Practical Moth Recording

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Workshop PPT for Nature Society Singapore.
Introduces moth recording techniques and moth identification skills; gives a run down on the most commonly encountered moth families in South East Asia, some of the key i.d. features of these families and sets out how to make voucher specimens. A brief outline of what is required for data recording and handling is given.

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  • Sheet – labour intensive as needs to be manned at all times. Good in the tropics if large beetles and bugs are anticipated as this method minimises damage to specimens. Not good for abundance samples. Can be difficult to set up.

    Box – “Heath” and “Skinner” traps both useful as can be packed flat for work in the field. Catch retention reasonable, but a long way from perfect.

    Bucket – “Robinson” trap most efficient design, but still well short of 100% catch retention. Large traps not very portable, smaller versions for use with actinic tubes more portable.
  • Character illustrations of wing venation in Noctuoidea: (A) forewing venation of trifid Noctuoidea, Anaphe (Notodontidae), with vein M2 near the middle of the discal cell so that the cubital (Cu) veins appear to branch into three veins (from Kitching & Rawlins, 1998); (B) forewing venation of quadrifid Noctuoidea, Calidota (Erebidae: Arctiinae), with vein M2 in the lower part of discal cell, so that the cubital (Cu) veins appear to branch into four veins (from Kitching & Rawlins, 1998); (C) hindwing venation of trifine Noctuidae, Mamestra (Noctuidae: Hadeninae), showing reduced vein M2 (from Lafontaine & Fibiger, 2006); (D) hindwing venation of trifine Noctuidae, Panthea (Noctuidae: Pantheinae), showing strong vein M2 (from Lafontaine & Fibiger, 2006); (E) hindwing venation of quadrifine Noctuoidea, Spilosoma (Erebidae: Arctiinae), with vein M2 in quadrifine position (from Lafontaine & Fibiger, 2006); (F) hindwing venation of Micronoctua (Erebidae: Hypenodinae: Micronoctuini), with cubital vein two-branched (bifid venation).
  • Practical Moth Recording

    1. 1. Practical Moth Recording
    2. 2. 1. Recording methods 2. Field identification skills 3. Classification (1 - overview of micromoths) 4. Classification (2 - overview of macromoths) 5. Specimen preparation 6. Field session @ Dairy Farm (Wallace Education Ctr) 7. Field session review & quiz 8. Data management NSS 2014 Moth Workshop Slide 2 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    3. 3. Introduction to Moths • Diversity • Survival Strategies • Ecological Services • Role in Wildlife Conservation Slide 3 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    4. 4. Moth Diversity Slide 4 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    5. 5. 1. Recording Moths • Lights • Traps • Nets • Baits • Larvae • Photography • Weather • Keeping Records • Publishing Slide 5 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    6. 6. Lights MV – mercury vapour Actinic / UV – ultra-violet LED Tungsten (incandescent) Halogen Slide 6 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    7. 7. “Traps” Sheet – needs to be manned at all times. Good in the tropics Not good for abundance samples. Box – “Heath” and “Skinner” traps. Catch retention reasonable, but a long way from perfect. Bucket – “Robinson” trap most efficient design, but still well short of 100% catch retention. Large traps not very portable, smaller versions for use with actinic tubes more portable. Slide 7 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    8. 8. Nets Sweep net Hand net Malaise trap Slide 8 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    9. 9. Baits “Sugar” wine rope fruit faeces synthetic pheromones others . . . Photo: Fritz Geller-Grimm (via Wikipedia)Photo: D.E.Walter (http://homebuggarden.blogspot.hk/2014/06/winters-coming.html) Slide 9 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    10. 10. Moth Larvae Finding larvae beating tray sweep net leaf rolls leaf mines galls (stems, twigs, buds) flowers & fruits Rearing larvae t.l.c. ! making notes & taking photos . . . Slide 10 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    11. 11. Photography digital camera data storage macro function close focus control of flash best views to shoot for i.d. Slide 11 Practical Moth Recording, 5& 6 July 2014
    12. 12. Weather Light trapping: avoid high wind & heavy rain; light rain / mist and warm conditions seem best; in HK night time min between 17°C and 28°C optimal; in UK between 8°C and ? (not warm enough!) larval searching: avoid heavy rain (everything washed away!) sugar/bait/pheromone: calm weather best Slide 12 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    13. 13. Keeping Records what, (who made the id) sight record, voucher specimen (where kept) or photo where seen/collected when recorded kept in notebook or on computer database Slide 13 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    14. 14. Publishing Slide 14 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014 individual records of note or a species life history; summary of a single recording event site or area lists changes in species seen or phenology (long term data), distribution . . .
    15. 15. 2. Field Identification of Moths Wing pattern Colour Antennae Resting Posture Behaviour Slide 15 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    16. 16. Visible Field Characters Adults • Wing shape, pattern, posture and coupling mechanism; • On the head: form of antenna and of labial palps; • Presence of haustellum (coiled proboscis – may be degenerate or lost in some taxa); • Pattern on head, thorax and abdomen; • Leg morphology & patterns. Larvae • Number of abdominal prolegs; • Pattern, spines, other appendages. Slide 16 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    17. 17. Wing Patterns - areas Slide 17 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014 • Note the distinctive pattern features in relation to the areas above. • For clarity, all the possible lines (fascia and streaks) have not been illustrated in the following pages – a streak could occur anywhere on the wing; note its relative position to the nearest edge and wing area. medial basal terminal costa termen tornus dorsum apex base
    18. 18. Wing Patterns – vertical lines lines crossing the wing: Fasciae 1 – basal fascia 2 – sub-medial or ante- medial fascia 3 – medial fascia 4 – post-medial fascia 5 – sub-terminal fasica Slide 18 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014 1 2 3 4 5
    19. 19. Wing Patterns - streaks lines along the wing: Streaks 1 – basal streak 2 – medial streak 3 – tornal streak 4 – apical streak Slide 19 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014 1 2 3 4
    20. 20. Wing Patterns - spots spots on the wing 1 – orbicular stigma 2 – claviform stigma 3 – sub-reniform stigma 4 – discal spot, inside the reniform stigma Slide 20 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014 1 3 2 4
    21. 21. Wing Patterns - veins wing venation (stems only) 1 – sub-costal vein (Sc) 2 – radial sector (Rs) 3 – cubital (Cu) / medial vein (M) 4 – anal vein (A) c – discal cell Slide 21 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014 1 4 2 3 c
    22. 22. Colour Note the colour(s) of the wing patterns. • Whilst this is not always diagnostic, it is usually a good guide to a species’ identity. • Be aware that species may differ between male and female patterns, between wet and dry seasons and have melanic or darkened forms. • Sometimes colours on the body or ventral wing surface may be diagnostic. Slide 22 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    23. 23. Antennae Note the form and length of the antenna, • filiform (simple, threadlike) • uni-, bi-, tri- or quadripectinate (with one ramus per segment, or 2 – 4 rami per segment) • fasciculate and if there is any distinct basal modification, especially at the scape (base) Slide 23 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    24. 24. Resting Posture Note how the moth sits: • how are the wings held; • where are the antennae? • how does it position its body and legs? Slide 24 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    25. 25. Behaviour What is the moth doing? • record flowers visited; • other nutritional sources used; • thermoregulation behaviour; • sexual behaviour; • territorial behaviour. Slide 25 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    26. 26. Field i.d. – key references • Barlow, H.S., 1982. An Introduction to the Moths of South East Asia. Malayan Nature Society. • Fauna Sinica Insecta (Science Press, Beijing), vols. 3, 5, 7, 11, 15, 16, 19, 27, 30, 31, 36, 38, 47. • Haruta, T. (ed.) 1992-2000. Moths of Nepal (in 6 parts, published as supplement volumes of the journal Tinea) • Holloway, J.D., 1983-2011. The Moths of Borneo (in 18 parts) [available on-line, except parts 2, 13 & 17] • Leverton, R., 2001. Enjoying Moths. T. & A.D.Poyser Natural History, London • Robinson, G.S., Tuck, K.R. & Shaffer, M., 1994. The Smaller Moths of South-East Asia. The Natural History Museum, London • various authors. The Moths of Thailand. 6 volumes published to date., Bangkok. Slide 26 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    27. 27. 3. Moth Classification •Key Lepidoptera characters •Major Families in Asia Slide 27 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    28. 28. Characters Lepidoptera = Greek for scale-winged 27 characters defining Lepidoptera: main ones on adult Lepidoptera are: - • Hairs on wing modified as scales; • Presence of haustellum (coiled proboscis – may be degenerate or lost in some taxa); • Presence of “vom Rath’s organ” in terminal segment of labial palp; • Fore tibia with movable “epiphysis” (antenna comb) on inner surface; • Median ocellus absent. Slide 28 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    29. 29. Major Families in Asia • Tineidae • Gracillariidae • Yponomeutidae • Oecophoridae • Gelechiidae • Tortricidae • Pyralidae • Crambidae • Thyrididae • Zygaenidae • Sesiidae • Sphingidae • Saturniidae • Geometridae • Notodontidae • Erebidae (inc. Arctiinae & Lymantriinae) • Nolidae • Noctuidae Slide 29 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    30. 30. Slide 30 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014 source: Mutanen et al., 2010
    31. 31. Tineidae Includes “Clothes Moths” Will run rather than fly Many are detritivores on animal matter; some subfamilies specialize as fungivores. Small moths, 10 to 20 mm wingspan, mostly dull browns rough scales on head of adult; haustellum often degenerate. ~ 3,000 named spp. globally. close relatives include the Bagworms - Psychidae Slide 31 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    32. 32. Gracillariidae Leaf Miners (blotch and blister mines) as larvae. Adults with very long antennae, smooth scales on head; small or v. small, w/s 7 - 20 mm; often very colourful, reds, yellows dominant. V.long h/w fringes. Adults rest with front and mid legs pushing front of body up at 30° from horizontal with tip of abdomen still touching substrate, wings tightly wrapped; antennae twirled prior to settling down. Slide 32 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    33. 33. Yponomeutidae (s.l.) Small Ermine Moths inc. Attevidae, Plutellidae Many species are communial webspinners as larvae. Very small to fairly small moths, 8 – 25mm w/s; antennae around ½ f/w length. Some rest with head down and body raised. Proboscis well developed, not scaled at base Slide 33 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    34. 34. Oecophoridae A mixed bag – several subfamilies. Head smooth scaled. Detritivores, leaf miners, stem borers Very small to quite large moths (8 – 40 mm w/s), mostly small species. Full hindwing, many species quite stout for “microleps”. Stathmopodidae (small, often brightly coloured) have whorls of bristles on legs, hindlegs held outwards and upwards at around 45 – 60° from body; possibly some diurnal spp. Slide 34 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    35. 35. Gelechiidae Borers / Twirlers 3rd segment of labial palp usually long, narrow and upturned or recurved; h/w usually broad, trapezoidal, the termen sinuous, with a acutely produced apex. Mostly dull coloured and mottled, a few bright species. Small to fairly small moths, 10 – 20 mm w/s. Slide 35 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    36. 36. Bell Moths Labial palps porrect, normally small. Head roughly scaled. Hindwings broad, rounded. Leaf-rollers, fruit & seed borers, gall formers Small to fairly small moths 10 – 25 mm w/s Some pest species successfully controlled with pheromone traps. Tortricidae Slide 36 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    37. 37. Pyralidae Knot-horns, Meal Moths . . . . Tympanal organ at base of abdomen (also in Crambidae - tympanal shape determines group). Six subfamilies, mostly detritivores; includes wax moth (Galleria mellonella), Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). Antennae on Phycitinae have distinctive “knot” near base and rest tighly involute. Small to quite large moths (10 – 40 mm w/s) Slide 37 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    38. 38. Leaf-rollers 16 subfamilies – diverse! Small to quite large moths (10 – 50 mm w/s). Often colourful; rest almost flat to quite raised at the head, wings widespread in most subfamilies, involute in Crambidae and Schoenobiinae; antennae held along top of abdomen (also in Pyralidae). Larvae of Acentropinae (=Nymphulinae) are aquatic. Crambidae Slide 38 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    39. 39. Thyrididae Tropical Leaf Moths “sitting up” posture intricate patterns, often with hyaline patches, leaf roll larval shelters Slide 39 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    40. 40. Burnet Moths small to large moths, often brightly coloured. Poisonous, capable of making HCN. Probably involved as models for many other moths in Batesian mimicry rings, as well as in Müllerian mimicry rings. Many species are diurnal. Becoming significant in the trade of Lepidoptera specimens. Slide 40 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014 Zygaenidae
    41. 41. Sesiidae Clearwing Moths superb mimics of wasps and bees. almost exclusively diurnal, sometimes seen at light. usually recorded by pheromone trapping using mixtures of long carbon chain acetates (increasingly used in Asia, especially Japan and Vietnam) Slide 41 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014 photo credit: Chris Ng (HK Wildlife Net)photo credit: Chris Ng (HK Wildlife Net)
    42. 42. Intermission TEA BREAK  30 minutes 15:03 Slide 42 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    43. 43. 1. Recording methods 2. Field identification skills 3. Classification (1 - overview of micromoths) 4. Classification (2 - overview of macromoths) 5. Specimen preparation 6. Field session @ Dairy Farm (Wallace Education Ctr) 7. Field session review & quiz 8. Data management NSS 2014 Moth Workshop Slide 43 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    44. 44. Sphingidae Hawk Moths, Sphinx Moths Haustellum well developed (Sphinginae, Macroglossinae), Very capable fliers, many can hover; adult body form typically v-deltoid Larvae with “caudal horn” on dorsal surface of last abdominal segment (sometimes rudimentary) Medium to large moths (35 – 140 mm), around 1,300 species globally. Slide 44 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    45. 45. Saturniidae Emperor Moths, Atlas Moths, Moon Moths No wing coupling mechanism; haustellum absent or rudimetary; maxillary palps vestigial; labial palps reduced or very reduced. Large to very large moths – 80 to 300 mm w/s about 1,300 species globally Slide 45 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    46. 46. Geometridae Looper Moths, Emeralds, Carpets, Waves . . . . Larvae usually have only one pair of prolegs + anal claspers Adults with tympanic handle (“ansa”) curving over abdominal tympanum Generally slender bodied with broad wings, well suited to sheltered vegetation, especially forest. Small to large moths (10 – 100 mm w/s) Subfamilies often niche specific Slide 46 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    47. 47. Noctuoidea within S.E.Asia Notodontidae Erebidae (including Lymantriinae Arctiinae and many of the “old” Catocalinae of Noctuidae) Nolidae Euteliidae Noctuidae Slide 47 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014 source: Zahiri et al., 2012. Systematic Entomology 37: 102–124 A B C D E F
    48. 48. Notodontidae Prominent Moths Metathoracic tympanum (Noctuoidea character), with “bulla” (a teardrop shaped swelling) above; tips of tibial spurs serrated Dorsal edge of f/w often with tooth-like projections. Most species highly cryptic. Larvae feed on shrubs and trees. Fairly small to large moths (25 – 120 mm w/s) about 3,000 species globally. Slide 48 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    49. 49. Erebidae Owlet Moths, Snout Moths, Fanfoots, Underwing Moths . . . highly diverse family, containing many subfamilies. Hindwing with quadrifine cubital vein pattern, counter-tympanal hood on abdomen is post- spiracular or absent Small to large moths (8 – 130 mm w/s in Asia, up to 300 mm in Americas) Slide 49 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    50. 50. Erebidae (Lymantriinae) Tussock Moths Hindwing with quadrifine cubital vein pattern, counter-tympanal hood on abdomen is pre-spiracular haustellum vestigial larvae with group of 4 prominent scale tussocks on thorax & abdomen, often urticating; some spp are forest defoliators Slide 50 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    51. 51. Erebidae (Arctiinae) Slide 51 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014 Tiger, Footmen & Wasp (Handmaiden) Moths Adults hindwing with quadrifine cubital vein pattern, counter- tympanal hood on abdomen is pre- spiracular, with a tymbal organ on metepisternum (just above hindleg), haustellum usually developed. Many are diurnal. Larvae have two subventral setae (stiff hairs) on the meso- and metathorax, often densly hairy, Lithosiini are lichenivorous
    52. 52. Nolidae Nycteolines, bollworms. . . defined by boat shaped cocoon and features of the adult male genitalia (no field characters for adults); many species with raised tufts of wing scales and pupae capable of sound production Diverse forms between subfamilies, within subfamilies fairly similar. Some notable pest species Slide 52 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    53. 53. Noctuidae Armyworms, Wainscots, Brocades, Quakers, Sharks, Underwings, Rustics, Plusias. . . H/w Cubital vein in adults appears trifine. Mainly open habitat species, often associated with monocotyledons, and considered pests; some notable migrant species Slide 53 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    54. 54. classification – key references • Mutanen, M., Wahlberg, N. & Kaila, L., 2010. Comprehensive gene and taxon coverage elucidates radiation patterns in moths and butterflies. Proc. R. Soc. B. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.0392. • van Nieukerken et al., 2011. Order Lepidoptera. Zootaxa 3148: 212-221. [pdf] • Regier, J. C. et al., 2013. A Large-Scale, Higher-Level, Molecular Phylogenetic Study of the Insect Order Lepidoptera (Moths and Butterflies). PLoS ONE 8(3): e58568. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058568. • Zahiri, R., et al., 2013. Relationships among the basal lineages of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea) based on eight gene regions. Zoologica Scripta. doi: 10.1111/zsc.12022. • Zahiri, R., et al., 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family- level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta, 40: 158– 173. • Zahiri, R. et al., 2012. Molecular phylogenetics of Erebidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea). Systematic Entomology 37: 102–124. [pdf] Slide 54 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    55. 55. classification – more key references • Sihvonen, P., et al., 2011. Comprehensive molecular sampling yields a robust phylogeny for geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). PLoS ONE 6(6): e20356. - doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020356 • Sohn, J.-C., et al., 2013. A molecular phylogeny for Yponomeutoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Ditrysia) and its implications for classification, biogeography and the evolution of host plant use. PLoS ONE 8(1): e55066. - doi:10.1371/ journal. pone.0055066 • Regier, J.C., et al., 2012. A molecular phylogeny for the leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its implications for classification and life history evolution. PLoS ONE 7(4): e35574. - doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035574 • Holloway, J.D., 1986. Moths of Borneo part 1. Malayan Nature Journal 40: 1-166. • Holloway, J.D., 2011. Moths of Borneo part 2. Malayan Nature Journal 63: 1-548. • Scoble, M.J., 1992. The Lepidoptera: Form, Function and Diversity. The Natural History Museum, London. Slide 55 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    56. 56. web resources (some of them, anyway!) I-Naturalist (Lepidoptera; Hong Kong Moths); BOLD Systems Taxonomy Browser; Sphingidae of S.E.Asia / Eastern Palaearctic; Global databases: Gelechioidea, Tortricidae, Hampson “Noctuidae”, Sphingidae, Gracillariidae, Tineidae, Pyraloidea; NHM LepIndex Moths of Borneo, Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Asia; Flickr moth groups – HK, Taiwan, Borneo, India ; India Biodiversity (Moths); Facebook (Mothing & Moth Watching, Moth Maniacs, ALCG, Singapore, India, Sri Lanka.) Slide 56 Practical Moth Recording, 5& 6 July 2014
    57. 57. 5. Preparing Voucher Specimens Slide 57 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    58. 58. In the field • Fresh specimens are easier to identify; • In hot weather use a “cold bag” to retain specimens for later inspection / preparation; • If retaining only difficult to identify species, may be possible to set specimens in-situ (especially micros); • Take sufficient specimen pots of varying sizes; • Consider papering specimens; • Killing methods for the field – ammonia, ethyl acetate, pinching. Slide 58 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    59. 59. Papering For: • Saves storage space later; • Quick in the field; • Less to carry back to the lab (less pots and no cold bag!) Against: • Makes i/d difficult; • Specimens may be difficult to curate if photos needed; • Extra pre-field preparation time; • Extra handling. Slide 59 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    60. 60. Pinning Larger moth specimens (roughly > 15 mm wingspan) - the mid-thorax, vertically in both axes of the horizontal plane. This prevents damage to the wing muscles that is likely to hinder setting. Smaller moth specimens - the mid-thorax, (sometimes the post-thorax). Laterally perpendicular, though front-back angle is ~10-20° from perpendicular, angled towards the front below the body. Use a stereoscopic microscope for pinning small specimens (<8-10 mm). Slide 60 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    61. 61. Set Specimens • Formal setting only really required for illustrative purposes, usually to confirm an identification. • Storage of set specimens is space consuming and expensive. • Is pinning sufficient? Slide 61 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    62. 62. Small Moths Usually sufficient to partially “blow” spread the wings of a pinned micro-moth. Can use a plastazote sheet in a small plastic box as a pinning substrate. These can be labeled for each recording event and processed later in the lab if formal setting is required. See also the paper by Landry & Landry (1994). Micro-moths should be double staged to prevent damage to the specimen when being handled. Slide 62 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    63. 63. Data Labels I Absolutely essential for each specimen!! Use permanent ink on thin card. Long term effectiveness of laser printers not yet proven. Site label: COUNTRY, province / state / county; Location / site name, UTM grid ref. or lat./long.; recording date, method, recorder (leg. ………); habitat and altitude also useful. Slide 63 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    64. 64. Data Labels II Determination label: Genus species; (scientific name only is required) Species author; Higher tax.placement (Family, subfamily, tribe); Determiner (det. ………), date of determination. Other labels: •Type specimens (Holotype, Allotype, Paratype) •Photography labels •Collection accession labels Slide 64 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    65. 65. Curation & Storage Tropical weather is problematic as high humidity gives fungi and small insects a good chance of destroying any curated animal specimen. Storage thus must be in a controlled environment – “pest- proof” (sealed); low humidity (<50% r.h.) and pest repelling materials added (e.g. camphor, naphthalene). Specimens of uncertain origin should be treated with “quarantine” conditions, kept apart from a main collection in a freezer or with para-dichloro-benzene [PDB] for at least several weeks to kill any pests or pathogens. Slide 65 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    66. 66. “Type” specimens Holotype – the specimen chosen to be representative of the species; should be a male. Allotype – female equivalent of the holotype. Paratype – the remaining specimens from the original series used to describe the species. Topotype – a specimen from the recording location of the original holotype. Lectotype – subsequently designated where holotype, allotype or paratypes have not been designated by the original author. Slide 66 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    67. 67. Voucher Specimens – key references • Dickson, R., 1976. A Lepidopterist’s Handbook. The Amateur Entomologist 13. (3rd edition published in 2014) • May & White, 2006. Preparing and Maintaining a Collection of Butterflies and Moths. Amateur Entomologists’ Society, London. • Landry, J-F. & Landry, B., 1994. A technique for setting and mounting microlepidoptera. Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 48: 205-227. Slide 67 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014
    68. 68. 1. Recording methods 2. Field identification skills 3. Classification (1 - overview of micromoths) 4. Classification (2 - overview of macromoths) 5. Specimen preparation 6. Field session @ Dairy Farm (Wallace Education Ctr) 7. Field session review & quiz 8. Data management NSS 2014 Moth Workshop Slide 68 Practical Moth Recording, 5 & 6 July 2014

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