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Training & Development
Training as a management skill /
Training and developing your staff
HRT 382 - Week 4
2
Topics
 Why do we Need Training?
 What is Training & Training Principles?
 A Systematic Approach to Training
 A Training Lesson Plan
3
Your Objectives
Following this presentation you should be able to
complete the following objectives:
1. Describe why training is important and distinguish
amongst training, education and development
2. Define the ASK concept, and comment upon the
relative difficulty in developing people’s attitudes,
skills and knowledge
3. List the nine steps in the training process and be able
to explain each step with reference to hospitality
examples
4. Develop an appropriate training lesson plan.
4
Do Organizations Need
Training
 The answer is “YES”
 However, we must
know the purpose and
functions of training
before we can use it.
5
The Gap Concept
Performance/
Results
Time
Expected Curve
Actual Curve
Gap
In training terms this means we need to
develop programs to fill the Gap
1,000 Cars
800 Cars
200 Cars
6
Training Needs
The reasons for not
making the 1,000
cars:
 Not enough resources
 Poor machines
 Poor staff skills
As training experts we
must analyze the
situation to determine if:
 Expected result too high
 Target achievable
 Is training the only way to
make it happen
 Are there other factors.
7
Exercise 1
 Imagine you are the managing director of a
full service restaurant. One day you receive a
complaint letter from a guest reporting s/he
was not satisfied with the follow up
regarding their criticism of being
overcharged in one of your
restaurants.
 Why was the complaint made?
 Is there a training need?
8
3 Reasons to Consider Conducting
an Internal Needs Analysis
1. Employee obsolescence/out-dated –
 Technical advancements, cultural changes, new
systems, computerization
2. Career plateaus
 Need for education and training programs
3. Employee Turnover
 Development plan for new employees
9
Importance of Training
 Maintains qualified products / services
 Achieves high service standards
 Provides information for new comers
 Refreshes memory of old employees
 Achieves learning about new things; technology,
products / service delivery
 Reduces mistakes - minimizing costs
 Opportunity for staff to feedback / suggest improvements
 Improves communication & relationships - better
teamwork
10
Benefits of Training
 Most training is
targeted to ensure
trainees “learn”
something they
apply to their job.
11
What is Training?
 Training is a systematic process through
which an organization’s human resources
gain knowledge and develop skills by
instruction and practical activities that result
in improved corporate performance.
12
Differences between Training,
Education & Development
 Training is short term, task oriented and targeted
on achieving a change of attitude, skills and
knowledge in a specific area. It is usually job
related.
 Education is a lifetime investment. It tends to be
initiated by a person in the area of his/her interest
 Development is a long term investment in human
resources.
13
The ASK Concept
 If we follow the GAP concept, training is simply
a means to use activities to fill the gaps of
performance between the actual results and the
expected results.
 This GAP can be separated into 3 main themes
1. Attitude
2. Skills
3. Knowledge
14
Exercise 2
Rank ASK by difficulty to develop in people
 Attitude
 Skills
 Knowledge
•Easy
•Moderately difficult
•Most difficult
15
Five Principles of Learning
 Participation: involve trainees, learn by doing
 Repetition: repeat ideas & concepts to help
people learn
 Relevance: learn better when material is
meaningful and related
 Transference: to real world using simulations
 Feedback: ask for it and adjust training
methods to audience.
16
A Systematic Approach
to Training
Key Concepts in Preparing a Training Plan
Before you train and develop people identify what:
 They must know - before they can perform job
 They should know - to improve performance
 Would be nice for them to know – but not
necessary to perform duties.
17
Model of the Training Process*
Assessment Stage Training Stage Evaluation Stage
Organizational
Needs Assessment
Task Need Assessment
Development of
Training Objectives
Design & Select
Procedures
Measure Training
Results
Development of
Criteria for Training
Evaluation
Train Compare Results to
Criteria
Feedback
*Goldstein, I. (2002) Training in Organizations 4th Ed.
18
Nine Steps in the Training
Process
1. Assessing training needs
2. Preparing training plan
3. Specifying training objectives
4. Designing the training program(s)
5. Selecting the instructional methods
6. Completing the training plan
7. Implementing the training program
8. Evaluating the training
9. Planning future training
19
1) Assessing Training Needs
Conduct a training needs analysis by either one, or
both, of the following
 External approach (company, guests, society)
 Internal approach – using a staff opinion survey.
20
Exercise 3
 Imagine you are the manager of a factory
with 500 workers making ice cream for
export to Europe.
 What information and evidence do you need
before you can say the employees need
training?
 Try to list 5 ideas.
21
Response to exercise 3
 Accidents report
 Sick leave report
 Employee compensation
statistics
 Product quality control
report
 Wastage report
 Efficiency report
 Machinery out-of-order
report
 Staff discipline report
 Staff enquiries &
complaints
 Guests complaints
 Refusal of orders made
 Quality of product report
 Market needs & trends
 Demographic data &
background of employees
22
2) Preparing Training Plan
Consider whether to design a long (5-10 years),
medium (3-5 years) or short (1 year) term
plan.
 Ask your self “What are we going to achieve
in the time period?”
 Use a holistic approach by using a calendar
for inputting your training activities.
23
Training Calendar Example
1 2 3 4 5 6 7...
Attitude
Train the trainer
Job competency
Sales techniques
Telephone manner
…
Training Area Month in the year
24
Individual Plans
 For individual personalized training, we must
assess the trainees’ weakness and strengths
first before setting up appropriate programs.
 Training areas maybe tailor-made.
 Trainee should receive an individual timetable
for self progress.
25
3) Specifying Training Objectives
Training Objectives must be specific & measurable.
Why? Very difficult to measure effectiveness after
course is finished.
 What should trainees be able to accomplish after
participating in the training program?
 What is the desired level of such accomplishment,
according to industry or organizational standards?
 Do you want to develop attitudes, skills, knowledge or
some combination of these three?
26
4) Designing the
Training Program(s)
1. Program duration
2. Program structure
3. Instruction methods
4. Trainers qualification
5. Nature of trainees
6. Support resources –
materials, OHP,
classroom
7. Training location &
environment
8. Criteria & methods
for assessing
participant learning
and achievement
9. Criteria & methods
for evaluating the
program
27
5) Selecting Instructional Methods
Note: This is the most important step
On-the job-training (OJT)
 learn while you’re working
Off -the job-training
 In house, training or classroom
 External, consultancies or attending external classes
 Independent bodies, such as government talks
 Distance learning, from books or notes
 Computer-assisted learning
 Interactive-video training
 Video conferencing, same as classroom except teachers and
students are in different locations.
28
Exercise 4
 Imagine you are the training manger of a hotel that
will open next year. Your GM asks you to develop a
training program that aims to boost the team spirit of
the newly formed Executive Committee Members.
 Your GM suggests you organize a two-day course in a
resort location from 9 to 5 for both days.
 Your task is to suggest 3 training methods that suit the
training theme described above.
Hint: this is attitude, not skills nor knowledge training
29
Response to exercise 4
Remember your training
theme was to change the
individuals attitudes
Employ exercises that
trainees can:
 Participate in
 React to
 Provide feedback in
 Receive inspiration to
move on
Suitable training methods
you might have listed:
 Role-play
 Games
 Simulation exercises
 Discussion/debate formats
 Experiential exercises
 Self evaluation (e.g. video
tape trainees performance
& let them evaluate their
own behaviors).
30
6) Completing the Training Plan
 Target group – assess your audience
 Topic – task, skill or attitude ingredient
 Method – direct (one way communication) or
indirect (discussion, games, experimental
exercises…). Important as evaluation of trainees
usually lies on the perception on what they did in
the training session
 Time – length, period, breaks important to consider
 Location – away from the office?
31
7) Implementing the Training
Program
Besides trainers qualifications and experience:
 Participant selection
 Group comfort - physical & psychological
 Trainer enthusiasm & skills
 Effective communication
 Feedback mechanism
 The need to learn new training skills
 Preparation by trainers
32
8) Evaluating the Training
Three Levels of Evaluation
1. Immediate Feedback
 Survey or interview directly after training
2. Post-Training Test
 Trainee applying learned tasks in workplace?
3. Post-Training Appraisals
 Conducted by immediate supervisors of
trainees
33
9) Planning Future Training
Last step in the training process
 After taking all evaluated comments, trainers
should modify the programs to keep good
things and make suggested improvements
 Remember, even with the same topic for
different trainees, trainers should address many
parts of the training process again and consider
new approaches.
34
A Training Lesson Plan
 Topic
 Summary of Key Points
 Training Objectives
 Duration of Each Activity in Each Session
 Training Contents
 Training Methods / Activities
 Break(s)
 Exercise to Warm Up
 Questions to test Understanding
 Conclusion
35
e.g. New Employee Orientation
Time Topic Method Activity
9:00-9:30 AM Welcome Speech
by GM
Speech Talk & hand shake
9:30-10:00 AM Intro to Company
Background
Slide
Presentation
Slide Show &
Video Tape
3:00-4:00 PM Fire Safety Talk Security
Manager
Fire Drill &
Equipment
36
References
 Anthony W.P., Kacmar, K.M., Perrewé, P.L. (2002) Human
resource management: a strategic approach, 4th ed. Fort
Worth : Harcourt College Publishers.HF5549 .A866 2002
 Goldstein, I. L., Ford J.K. (2002) Training in
organizations : needs assessment, development, and
evaluation, 4th ed. Belmont, CA . HF5549.5.T7 G543 2002
 Greer, C.R. (1995) Strategy and human resources – a
general managerial perspective, Prentice Hall.
 Riley, Michael, (1996) Human resource management in
the hospitality and tourism industry, 2nd ed. Oxford ;
Boston : Butterworth-Heinemann. TX911.3.P4 R55 1996

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Training development382 (3)

  • 1. Training & Development Training as a management skill / Training and developing your staff HRT 382 - Week 4
  • 2. 2 Topics  Why do we Need Training?  What is Training & Training Principles?  A Systematic Approach to Training  A Training Lesson Plan
  • 3. 3 Your Objectives Following this presentation you should be able to complete the following objectives: 1. Describe why training is important and distinguish amongst training, education and development 2. Define the ASK concept, and comment upon the relative difficulty in developing people’s attitudes, skills and knowledge 3. List the nine steps in the training process and be able to explain each step with reference to hospitality examples 4. Develop an appropriate training lesson plan.
  • 4. 4 Do Organizations Need Training  The answer is “YES”  However, we must know the purpose and functions of training before we can use it.
  • 5. 5 The Gap Concept Performance/ Results Time Expected Curve Actual Curve Gap In training terms this means we need to develop programs to fill the Gap 1,000 Cars 800 Cars 200 Cars
  • 6. 6 Training Needs The reasons for not making the 1,000 cars:  Not enough resources  Poor machines  Poor staff skills As training experts we must analyze the situation to determine if:  Expected result too high  Target achievable  Is training the only way to make it happen  Are there other factors.
  • 7. 7 Exercise 1  Imagine you are the managing director of a full service restaurant. One day you receive a complaint letter from a guest reporting s/he was not satisfied with the follow up regarding their criticism of being overcharged in one of your restaurants.  Why was the complaint made?  Is there a training need?
  • 8. 8 3 Reasons to Consider Conducting an Internal Needs Analysis 1. Employee obsolescence/out-dated –  Technical advancements, cultural changes, new systems, computerization 2. Career plateaus  Need for education and training programs 3. Employee Turnover  Development plan for new employees
  • 9. 9 Importance of Training  Maintains qualified products / services  Achieves high service standards  Provides information for new comers  Refreshes memory of old employees  Achieves learning about new things; technology, products / service delivery  Reduces mistakes - minimizing costs  Opportunity for staff to feedback / suggest improvements  Improves communication & relationships - better teamwork
  • 10. 10 Benefits of Training  Most training is targeted to ensure trainees “learn” something they apply to their job.
  • 11. 11 What is Training?  Training is a systematic process through which an organization’s human resources gain knowledge and develop skills by instruction and practical activities that result in improved corporate performance.
  • 12. 12 Differences between Training, Education & Development  Training is short term, task oriented and targeted on achieving a change of attitude, skills and knowledge in a specific area. It is usually job related.  Education is a lifetime investment. It tends to be initiated by a person in the area of his/her interest  Development is a long term investment in human resources.
  • 13. 13 The ASK Concept  If we follow the GAP concept, training is simply a means to use activities to fill the gaps of performance between the actual results and the expected results.  This GAP can be separated into 3 main themes 1. Attitude 2. Skills 3. Knowledge
  • 14. 14 Exercise 2 Rank ASK by difficulty to develop in people  Attitude  Skills  Knowledge •Easy •Moderately difficult •Most difficult
  • 15. 15 Five Principles of Learning  Participation: involve trainees, learn by doing  Repetition: repeat ideas & concepts to help people learn  Relevance: learn better when material is meaningful and related  Transference: to real world using simulations  Feedback: ask for it and adjust training methods to audience.
  • 16. 16 A Systematic Approach to Training Key Concepts in Preparing a Training Plan Before you train and develop people identify what:  They must know - before they can perform job  They should know - to improve performance  Would be nice for them to know – but not necessary to perform duties.
  • 17. 17 Model of the Training Process* Assessment Stage Training Stage Evaluation Stage Organizational Needs Assessment Task Need Assessment Development of Training Objectives Design & Select Procedures Measure Training Results Development of Criteria for Training Evaluation Train Compare Results to Criteria Feedback *Goldstein, I. (2002) Training in Organizations 4th Ed.
  • 18. 18 Nine Steps in the Training Process 1. Assessing training needs 2. Preparing training plan 3. Specifying training objectives 4. Designing the training program(s) 5. Selecting the instructional methods 6. Completing the training plan 7. Implementing the training program 8. Evaluating the training 9. Planning future training
  • 19. 19 1) Assessing Training Needs Conduct a training needs analysis by either one, or both, of the following  External approach (company, guests, society)  Internal approach – using a staff opinion survey.
  • 20. 20 Exercise 3  Imagine you are the manager of a factory with 500 workers making ice cream for export to Europe.  What information and evidence do you need before you can say the employees need training?  Try to list 5 ideas.
  • 21. 21 Response to exercise 3  Accidents report  Sick leave report  Employee compensation statistics  Product quality control report  Wastage report  Efficiency report  Machinery out-of-order report  Staff discipline report  Staff enquiries & complaints  Guests complaints  Refusal of orders made  Quality of product report  Market needs & trends  Demographic data & background of employees
  • 22. 22 2) Preparing Training Plan Consider whether to design a long (5-10 years), medium (3-5 years) or short (1 year) term plan.  Ask your self “What are we going to achieve in the time period?”  Use a holistic approach by using a calendar for inputting your training activities.
  • 23. 23 Training Calendar Example 1 2 3 4 5 6 7... Attitude Train the trainer Job competency Sales techniques Telephone manner … Training Area Month in the year
  • 24. 24 Individual Plans  For individual personalized training, we must assess the trainees’ weakness and strengths first before setting up appropriate programs.  Training areas maybe tailor-made.  Trainee should receive an individual timetable for self progress.
  • 25. 25 3) Specifying Training Objectives Training Objectives must be specific & measurable. Why? Very difficult to measure effectiveness after course is finished.  What should trainees be able to accomplish after participating in the training program?  What is the desired level of such accomplishment, according to industry or organizational standards?  Do you want to develop attitudes, skills, knowledge or some combination of these three?
  • 26. 26 4) Designing the Training Program(s) 1. Program duration 2. Program structure 3. Instruction methods 4. Trainers qualification 5. Nature of trainees 6. Support resources – materials, OHP, classroom 7. Training location & environment 8. Criteria & methods for assessing participant learning and achievement 9. Criteria & methods for evaluating the program
  • 27. 27 5) Selecting Instructional Methods Note: This is the most important step On-the job-training (OJT)  learn while you’re working Off -the job-training  In house, training or classroom  External, consultancies or attending external classes  Independent bodies, such as government talks  Distance learning, from books or notes  Computer-assisted learning  Interactive-video training  Video conferencing, same as classroom except teachers and students are in different locations.
  • 28. 28 Exercise 4  Imagine you are the training manger of a hotel that will open next year. Your GM asks you to develop a training program that aims to boost the team spirit of the newly formed Executive Committee Members.  Your GM suggests you organize a two-day course in a resort location from 9 to 5 for both days.  Your task is to suggest 3 training methods that suit the training theme described above. Hint: this is attitude, not skills nor knowledge training
  • 29. 29 Response to exercise 4 Remember your training theme was to change the individuals attitudes Employ exercises that trainees can:  Participate in  React to  Provide feedback in  Receive inspiration to move on Suitable training methods you might have listed:  Role-play  Games  Simulation exercises  Discussion/debate formats  Experiential exercises  Self evaluation (e.g. video tape trainees performance & let them evaluate their own behaviors).
  • 30. 30 6) Completing the Training Plan  Target group – assess your audience  Topic – task, skill or attitude ingredient  Method – direct (one way communication) or indirect (discussion, games, experimental exercises…). Important as evaluation of trainees usually lies on the perception on what they did in the training session  Time – length, period, breaks important to consider  Location – away from the office?
  • 31. 31 7) Implementing the Training Program Besides trainers qualifications and experience:  Participant selection  Group comfort - physical & psychological  Trainer enthusiasm & skills  Effective communication  Feedback mechanism  The need to learn new training skills  Preparation by trainers
  • 32. 32 8) Evaluating the Training Three Levels of Evaluation 1. Immediate Feedback  Survey or interview directly after training 2. Post-Training Test  Trainee applying learned tasks in workplace? 3. Post-Training Appraisals  Conducted by immediate supervisors of trainees
  • 33. 33 9) Planning Future Training Last step in the training process  After taking all evaluated comments, trainers should modify the programs to keep good things and make suggested improvements  Remember, even with the same topic for different trainees, trainers should address many parts of the training process again and consider new approaches.
  • 34. 34 A Training Lesson Plan  Topic  Summary of Key Points  Training Objectives  Duration of Each Activity in Each Session  Training Contents  Training Methods / Activities  Break(s)  Exercise to Warm Up  Questions to test Understanding  Conclusion
  • 35. 35 e.g. New Employee Orientation Time Topic Method Activity 9:00-9:30 AM Welcome Speech by GM Speech Talk & hand shake 9:30-10:00 AM Intro to Company Background Slide Presentation Slide Show & Video Tape 3:00-4:00 PM Fire Safety Talk Security Manager Fire Drill & Equipment
  • 36. 36 References  Anthony W.P., Kacmar, K.M., Perrewé, P.L. (2002) Human resource management: a strategic approach, 4th ed. Fort Worth : Harcourt College Publishers.HF5549 .A866 2002  Goldstein, I. L., Ford J.K. (2002) Training in organizations : needs assessment, development, and evaluation, 4th ed. Belmont, CA . HF5549.5.T7 G543 2002  Greer, C.R. (1995) Strategy and human resources – a general managerial perspective, Prentice Hall.  Riley, Michael, (1996) Human resource management in the hospitality and tourism industry, 2nd ed. Oxford ; Boston : Butterworth-Heinemann. TX911.3.P4 R55 1996