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Order dermaptera by Christiana :)


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Order dermaptera by Christiana :)

  1. 1. PROJECT IN ENTOMOLOGY “DERMAPTERA” Submitted to: Ms. Linsay Panoy Prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole
  2. 2. prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole ORDER DERMAPTERA (EARWIGS)
  3. 3. I. A. ORIGIN  OF NAME prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole Greek words derma, skin (texture); ptera, wing, refers to the thickened forewings that cover and protect the hind wings
  4. 4. B. DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS      General body shape: Elongate; dorso-ventrally flattened. Head: Prognathous. Antennae are segmented. Biting-type mouthparts or the Chewing (mandibulate) mouthparts Ocelli absent. Compound eyes in most species, reduced or absent in some taxa. Appendages: Two pairs of wings normally present. The forewings and hindwings. Abdomen: Cerci are unsegmented and resemble forceps. The ovipositor in females is reduced or absent. prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole The characteristics which distinguish the order Dermaptera from other insect orders are:
  5. 5. ANTENNAE prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole - are short and are used for exploring the surface area just ahead of them
  6. 6. PRESENCE OF WINGS  1. Wingless (species under suborder Hemimerina. ) prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole  An adult Epizoic earwig (Hemimerus sp.)
  7. 7.  2. Winged ( 2 pairs) for adults Front wings- The forewings are modified into short smooth, veinless tegmina that serve as protective covers for the hind wings  Hind wings - membranous rounded with radiating veins folded beneath front wings. They are large, fan-shaped and pleated. They fold (both length-wise and cross-wise) to fit beneath the front wings when not in use.  prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole
  8. 8. ABDOMINAL SEGMENTS Males - 10-segment abdomen  Females - 8-segment abdomen apparent  prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole
  9. 9. CERCI attached at the last abdomenal segment.  They are enlarged and thickened to form pincers (forceps). Pincers - are used in grooming, defense, courtship, and even to help fold the hind wings for holding prey, and in copulation.  Earwigs individual's sex is determined by the shape of its cerci.  relatively straight in females, more curved in males. In some species, the males have asymmetrical cerci. prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole 
  10. 10. C. CLASSIFICATION  prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole Kingdom Animalia (Animals) Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods) Subphylum Hexapoda (Hexapods)  Class Insecta (Insects) •Order Dermaptera (Earwigs)
  11. 11. SUBORDERS 1. 3. 4. group. The cerci are unsegmented, and modified into large, forcep-like structures. Arixeniinae is represented by two genera, Arixenia andXeniaria with a total of five species in them:Arixenia esau and Xeniaria jacobsoni being the most well-known. Archidermaptera - the only extinct suborder of earwigs, known only from Jurassic fossils.Also known as Fossil Dermaptera. The suborder is classified on the basis of general similarities. They have unsegmented cerci and tarsi with four to five segments. Hemimerina are wingless, blind and viviparous ectoparasites and have filiform segmented cerci. The most well known species is Hemimerus bouvieri. prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole 2. Forficulina - They make up the largest and most familiar
  12. 12. SUBORDERS prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole Archidermaptera 
  13. 13. FAMILIES prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole 1. Forficulidae (Common earwings) -- This family includes several cosompolitan species, including Doru eculeatum and Forficula auricularia.
  14. 14.  Labiduridae -- Reddish-brown earwings with long cerci. Labidura riparia is the only member of this family found in the United States. prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole
  15. 15.  Carcinophoridae -- Dark brown or black insects with reddish brown legs and small cerci. The family includes one very common species, Euborellia annulipes. prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole
  16. 16.  Labiidae – known as little earwigs. members are small, winged earwigs, generally less than 1.5 centimetres (0.59 in) in length prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole
  17. 17. 5. Chelisochidae - commonly known as black earwigs prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole
  18. 18. 6. Pygidicranidae do not have any ocelli. They are small, flattened-looking body, which has a dense covering of bristly hairs (setae). Cannibalism of young has been observed in at least one species in the family, Challia hongkongensis, in which an adult female was found eating a stillliving nymph of the same species. prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole
  19. 19. D. L IFE CYCLE  prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole Type of metamorphosis: Hemimetabola incomplete development (egg, nymph, adult). 4 to 6 molts.The developmental stages between molts are called instars.
  20. 20. II. PHYSICAL FEATURES Immatures:  Structurally similar to adults  Developing wingpads may be visible on thorax prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole Adults:  Antennae slender, beaded  Mouthparts mandibulate, prognathous  Tarsi 3-segmented  Front wings short and leathery  Hind wings semicircular and pleated  Cerci enlarged to form pincers (forceps)
  21. 21. III. BIOLOGICAL SUMMARY FOR THE ORDER A. Life history  overwinter as adults, usually one generation/year C. Significance  Most are not pests, except for Forficula Auricularia (European earwig); substantial damage to vegetable crops, ornamentals and fruit trees prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole B. Collecting and preserving  Collect in alcohol or pin (most in right tegman or wing, like a beetle)  Collect from under bark, grasses, roots, mullin, some from light pit-fall traps
  22. 22. prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole D. Habitat and Habits  Nocturnal . Earwigs are sensitive to heat and dryness, so they usually hide in cool, dark places during the day and come out at night.Hide during day - cracks, crevices, under bark, protected places (e.g., under my deck)  Eating habits: Mostly Scavengers - dead and decaying plant material, but also on tender plants but some are omnivorous or predatory
  23. 23.  Female guards eggs until hatched Another distinct maternal care unique to earwigs is that the mother continuously cleans the eggs to protect them from fungi When the eggs were replaced after hatching, the mother continued to clean them for up to 3 months. prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole
  24. 24. FACTS: Most earwigs are flattened (which allows them to fit inside tight crevices, such as under bark) with an elongated body generally 7–50 millimetres (0.28– 1.97 in) long.  The largest certainly extant species is the Australian giant earwig (Titanolabis colossea).  The possibly extinct Saint Helena earwig (Labidura herculeana) .  prepared by: Christiana Lyn Caole