Arthropods

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Arthropods

  1. 1. ArthropodaCrustaceans & InsectsBiology / Environmental Studies / Ecotourism Mr. R. Estrella
  2. 2. Animal Classification Chart Kingdom: Animal Phylum Subphylu Class Order Charact. Ex. m Names5-2
  3. 3. Characteristics of Crustaceans Phylum Arthropoda is the most numerous of multicellular animal phyla.  Characteristics: • Segmented bodies • Jointed legs • Chitinous exoskeleton. 5-3
  4. 4.  (There may be as many as one million arthropod species.) 5-4
  5. 5.  Sub-phylum Crustacea: crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles.  Characteristics:  Pair of appendages on each body segment.  Two pairs of antennae = 4.  Mandibles for chewing.  Teardrop shaped larvae.  Exoskeletons are shed as they grow. 5-5
  6. 6.  Crustaceans:  Lobsters  Shrimp  Crabs  Crayfish  Krill  Barnacles 5-6
  7. 7.  Class Cirripedia: barnacles Characteristics:  the animal is upside down.  A ring of plates surrounds the body, homologous with the carapace of other crustaceans  (in most the cement glands are part of a flat membrane or calcified plate.)  The exoskeleton forms the carapace (hard shell) the barnacle can withdraw inside for protection. 5-7
  8. 8.  Class Cirripedia: barnacles  Life begins as free-swimming larvae like other crustaceans.  (Larva finds a surface on which to live (rocks, boats,etc.) it fuses itself in place “upside down.”)  (In some, the cement glands are fixed to a long muscular stalk.) 5-8
  9. 9. Copepods Class Copepoda: very important food.  Few larger animals can consume the tiniest plankton, but many can eat the larger copepods. Fish, krill, and giant plankton feeders, including whale sharks, baleen whales, and manta rays all eat copepods.  Copepods are important to ocean food webs because they link the tiny primary producers (plankton) to the larger animals higher up the web. 5-9
  10. 10. HW: Crustaceans P. Arthropoda Review #11. Segmented2. Joint More work?3. Appendage Really!?4. Mandibles5. Carapace6. Describe a jointed leg7. What are the characteristics of Arthropoda?8. What are the characteristics of crustaceans?9. Name 4 types of crustaceans10. What is special about barnacles?11. What is important about copepods? 5 - 10
  11. 11.  Class Malacostraca includes two orders (groups) of interest due to their roles as food for humans and food for nature. Characteristics:  three tagmata – a head, an eight-segmented thorax and an abdomen with six segments, except in the Leptostraca 5 - 11
  12. 12. Decapods and Krill  Class Malacostraca (Order Decapoda): lobsters, shrimps, and crabs. Humans eat these shellfish, they are an important food source and resource on which the fishing industry relies.Crustaceans – Underwater Arthropods 5 - 12
  13. 13.  Decapoda: lobsters, shrimps, and crabs  Have 10 functional legs (deca meaning ten and poda meaning foot).  Have claws and an extended carapace that encloses the gills.Crustaceans – Underwater Arthropods Chapter 5 Pages 5-53 to 5-55 5 - 13
  14. 14. Decapods and Krill (Order Euphausiacea): krill  Important primary and secondary consumers that link smaller plankton to larger consumers.  In subpolar food webs, they are vital. Whales, seals, sea birds, and penguins only survive in highly productive waters. Feeding on krill 5 - 14
  15. 15. HW: Malacostraca Review1. Why are krill and copepods so Crazy Person important in the food web? thinks I’m a real lobster!2. What does deca mean?3. What animals are decapods?4. What kingdom and phylum does Malacostraca belong to?5. What are the characteristics of malacostraca?6. List 3 examples of shellfish you might find at a restaurant. 5 - 15
  16. 16. Phylum Arthropoda; Class Insecta a three-part body (head, thorax, and abdomen), three pairs (6) of jointed legs, compound eyes and two antennae 5 - 16
  17. 17. Phylum Arthropoda; Class Insecta
  18. 18. Phylum Arthropoda; Class Insecta
  19. 19. Phylum Arthropoda; Class InsectaCompound Eyes: help detect movement
  20. 20. Class Insecta; Order: Lepidoptera• 2 pairs of wings (4). A few moths arewingless• Large compound eyes• One ocelli present above each eye• Antennae are long and slender infemale moths and generally featheryin male moths. Butterflies haveclubbed antennae• Mouthparts are a sucking tubeknown as a haustellum• The larvae are typically known ascaterpillars. 5 - 20
  21. 21. Class Insecta; Order: Lepidoptera Is it a moth or a butterfly? butterflies hold their wings vertically when at rest whereas moths sit with their wings flat.
  22. 22. Class Insecta; Order: Lepidoptera• One ocellipresent aboveeach eye• Butterflieshave clubbedantennae 5 - 22
  23. 23. Class Insecta; Order: Lepidoptera 5 - 23
  24. 24. Class Insecta; Order: Lepidoptera Monarch Migration in Mexico-A 5 - 24
  25. 25. Dangers to butterflies and moths1. Land Development which removes their food (certain flowers).2. Pesticides to kill bugs 5 - 25
  26. 26. Lepidoptera Review 1. What kingdom, Phylum, Class and Order are butterflies and moths in? Do NOT stick your tongue up my 2. Compound Eye nostril! 3. Thorax 4. Abdomen 5. HeadMollusks – A Bag, a Scraper, and a Foot 6. Ocellus (ocelli) 7. Spiracle 8. What is the benefit of compound eyes? 9. What do moths & butterflies eat? Chapter 5 Pages 5-45 to 5-48 10. What is the larva of moths and butterflies? 11. Short Answer: Explain the importance of butterflies and moths and 2 activities that are dangerous to them. 5 - 26
  27. 27. Class Insecta; Order: OdonataOdonata -Dragonflies and Damselflies:characteristics:• tiny antennae• very large eyes (filling most of the head)• two pairs of transparent wings with manysmall veins• long slender abdomen• an aquatic larval stage (nymph) withposterior tracheal gills• a prehensile labium (extendible jawsunderneath the head). 5 - 27
  28. 28. Class Insecta; Order: Odonata Dragonflies Damselflies eyes are clearly most have eyes separated,Eyes that touch, or usually appearing nearly touch to each side of the headCrustaceans – Underwater Arthropods usually long andBody usually stocky slender dissimilar wing pairs, with hind all wings similarWing Shape Chapter 5 Pages 5-53 to 5-55 wings broader at in shape the base wings held open, wings heldPosition at Rest horizontally or closed, usually downwards over abdomen 5 - 28
  29. 29. Class Insecta; Order: OdonataDamselfly Larvae Dragonfly Larvae
  30. 30. Dragonfly or Damselfly? 5 - 30
  31. 31. Dragonfly & Damselfly Review1. What kingdom, phylum, class and order are dragonflies in?2. What are their babies called? A.3. What are the babies in Lepidoptera called?4. What is a difference between the two nymphs? B.5. List two ways to tell adult dragonflies apart from the damselflies.6. Identify the three pictures (A. B. C.) C. 5 - 31
  32. 32. Class Insecta; Order: Order Hymenopterasawflies, wasps, bees, and ants• Two pairs of wings (4), althoughsome may be wingless such assome species of female wasps andthe worker caste of ants.• The forewings are larger than thehind wings and are held togetherby small hooks.
  33. 33. Class Insecta; Order: Order Hymenopterasawflies, wasps, bees, and ants•Most have a constriction betweenthe first 2 segments of theabdomen, which is known as awasp waist•Females usually have a hardenedovipositor, which may be modifiedfor sawing, piercing or stinging•Chewing, mandibulatemouthparts. Although in somespecies such as bees the lower lipis modified to form a tongue•Compound eyes are usually large 5 - 33
  34. 34. Class Insecta; Order: Order HymenopteraSawfly Wasp Ant Bee 5 - 34
  35. 35. Phylum Arthropoda; Class Insecta; Order: Order Hymenoptera The wing hooks of Hymenoptera enable the wings to be coupled together during flight, which gives Silence of these insects well controlled, rapid the Beesflight. These tiny hooks can be easily seen with the aid of a dissecting 5 - 35 microscope
  36. 36. Silence of the BeesReasons for bees disappearing: Malnutrition Infections
  37. 37. Silence of the BeesReasons for bees disappearing: Pesticides
  38. 38. Phylum Arthropoda; Class Insecta; Order: Order Hymenoptera Spine Scape GasterCrustaceans – Underwater Arthropods Eye Petiol e Antennal Nodes club Chapter 5 Pages 5-53 to 5-55 5 - 38
  39. 39. Crustaceans – Underwater Arthropods Chapter 5 Pages 5-53 to 5-555 - 39
  40. 40. Phylum Arthropoda; Class Insecta; Order: Order Hymenoptera Velvet Ant Argentine Ant Harvester AntCrustaceans – Underwater Arthropods Chapter 5 Pages 5-53 to 5-55 Lord of the Ants Fire Ant Carpenter Ant 5 - 40
  41. 41. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/TOOLS/ANTKEY/index.html 1/8-1/4” long 1/16-1/5” long 5 - 41
  42. 42. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/TOOLS/ANTKEY/index.html 1/8” long 1/8” longWorkers are all the same sizeDark brown to shiny black Uniformly dull brownPetiole with 1 node, hidden by Workers are all the same size 5 - 42abdomen Musty odor emitted when
  43. 43. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/TOOLS/ANTKEY/index.htmlThief Ant 1/32 ” long Pharaoh Ant 1/16” long 5 - 43
  44. 44. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/TOOLS/ANTKEY/index.htmlCarpenter Ant 1/4-1/2” long Pavement Ant 3/16” long 5 - 44
  45. 45. Phylum Arthropoda; Class Insecta; OrderHymenoptera Order not covered Lord of the Ants 5 - 45
  46. 46. Hymenoptera Review1. List two things about their wings.2. What are four types of insects that A. belong to the order Hymenoptera?3. List the kingdom, phylum, class and order for ants.4. What is a wasp waist? B.5. Identify A-D6. Which one is not a real ant?7. List the 3 reasons bees are in danger. C. D. 5 - 46
  47. 47. Class Insecta; Order: Orthoptera Grasshoppers, Crickets and KatydidsOrthopterans Characteristics:• Usually cylindrical body• Hind legs elongated for jumping.• Mandibulate mouthparts• Large compound eyes• May or may not have ocelli• Antennae have multiple joints. 5 - 47
  48. 48. Class Insecta; Order: OrthopteraGrasshoppers, Crickets and Katydids 5 - 48
  49. 49. Class Insecta; Order: Orthoptera• First and third segments of the thorax are enlarged,while the second segment is much shorter.• Two pairs of wings, held overlapping the abdomen atrest.• ( The forewings, or tegmina, are narrower than thehindwings.• At rest, the hindwings are held folded fan-like underthe forewings. )• The final two to three segments of the abdomen arereduced, and have single-segmented cerci. 5 - 49
  50. 50. Crustaceans – Underwater Arthropods Chapter 5 Pages 5-53 to 5-555 - 50
  51. 51. Phylum Arthropoda; Class Insecta; Order: Coleoptera•2 pairs of wings. • Forewings hardened • hind wings membranous•Mandibulate mouthpartswhich are designed forbiting and chewing•Antennae present in avariety of forms•Compound eyes•At rest the elytra meet in astraight line down themiddle of the back 5 - 51
  52. 52. Class Insecta; Order: Coleoptera•Some do not have hindwings and their elytra aregenerally fused together
  53. 53. Class Insecta; Order: Coleoptera•Larvae generallyappear grub-likewith a well-definedhead capsule,(which may behighly sclerotised.)They have shortantennae andusually havechewingmouthparts. Thelegs may be presentor absent. 5 - 53
  54. 54. Class Insecta; Order: Coleoptera
  55. 55.  Pine Sawyer Beetle Desert Stink Beetle
  56. 56. Orthoptera & Coleoptera Review1. What are two easy ways to know if it is Orthoptera?2. What is special about their antennae on Orthoptera? A.3. What are “elytra?”4. What are two easy ways to recognize Coleoptera?5. What are the larvae of beetles B. called?6. What do beetle larvae usually look like?7. Identify the Order for A, B and C. C. 5 - 56
  57. 57. Class Insecta; Order: Diptera •They possess a pair of wings (2) on the mesothorax and a pair of halteres, derived from the hind wings, on the metathorax.Crustaceans – Underwater Arthropods Chapter 5 Pages 5-53 to 5-55 5 - 57
  58. 58. Class Insecta; Order: Diptera•The common names of true flies are written astwo words 5 - 58
  59. 59. Class: Insecta Order: Blattodea roachesSpot ID Flat
  60. 60. Class: Insecta Order: Blattodea roachesSpot ID Flat Spiny legs
  61. 61. Class: Insecta Order: Blattodea roachesSpot ID Flat Spiny legs Long antennae
  62. 62. Class Insecta Order Hemiptera(bugs, hoppers, aphids, scales, cicadas)Greek “hemisys” = half, “ptero” = wing
  63. 63. Hemiptera (bugs, hoppers, aphids, scales, cicadas) Greek “hemisys” = half, “ptero” = wingSpot ID A beak: piercing-sucking mouthparts
  64. 64. Hemiptera (bugs, hoppers, aphids, scales, cicadas) Greek “hemisys” = half, “ptero” = wingSpot ID A beak: piercing-sucking mouthparts Forewings covering hindwings  Wing half membrane, half thickened or  Wing all membranous
  65. 65. Hemiptera(bugs, hoppers, aphids, scales, cicadas)
  66. 66. Class: Insecta Order: Dermaptera EarwigsGreek “derma” = skin, “ptero” = wing
  67. 67. Class: Insecta Order: Dermaptera EarwigsGreek “derma” = skin, “ptero” = wingSpot ID Long skin-like hindwings folded under very short forewings
  68. 68. Class: Insecta Order: Dermaptera EarwigsGreek “derma” = skin, “ptero” = wingSpot ID Long skin-like hindwings folded under very short forewings Pinchers off end of abdomen
  69. 69. Insect Collection HW: Collect 3 different insects – No Arachnids or roaches!Place them in a ziplock bag or small jar with some alcohol. All three must be DIFFERENT. - Due: in one week. 5 - 69
  70. 70. HW: Insects-Humans Venn Diagram Insects Humans 5 Things 5 5 5 - 70
  71. 71. Class Arachnidaspiders, scorpions, ticks, mites, harvestmen, and their cousins Arachnid bodies are divided into two parts, the cephalothorax and the abdomen. Arachnids lack wings and antennae. 5 - 71
  72. 72. Class Arachnida All arachnids have 8 legs, attached to the cephalothorax, (although in some species the front pair may convert to a sensory function) 5 - 72
  73. 73. Class Arachnida: Scorpions pair of grasping claws and the narrow, segmented tail
  74. 74. Class Arachnida: Ticks Ticks are ectoparasites (external parasites), living on the blood of mammals, birds, and occasionally reptiles and amphibians. Ticks are vectors of a number of diseases 5 - 74
  75. 75. Class Arachnida: Mites most are microscopic Many live freely in the soil or water, but there are also a large number of species that live as parasites on plants, animals, and some that feed on mold 5 - 75
  76. 76. Class Arachnida: Harvestmen Harvestmen are not spiders Known as "daddy longlegs" or "granddaddy longlegs", but this name is also used for two other unrelated arthropods: the crane fly and the cellar spider. Two main body sections (the abdomen with ten segments and cephalothorax are broadly joined, so that they appear to be one oval structure they also have no venom or silk glands 5 - 76
  77. 77.  Crane Fly Cellar Spiders 5 - 77
  78. 78. Class ArachnidaChelicerae: One of the anteriorpair of appendages of anarachnid often specialized asfangs.
  79. 79. Diptera & Arachnida Review1. What kingdom, phylum and class do flies belong to?2. What are two characteristics you can use to ID diptera? A.3. What are 3 characteristics of an arachnid? Abdomen has4. What are five types of arachnids. 10 segments5. What are the fangs in spiders also called?6. Identify the type of arachnid for A & B. B.7. What is a vector?8. What are ectoparasites? No segments on abdomen 5 - 79
  80. 80. Part-29. What are two reasons why butterflies are disappearing?10. Why are butterflies and bees so important?11. List some of the members of these orders: a. Lepidoptera b. Orthoptera c. Hymenoptera d. Diptera e. Coleoptera f. Odonata g. Hemiptera h. Dermaptera i. Blattodea
  81. 81. Poster Requirements Regular size poster Name of group on top of your poster in large letters  Ex. Order Diptera or Class Arachnida Neat and creative Typed – between 15-19 Size font – use bullets to give characteristics and information. Not paragraph form.  Kingdom, Phylum, Class and Order. Characteristics / traits of the group you got. Bullets with information about their lifestyle, unique things about them. Which ones live in California, especially SoCal. 1 large picture that shows a variety of members of the group. 4 smaller pictures that show individual types from California. 5 - 81
  82. 82. HW: Phylum Poster Arthropoda  Cirripedia  Arachnida  Malacostraca  Insecta  Lepidoptera  Odonata  Hymenoptera  Orthoptera  Coleoptera  Diptera  Hemiptera  Dermaptera  Blattodea 5 - 82
  83. 83. Beneath theAnimal Classification phyla, classes and orders,Chart include examples of the animals. Animal Example: Kingdom Arachnida: Mites, Ticks, Phylum Spiders, Arthropoda Harvestmen, Scorpions ClassClass Insecta Class … You will have to Arachnida tape together Order more than oneHymenoptera paper. 5 - 83

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