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  • (Day 1 - beginning to accomplish the technical objectives, on cost, and schedule)
  • To illustrate how time plays a part in reflecting holistic project success/failure metrics, consider the track record of the Empire State building (ESB)."The building was the brain-child of John J. Raskob, the vice-president of General Motors, who wanted this new building to exceed the height of the rival car manufacturer's Chrysler Building, still under construction when the plans were released on August 29, 1929. The program given to the architects called for a tight schedule of completion one and a half years after the start of the project."[34] "The Empire State Building in New York City was completed '[in] One year and 45 days... (ahead of schedule); Cost $40,948,900 (including land). The Building Alone [cost] $24,718,000 (the onset of the depression halved the anticipate cost of the building.)'"[35] So the ESB was completed ahead of schedule, under budget, and was to the specifications as designed. If the measurement were to be done on traditional PM metrics the project would be a complete success! However, if the metrics also looked at rented space, it would tell a completely different story. For the very reason that it came in at half the production cost (the great depression), rental rates at the building's opening was a meager 20%. In fact it was nicknamed the "Empty State Building." So if measured on rented space on completion of the project, it would be a failure. But let's expand the time-line. You have to go to 1948 or 17 years later for the building to have enough tenants to turn a profit. Yet, today it is again the tallest building in New York, has always been the icon for New York and, as of 2002, was 97% occupied.

John marinaro pm_process John marinaro pm_process Presentation Transcript

  • National Aeronautics Space Administration 7-Step Project Management Process Mr. John Marinaro NASA Safety Center www.nasa.gov
  • Project Management – Two Options2
  • Project Management FactsAll projects begin very successfully (meeting most or allrequirements, on cost, on schedule); but statistically many quicklytake a turn for the worse… Standish Group’s CHAOS 2009 Report  Successful projects are defined as projects delivered on time, on budget, with required features and functions.  Challenged projects are defined as late, over budget, and/or with less than the required features and functions.  Failed projects are defined as cancelled prior to completion or delivered and never used.And because of this – Each Project is a Career-defining Opportunity for the Project Manager and Team Leadership3
  • AgendaThe NASA Safety Center Technical Excellence Office’s7-Step Project Management Process:  Establish your vision  Describe the end result  Use “backward planning”  Use “forward action planning”  Identify metrics  Rely on your team  Communicate frequently4
  • STEP 1 – Establish Your Vision for the Project What it is Why it’s Important Sage Advice"A project vision is the No project can make “Your Vision should fitpicturing of the serious progress on the back of yourprojects deliverable as without a clear business card” (to bethe solution to the understanding of where clear and concise)stated need or it is going and what it is – Professor Bart Timm,problem.” trying to achieve. Georgetown University Executive Leadership ProgramVision Statement: It is too easy to start Should be forward- developing the solution thinking and reflective before you fully Provides a long-term view understand the Used by the leader to problem! communicate mission clarity & to help avoid misunderstandings by the team 5
  • STEP 1 – Establish Your Vision for the ProjectMethodology A project vision requires a mission that leads to goals Goals should be SMART – Simple, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-bound Where does the project vision come from? Ideally, it should come from the projects sponsor, but doesnt always. Vision means leadership and leadership must come from the project manager. So it is up to the project manager to gain a proper understanding of the sponsors intent and interpret that into the project vision. Clearly that requires access to all the relevant information.6
  • STEP 1 – Establish Your Vision for the ProjectSTEP Example My Vision for STEP (SMA Technical Excellence Program): Create the NASA University for Safety and ultimately become the Harvard and MIT of NASA Safety.Other Examples  “I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth.” – JFK, Moon Speech  "I Have a Dream” – MLK, "I Have a Dream" speech7
  • STEP 2 – Develop Project Success Criteria What it is Why it’s important Sage AdviceStatements that provide NPR 7120.5 tells us: “Begin with the end inobjectives, guidelines, “The Project Manager mind”procedures, and standardsthat are to be used to execute is then responsible for – Stephen Coveythe development, design, Author, 7 Habits of the evolution of the Highly Effective Peopleand/or implementationportions of a project. project concept and ultimate projectProject Success success.” Develop your projectDimensions Include: success criteria for all  Accomplishing Minimum four dimensions at the Science/Technical beginning of the Objectives project.  Keeping On Cost  Staying On Schedule  Meeting Safety and Risk Factor Criteria 8
  • STEP 2 – Develop Project Success CriteriaMethodology  Project Success Criteria: Criteria that should be clearly defined and agreed before significant development is initiated.  These may be defined in a number of ways such as: – Project Objectives (or goals) – Requirements – typically technical (performance) requirements – Critical Success Factors – typically measurable factors that, when present in the projects environment, are most conducive to the achievement of a successful project – Key Performance Indicators – typically measures upon which the project will be judged9
  • STEP 2 – Develop Project Success CriteriaSTEP Examples  STEP Level 1 designed, developed, tested, and rolled out by Sept. 30, 2009  Appropriate for everyone from the Administrative Assistant to the Administrator; focused on NASA Safety  Approximately 25 hours in duration; all web-based  Levels 2 – 4: 137 hours of coursework; courses to be available on SATERN as online learning by Oct 2010Other Examples To meet the mission objective of landing on the moon with 99.7-percent probability of success, the guidance system had to be able to correct for off nominal initial-condition errors, for system errors during the descent, and for uncertainties of the lunar terrain on approach to the landing area – Apollo 1110
  • STEP 3 – Apply the “Backward Planning Process” What it is Why it’s important Sage AdviceStarts with a critical It’s often easier to view “If you dont knowevent or deliverable; all a complicated project where you are going,of the major actions when you start by any road will get youleading up to it are visualizing the there.”planned in reverse successful outcome. -Lewis Carroll Alice in Wonderlandorder based on time This ensures that everyrequired to complete intermediate action isthe action. focused on achieving that final outcome. 11
  • STEP 3 – Apply the “Backward Planning Process”MethodologyBackward Planning Process  Identify the critical event  Identify all the preliminary actions  Arrange the preliminary actions in chronological order  Estimate the time needed for each action  Schedule the critical event first and then all preliminary actions  Check for feasibilityDON’T forget to do contingency planning and MAKE SURE that you factorcontingency into each element of the plan.Recommendation -- Do this in a facilitated session, on a whiteboard, withall of your key staff/team leads (and contractor leads, if possible) present.12
  • STEP 3 – Apply the “Backward Planning Process”STEP Example 6. STEP Level 1 Rollout NLT Sept. 30, 2009. 5. STEP Level 1 Operational Beta Test conducted at two operational Centers 4. Internal Level 1 Curriculum Beta Test 3. Unit/Module Level Test 2. Level 1 Curriculum and Individual Module Development 1. Level 1 Re-baseline and Scheduling ExerciseOther Examples7120.5 6. Launch Date (Not Later Than xx/xx/xxxx with contingency built in) 5. Launch Readiness Review and Launch Preparations 4. Initiate System Testing (NLT xx/xx/xx) Remember: 3. Initiate Final Design and Fabrication 80% on time is better 2. Initiate Preliminary Design than 100% late. 1. Initiate Concept and Technology Development13
  • STEP 4 – Use “Forward Action Planning” What it is Why it’s important Sage Advice“A formal action It helps communicate “Expect the best, planplanning and tracking the: for the worst, andprocess”  What prepare to be  Who surprised.”  When – Denis Waitley Motivational Speaker and  Why Author It helps prioritize and balance the load across the team. It is a key contributor to project success. 14
  • STEP 4 – Use “Forward Action Planning”MethodologyForward Planning Process  List all critical events (actions)  Determine the performance outcomes  Assign implementers and monitors for each item  Estimate the time needed for each action  Create a schedule with milestones for completion  Maintain the plan and review periodicallyDon’t forget to establish clear closure criteria for each action.15
  • STEP 4 – Use “Forward Action Planning”STEP Example16
  • STEP 5 – Measure, Measure, Measure What it is Why it’s important Sage AdviceIdentify specific metrics Managers can and “What you can measure,to instill confidence and should use performance you can manage.”to measure and measures to evaluate, – unknowncommunicate progress . control, budget, motivate, promote, celebrate, learn, and improve. 17
  • STEP 5 – Measure, Measure, MeasureMethodology  Determine what outcome and activity measures would tell the story  In project management, performance metrics are used to assess the health of the project and consist of the measuring of six criteria: time, cost, resources, scope, quality, and actions.  Neville Turbit, 2008 – Measuring Project Health  Include customer success criteria in the performance measurements18
  • STEP 5 – Measure, Measure, MeasureSTEP Example Pre-STEP STEPOther Examples Empire State building (ESB) specs:  Exceed the height of the Chrysler Building  Completion in one and a half years Empire State building (ESB) outcomes:  Completed in one year and 45 days... (ahead of schedule);  Cost $40,948,900 (including land) but under budget, due to depression  Met the design specifications.  Project was a success; building was a rental failure. Took 17 yrs to become profitable.19
  • STEP 6 – Rely on Your Team What it is Why it’s important Sage AdviceTeam – group of people A well constructed and Teamwork is the abilityworking toward a well organized team of to work togethercommon objective competent individuals toward a common can accomplish much vision. The ability to more together than direct individual they could as accomplishments individuals working on toward organizational independent, loosely- objectives. It is the fuel coupled activities. that allows common people to attain They are able to uncommon results.” provide real-time Andrew Carnegie advice and peer review capabilities for difficult and complex activities. 20
  • STEP 6 – Rely on Your TeamMethodologyA strong and sound team:  Focuses on Stakeholder outcomes  Applies “SMART” goals  Has committed leadership  Achieves mutual trust  Collaborates to set direction and solve problems  Obtains individual commitments  Establishes discipline of personal accountability  Identifies and removes barriers21
  • STEP 6 – Rely on Your TeamSTEP Example  Organized the team around clear roles and responsibilities  Implemented formal organizational development and teambuilding activities  Facilitated Team meeting to focus on strategic planning, near-term activities, and individual common program standardization and functionality  Balanced the Action item distribution and Task lead/monitoring  Included our contractor leads in all key program decision-making sessionsOther Examples  The Great Pyramid of Giza, constructed around 2,650 BC, represents a clear example of sustained high performance teamwork by an estimated 100,000 workers over a span of 20 years.  “It was the teamwork that had been forged in mission control over the years that helped make that rescue possible.” – Gene Krantz, Apollo 1322
  • STEP 7 – Communicate Frequently What it is Why it’s important Sage AdviceCommunication not only Many projects are short- "Leaders who make it akeeps everyone up-to- term, and therefore practice to draw out thedate on the project project communication is thoughts and ideas ofprogress, but also temporary. This means their subordinates andfacilitates buy-in and that communication who are receptive even toownership of major systems need to be bad news will be properlyproject decisions and established quickly in informed.milestones. shorter periods of time. It Communicate downward is just as important to to subordinates with at develop a communication least the same care and plan for the project as it is attention as you to develop task planning. communicate upward to superiors.” - L. B. Belker 23
  • STEP 7 – Communicate FrequentlyMethodology  Communication not only keeps everyone up-to-date on the project progress, but also facilitates buy-in and ownership of major project decisions and milestones.  To ensure the success of a project much information, including expectations, goals, needs, resources, status reports, budgets and purchase requests, needs to be communicated on a regular basis to all the major stakeholders.  Another challenge is that projects often include cross-functional or inter-organizational teams. Project teams are not normally natural teams and sometimes do not even reside in the same geographic location.http://www.corneliusassoc.com/CA/new/impact/April2002/pmcommun.htm24
  • STEP 7 – Communicate FrequentlySTEP Example  Weekly PM Staff Meetings were established to communicate left/right and up/down – keep everyone informed and include contractors  Focus sessions established for key programmatic elements  Webcasts used to inform the customers and stakeholders simultaneously  Visited every Center SMA Director personally prior to rollout and established Center SMA Liaisons amongst TeamOther ExamplesThe Latimer Group:  As business gets more complex, great leadership is more dependent than ever on simple and clear communication.  As we think about the examples of great leadership we have seen, the common denominator among them is always great communication.  The realities of the 21st century place a disproportionate level of importance on communication skills.25
  • In ClosingRemember Simple STEPsA couple of other key considerations for new Project Managers:  Disenfranchising a new team – discounting and trashing everything that they have worked hard on to date before you got there (Guaranteed to lose your team at the Starting Line)  Lead the team – – Challenge them – Motivate them – Help them when they need it – Make the assignments, get out of the way, and let them do their jobs – Roll up your sleeves and get dirty with them – Don’t ask anyone to do anything you are not willing to do yourself – Cultivate them – Recognize them – Celebrate with them and let them recharge their batteries and sharpen their tools from time to time – Remind them to go home and enjoy their families26