Ab biomagnification final edition yasen,duc,mitev
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  • These chlorinated oils have a low degree of reactivity. They are not flammable, have high electrical resistance, good insulating properties and are very stable even when exposed to heat and pressure. All in all, they seemed to be the perfect oil for use in dielectric fluids, and as insulators for transformers and capacitors.
  • Transformers and capacitors Other electrical equipment including voltage regulators, switches, reclosers, bushings, and electromagnets Oil used in motors and hydraulic systems Old electrical devices or appliances containing PCB capacitors Fluorescent light ballasts Cable insulation Thermal insulation material including fiberglass, felt, foam, and cork Adhesives and tapes Oil-based paint Caulking Plastics Carbonless copy paper Floor finish
  • Uses for PCBs quickly expanded to include hydraulic fluids, casting wax, carbonless carbon paper, compressors, heat transfer systems, plasticizers, pigments, adhesives, liquid cooled electric motors, fluorescent light ballasts, and the list goes on.   Fat soluble!!!!  
  • Dark brown pigmentation of nails and skin, follicular accentuation, acne-form eruption, increased eye discharge, increased sweating at palms, and feeling of weakness were the most notable symptoms

Ab biomagnification final edition yasen,duc,mitev Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Yasen Nikolov, Duc Do & Petar Mitev
  • 2.
    • That’s the accumulation of a toxin, or organic compound in organism over time period.
    • could enter the body through inhalation, food intake, skin etc.
    • -bioconcentration – specific case of bioaccumulation – through (in a) water
    • -can be the accumulation of a substance that is not toxic, but the body is taking more of it than it can use up
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Accumulation of a substance only through contact with water
    • Example:
    Fish living in a river fish cannot express the hormones Pharmaceutical wastes contamination (such as human hormones) the body of the fish contains more hormones than the surrounding water
  • 5.
    • the increase of the concentration/accumulation of a substance in the body of an organism
    • the concentration increases as large animals eat many small animals that have that substance (little by little = BIG)
    • this results a larger concentration of that substance in the body of the larger animal
    • the substance is often absorbed by the tissue of the organism
  • 6.  
  • 7.
    • Concerns substances that can not be naturally degraded
    • Usually about substance that are toxic or harmful (Not always)
    • Difficult to be thrown out of the organism due to weak water-solubility
  • 8.
    • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
    • It is herbecide used in the Vietnam War
    • It indirectly afects theDNA
    • It is anti-estrogenic to women and estrogenic to men
    • It could couse oxidative stress and endocrine disruption.
    • It was found in Victor Yushchenko who had 50, 000 times the amount usualy found in human beings.
  • 9.  
  • 10.
    • colorless chemical pesticide, used to eradicate disease-carrying and crop-eating insects
    • 1874 – first isolated in Germany
    • 1939 – first recognized as a potent nerve poison on insects
    • used heavily in World War II for preinvasion spraying
  • 11.
    • In India – reduced malaria from 75 million cases to fewer than 5 million cases in a decade
    • Crops and livestock sprayed with DDT sometimes as much as doubled their yields
    • 1962 – started growing suspicions that it causes reproductive disfunctions
    • Some insect pests also gradually developed DDT-resistant strains
    • 1973 – banned in the U.S. except for use in extreme health emergencies
  • 12.
    • Chemical Properties:
    • Organochloride
    •   highly hydrophobic, colorless, crystalline solid with a weak, chemical odor
    • nearly insoluble in water but has a good solubility in most organic solvents, fats, and oils
  • 13.
    • Effects
    • Persistent organic pollutant
    • Strongly absorbed by the soil
    • Quickly absorbed by organisms in aquatic ecosystem
    • Its breakdown products and metabolites, DDE and DDD, are also highly persistent and have similar chemical and physical properties
    • DDT, DDE, and DDD magnify through the food chain, with apex predators such as raptor birds concentrating more chemicals than other animals in the same environment
    • Stored mainly in body  fat
    • very resistant to metabolism
  • 14.  
  • 15.
    • Man-made organic compound – chlorinated hydrocarbon
    • Used in many industrial and commercial application
    • Toxic to living organisms
    • Specific qualities of the compound made it very useful in the
    • industry
  • 16.
    • High thermal and chemical resistance
    • Can’t be broken down through natural conditions – heating and chemical reactions
    • The chemical remains in the environment
    • Travel large distances
    • Slightly dissolves in water and be stored into the sediment
    • Stays in the soil where it can be consumed by worms
  • 17.
    • Worms => Small fish => Large fish => Mammals/ Birds
    • This causes the amount of PCB in the fat of the different organisms to increase
    • Can cause – aches, rashes, liver damage, anemia, stomach/thyroid glands injury
    • Weaker immune system and behavioral alternations, reproduction system weakened
    • Most feared damage – can cause cancer in human beings
  • 18.
    • October 1968
    • Epidemic of a disease similar to chloracne
    • Fukuoka-Ken, Japan
    • Soon after the outbreak – a team assembled to investigate
    • Cause of the epidemic – contaminated rice oil
    • Poison = PCB, Disease = Yusho (“Oil disease”)
  • 19.
    • Used to extinguish forest fires
    • In production of textile and electronic devices.
    • In 1999 North American industry used around 34,000 metric tons of PBDEs.
    • IT is harmful to humans
    • It was found in people all over the world.
    • In 2008 polybrominated diphenyl ethers were banned because it was found to be bioaccumulated in breast milk. Almost every human on the planet have consumed flame retardants
  • 20.
    • Radioactive materials
    • Mercury
  • 21.
    • Humanity and the top of the food chain.
    • Trough the food chain b ioconcentration rises.
    • When eating a predator human can consume b ioconcentration of 100kg of plankton in one meal and even more.
    http://www.cartoonstock.com/lowres/sea0179l.jpg
    • That means that the biggest victim of the pollution is us.
  • 22.
    • Barbalace, Roberta C. “The Chemistry of Polychlorinated Biphenyls.” &#1045;nvironmental &#1062;hemistry . J.K. Barbalace, inc., 2010. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://environmentalchemistry.com///‌pcb.html>.
    • Masanori Kuratsune, et al. “Epidemiologic Study on Yusho, a Poisoning Caused by Ingestion of Rice Oil Contaminated with a Commercial Brand of Polychlorinated Biphenyls*.” National Center for Biotechnology Information . N.p., Apr. 1972. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov///‌PMC1474867//-0115.pdf>.
    • Polychlorinated Biphenyl Chemical Structure . N.d. Science Leadership Academy . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2010. <https://sci10bestq3bm.wikispaces.com/silver+class+%2709>.
    • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) . Environmental Protection Agency, 7 Apr. 2010. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.epa.gov/////.htm>.
    • &quot;DDT.&quot; Microsoft® Student 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008.