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IntroductionThe Sun and the celestial bodies which revolve around it form the solar system. It consists of large number of bodies such as planets, comers, asteroids and meteors. The gravitational attraction between the Sun and these objects keeps them revolving around it. Let us study more about its components.
Terms• Star- A huge body made of hot luminous gas that is held together by its own gravity. Compared to other stars, our Sun is a star of average size and energy• Planets- A large body that orbits a star. For example: Earth, Mars , Venus etc.• Asteroid ( or minor planet)- A body smaller than a planet and made of rock, metal, or other minerals. There is a large belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter.• Moon ( or satellite)- A body that orbits a planet or asteroid. Most moons are much smaller than their planet or asteroid.
Terms• Comet- An object composed of frozen gases and dust particles that was formed on the outskirts of the solar system and that orbits the Sun.• Meteor- Also known as shooting star. A chunk of rock or metal that enters Earth’s atmosphere and burns up in a fiery show.• Meteorite- A chunk of rock or metal that has fallen into the Earth from beyond its atmosphere.• Meteorite- A chunk of rock moving through space.
Sun• The Sun is the solar system’s star and its chief component. It is the main source of heat and light for all components of the solar system. It attracts all other bodies with its strong gravitational pull. It makes up for more than 99% of all mass in the solar system. It is an average star. Eight planets revolve around the Sun. They are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune.
Mercury CharacteristicsDistance From Sun 57 million Km.Equatorial Diameter 4878 km.One year 88 daysMoons NoneTemperature Range -183oC - 423oCConditions Dry, no atmosphereExtra Points It is the smallest planet.
VenusDistance from Sun 108,208,900 Km.Equatorial Diameter 12,103 Km.One year 243 daysMoons NoneTemperature Range Around 467oCConditions Hottest Planet, Thick AtmosphereExtra Points It rotates clockwise
EarthDistance from Sun 150 million Km.Equatorial Diameter 6,790Km.One Year 356 days 6 hoursMoons OneTemperature Range -120.C – 25 .CConditions Good conditions for life.Extra Points The only planet with life.
MarsDistance From Sun 230 million Km.Equatorial Diameter 6794 Km.One Year 686.971 Earth DaysMoons 2: Phobos and DeimosTemperature Range -87oC : 20oCConditions Thin atmosphere, mainly Co2Extra Points Named after Ares, God of War
JupiterDistance From 778 million Km.Equatorial Diameter 142,948 Km.One Year 11.86 Earth YearsMoons 64 known satellitesTemperature Range -145oC- 21oCConditions It has no surface.Extra Points It is the largest planet.
SaturnDistance From Sun 1430 Million Km.Equatorial Diameter 120,536 Km.One Year 29 ½ YearsMoons 62Temperature Range -150oC - 11700oCConditions Hot core which radiates more heat than receivedExtra Points Rings are mostly made of sand dust with traces of ice
UranusDistance From Sun 3075 Million Km.Equatorial Diameter 51,118 Km.One Year 84 Earth YearsMoons 27 Temperature Minimum: 224oCConditions Very Strong windsExtra Points Has axis tilt of 97.77oC
NeptuneDistance From Sun 4500 Million Km.Equatorial Diameter 49,532 KmOne Year 165 yearsMoons 13Temperature Range -218oC - 5000oCConditions Surface comprises of ice and rockExtra Points Farthest planet from Sun
Facts• The Solar System has 4 dwarf planets Ceres, Pluto, Eris and Makemake.• It is 4.6 billion years old.• There is water on Mars.( In the form of Ice)• Neptune has the fastest winds of all planets.• Neptune’s moon, Triton is colder than Neptune.
Facts• Jupiter’s mass is 318 times the Earth’s mass.• It is the fastest rotating planet.• Half of Mercury has never been seen• Venus has phases like the moon.• Uranus experiences summer for 42 years i.e. just ONE long day!!!!