed under three broad headings i.e. training at work place, training at organizational or external centers and a combination of training at work place and training centers. Training at the Work Place: Training at work-place may take variety of forms. It is identified with career development and the acquisition knowledge, skills and attitudes from the continuous experience and opportunities provided by work itself. Personnel department plays a key role here. Contd. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  15. 15. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division In recent times as result of the ever-increasing emphasis on cost-effectiveness there has been a tendency for much of the training that was formally given at training centers to be now carried out at the work place. The role of the central trainers have changed, they take the place of consultants to local managers in the design and provision for training at the work place and in their traditional presentational and instructional roles. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  16. 16. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Training at Training Centers: Here the training is conducted by the full-time training staffs, assisted by occasional lectures and tutors. Trainees work in groups and the methods employed are lectures, case studies, simulation, role play supported by films, CCTV, tape-slide projections and other audio-visual aids. Training usually covers subjects where needs are identified that are common to group of employees of similar grades of jobs. The choice of methods and locations are determined by the criterion of cost- effectiveness. Centrally based training is costly however it is essential in managerial and related subjects. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  17. 17. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Combining work-place and Central Methods: The typical features of this method are: • Training is designed by central trainers and managers. • It is designed as a series of separate but interdependent modules. • It is a series of short courses at the center interspersed with long periods of study at work place. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  18. 18. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Training at the work place is prepared in a form that facilities locally supervised self-study. • Progressive and final tests of learning achievement are built into the programme. There are certain advantages of this combination: • It uses the advantages of the individually oriented work-place and the group-oriented central training methods. Contd. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  19. 19. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • It is very flexible. • Training can be extended as long as necessary. • There is achievement oriented partnership between line managers, trainees and central trainers. • Integration of work and training is very important. • The assessment of learning achievement is very valid. • It is useful for management training. • It is more cost effective. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  20. 20. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Assessment of Effectiveness Assessing the effectiveness of training is the “bottom line” of the SAT. It is the end of the road and the point when we have to ask whether the costly investment in analyzing needs, designing and providing training has been justified by the results, i.e. the effects on work performance. In practice two kinds of assessment are needed individual and organizational. Contd. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  21. 21. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division In assessing the effectiveness of individual training there are two main occasions when it is necessary to take stock i.e. 1. On the completion of training to determine whether training objectives have been achieved. 2. After a lapse of time following the completion of training in order o determine whether training has had the required effect on actual work performance. The assessment of the effectiveness of training for individuals must be carried out jointly by trainers, trainees and the line managers. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  22. 22. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division There are two sources of information for assessing the effectiveness of training of individuals i.e. tests designed to measure learning achievement as objectively as possible and subjective opinions. Apart from the evidence of objective tests both trainers and trainees will have opinions about the value of training. Such options are subjective and thereof limited. Trainees must analyze the course in terms of their own needs and objectives and assess what they think they have learned and its potential value to their future work. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  23. 23. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Central trainers need to make a careful note of trainees comments. When trainees return to their work they must have constructive and systematic discussion with line managers. When people are caught up in work they tend to forget their training , it is therefore necessary to set up a formal system to impose discipline for action and to standardize organization practice. When training is provided centrally or externally it is also very important for the training staff to receive feedback. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  24. 24. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division There are three ways by which central and external trainees may obtain the information they need i.e. • By sending questionnaires to all former trainees and their line-managers. • By visiting a sample cross-section of former trainees and their line managers for direct discussions at their places of work. • By holding short conferences of former trainees for collective comparison of post-training experience and assessment of training’s ultimate effectiveness. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  25. 25. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division In the interval between the end of training and the point of assessment other influences will inevitably affect work performance for better or for worse e.g. personal problems, managerial styles etc, there are many factors both inside and outside work some hidden from view and not measurable which may affect behaviour. The training could be organized through the following: • A well structure course, placement in an institution. • Workshop, seminar and menhoring. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  26. 26. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division A fully structured training programme The system of structuring a training programme is derived from the formal education system. This is very commonly used method of training. The syllabus and the daily programme schedule are drawn by the training institution as they consider relevant to the needs of the trainees and different topics are covered in a stipulated time frame.. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  27. 27. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The programme schedule may be discussed with the trainees after registration and initial orientation so that the personal needs of the trainees could be taken into consideration while delivery of the programme We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  28. 28. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Drawbacks 1. The emphasis of the programme is mainly on dissemination of information. 2. The contents of the programme are to be rigidly followed. 3. There is only one trainer responsible for the programme who may be called Programme Director. 4. Sometimes the trainers do not possess enough expertise to train. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  29. 29. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 5. Sometimes outside conventional resource persons are invited in the programme for short duration. 6. Adequate importance is not accorded to self- awareness and attitudes of the trainees. 7. Facilities for practical and field visits are not always available. 8. Coverage of the syllabus during a specified time becomes the most important objective for the training institutions. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  30. 30. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Semi-Structured Training Programme A semi-structured training programme is formulated with basic assumptions that necessary changes are made as and when required based on the needs of the trainees. Although an effort is made to “consult “the trainees but it is a mere formality. After the trainee registers himself he is not in a position to react to the training programme to the extent necessary. Thus this method is not very effective. In this method proper leadership of the trainer is very important. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  31. 31. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Unstructured Training Programme This is a very recent development and is a difficult method. It calls for maturity and necessary skills by the trainees. The trainees themselves structure the day-the-day programme, as there is a prestzructured programme. The trainers play a crucial role and so has to work hard. Such a training can be organized if a group is manageable, it needs a lot of initiative, innovation and hard work on the part of the trainees in mobilizing the resources in terms of manpower, teaching method, teaching aid, placement etc. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  32. 32. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Prerequisites of an Unstructured Programme 1. The trainers should possess sufficient maturity, experience and skills. 2. The objective of the programme is clear to the trainees as well as the trainer. 3. The organizers and trainees are prepared to explore and venture into innovative areas. 4. Necessary resources are made available to the group as and when the programme develops in a short notice. 5. The trainers must have patience. 6. The trainers are prepared to forego wastage of resources in an unstructured programme We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  33. 33. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Other Forms of Training • Pre-service training Pre-service training is generally in the nature of university level professional education or specialized training for persons before they are appointed in different jobs. In-service training is provided after a person is duly recruited and offered a job. It is for specific duration. While pre-service is given to a person for a specific job. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  34. 34. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Refresher Training Course The refresher course is to be organized only for those who had the opportunity for being exposed to the job or in-service training. This course should not only review the various skills and methods used as trainers but also need to deal with new skills and new functions which are relevant to the job. It helps to revise the syllabus of the training, the duration is usually one week to 10 days. The emphasis is however on job-oriented practical training. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  35. 35. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Orientation Programme An orientation programme is conducted for workers before they are put on the job in which they are given orientation in a particular field or activity. This programme presupposes that the person has the knowledge and the skills of the subject matter. It is usually for one week. • Seminar-Workshop Other informal forms of training and seminars and workshops covering a particular topic but not the whole field of activities. Senior policy-makers use this, because of age, status etc are unable to participate in formal training programme. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  36. 36. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Other Forms of Training These cover the following areas: 1. Attitude or personal development training 2. Skill training 3. Field Training Some other activities are: • Broadening the experiences of staff members by exposure to number of departments. • Individual or group projects • Participation in meetings, conferences and lectures. • Short courses, discussions or talks. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  37. 37. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Training Process 1. Awareness of need 2. Consult with Client 3. Specify Symptoms 4. Analyze Training Needs 5. Defining existing Capabilities of Proposed Audience and Define Selection. 6. Select Program objectives and define Specific Learning Objectives( Knowledge, Skills and attitudes) 7. Build Curriculum (Content and Sequence) 8. Select Methods and Materials 9. Other Instructional Resources (Physical, budget, Personnel, time) Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  38. 38. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division 10. Conduct training( Validate First) 11. Decide the Evaluation Methods. 12. Produce the Evaluation Instruments. 13. Discuss with the Involve the Line Manager. 14. Make Environmental Preparations 15. Line Manager’s Briefing. 16. Pre-Test the learners. 17. End of course Validation and Action Planning 18. Line Manager’s De-Briefing 19. Review of Validated Training 20. Medium and Longer-term Evaluation. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  39. 39. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Key Factors In Designing Course Design Major Steps involved: 1. Identifying training needs 2. Determining the objectives 3. Determining the contents 4. Deciding on the appropriate modes of training 5. Suggesting appropriate methods 6. Preparing teaching material 7. Deciding upon evaluation procedure. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  40. 40. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Identifying Training Needs for Course • New recruits may not possess the specific knowledge or skill required. • When employees are transferred from one department to another. • When employees are promoted. • When there is a change in the policy of the organization. • When the organization undertakes new functions with change in their goals. • It is necessary sometimes as a “refresher course” to update knowledge and skill. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  41. 41. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The designer of the course seeks information about the knowledge, skills, attitudes etc required by a particular category of employees. Sources of such information are: • Job description of a particular job. • Whether information which is listed in job description is available or not. • Superiors can give useful leads. • Incumbents presently working can suggest their training needs. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  42. 42. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Audit departments and external consultancy reports can also provide useful information. • Opinions of specialists on job requirements can also be useful. • Trainers insight and their past experience is also helpful. • Management audit on the teaching effects may provide useful leads. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  43. 43. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division To get information with regards to previous knowledge, experience etc the main sources are the personal records of the particular employee. 1. Establish or maintain rapport. 2. Find out if the trainee is left-or-right handed. 3. Outline the structure of the training programme 4. Confirm details of pre-training briefing 5. Confirm trainee’s level of knowledge, skills and experience. 6. Establish own creditability 7. Clarify procedures for testing and reporting. 8. Administrative points 9. Any questions. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  44. 44. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Headings to Introduce a Training Session • Revision / Review • Topic • Confirm Trainee’s level of knowledge or skill • Context • Objectives • Motivation Structure and timing • Ground Rules • Jargon and Technical language • Showing a finished article. • Explanation, Demonstration, Imitation Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  45. 45. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • In Digestible chunks Delivered at an appropriate speed and with interval. • Assumptions • Ambiguity • Asking Questions • Use of visual aids • In a logical sequence • Clear and concise • Relevant • Accurate • Accompanied by an explanation (Manuals) • Looking at the trainee We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  46. 46. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division General Features Of a Good Demonstration A good demonstration will be: • Visible • In stages • Used in Conjunction with real material • Done at an appropriate speed • Analyzing • Intervening • Encouraging • Explanation and Demonstration of Procedural skills • Chains • Practicing Manual Skills (Imitation) • Observing We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  47. 47. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Learning of Concepts and Principles Related to Procedural Tasks In the process of learning a procedure the trainee may have to learn new concepts and principles in relation to the whole procedure or to a particular steps. The learning tactics recommended for teaching concepts are : • Where possible display the idea diagrammatically • Present a range of examples and non-examples of the concept. • Emphasize the links and relationship between related idea. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  48. 48. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • The trainee has to identify the similarities and differences between the new concept. • Encourage the trainee to think and talk actively about the concept and what it means. The appropriate learning tactics to use to teach principles are as follows: • Define the principle or rule. • Get the trainee to express the principle. • Present examples of the principle. • The trainee should generate her own illustration of the principle. • Get the trainee to apply the principle. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  49. 49. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Memory and procedural Skills. Committing to memory all the facts etc. needed to perform a procedural task satisfactorily may, in some cases be quite a tall order. There are number of devices that can assist the trainee to lighten the memory load. • Mnemonics are wisely used as aids to remember procedures or specific information and often form the basis of check lists. • Anecdotes serve not only to assist the memory but they make explanations more interesting. • Visual aids and job are often neglected during one –to- one training. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  50. 50. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Teaching Form-Filing Amongst the most frequently taught subject matter related to procedural tasks is how to fill in forms. It can be a painful and tedious process. Forms become interesting when it is known why information is asked for and particularly when the trainee is involved in trying to work out why. Such questions as : • Why do you think we need a persons date of birth? • Why do we need to know what their salary is? • Why does the signature need to be witnessed? • How do you think the manager will use the piece of information? Etc. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  51. 51. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Explanation and Demonstration of Interpersonal Skills In order to organize and carry out an effective one- o-one training session in interpersonal skills the trainer needs to consider the following issues: • Identifying key or critical behaviors. • Demonstration or modeling. • Practice and Rehearsal We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  52. 52. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Micro-Skills Exercise Before practicing a particular set of interpersonal skills it is often found useful to undertake short exercises that concentrate on specific skills or sub-sets of the over all skill. Role Play The trainee might practice all the relevant interpersonal skills by means of role playing. Live Enactment An essential part of any one-to-one interpersonal skills programme must require the trainee at some point to face real customers, clients etc. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  53. 53. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Reflection and mental rehearsal These are useful methods to include as part of an interpersonal skills one-to-one programme. Mental rehearsal has proved to be a valuable accompaniment to the more traditional approaches. It is particularly valuable to introduce reflection as mental rehearsal just after trainees have observed a model and prior to role playing of live enactment. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  54. 54. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Feedback and reinforcement Feedback provides the trainees with information about the effect or consequence of a performance or the manner in which a performance was carried out. The learning and skilful application of key or critical interpersonal behaviors can be brought out by the trainer reinforcing such behaviors through praise and encouragement and by giving informative, descriptive. Contd: We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  55. 55. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division feedback that is, feedback that avoids value judgments like “good” or “wrong”. Feedback and reinforcement should be given very soon after the trainee has exercised critical behaviour We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  56. 56. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division The Following Guidelines help to make feedback effective • Invite the trainee to comment on their own performance first. • Focus on what actually happened rather than what should have happened. • Ask questions to draw out relevant comments from the trainee about their performance. Contd. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  57. 57. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Ensure the strengths and development areas are discussed. • Ensure feedback is relevant to the performance. • Do not get involved in arguments. • Consider the value of the feedback to the trainee by being aware of their personal limitations. Contd. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  58. 58. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Ensure that feedback is clear, tactful and constructive. • Do not overload the trainee to identify those key areas which if improved could result in improvement. • Draw up a action plan with the trainee. • Always try to finish on a high note by acknowledging the things that were done well. • Transfer of training: An important issue for any trainer is whether trainees are able to put into practice what they have learned in training. Contd. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  59. 59. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Positive transfer will have taken place if they are able to make the transition from being in a training environment to performing the job in reality. There are 2 forms of positive transfer. • Specific or pure transfer • Generalizable transfer We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  60. 60. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Transfer can be effective if the following guidelines are followed: Making the training environment realistic, give opportunity to practice and rehearse, introduce variety of contexts to learn, avoid sessions in which trainee is drilled and show the value of interpersonal skills that are learned. We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  61. 61. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division Consolidation It is just as important to consolidate or conclude training as it is to introduce it properly. Heading to consolidate training session • Summary • Level of achievement • Praise We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum
  62. 62. Welingkar’s Distance Learning Division • Reinforce the motivational message • Look forward to the next session, do not introduce new material • Do not ask questions to test understanding • Level of competence • Action plan • Trainer performance and Application We Learn – A Continuous Learning Forum