Chemistry of benzene


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  • Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond: 1. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond. 2. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the three-electron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence. 3. A short analysis of chemical bonds. 4. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond. 5. Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works with brief comments. 6. Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works (full version) (all works in this file).…/bezvoldv_ukr_12_…/91Ok.pdf Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (viXra): Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (Scribd): Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (Amazon):…/e/B01I41EHHS/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1… This screenshots (foto) (most with explanation) see by this link. Bezverkhniy Volodymyr ( Sincerely Bezverhny Volodymyr Dmitrievich. My ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3725-5571
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Chemistry of benzene

  1. 1. Chemistry of Benzene• Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6 H6.. Benzene is a colorless and highly flammable liquid .• Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil, and may be synthesized from other compounds present in petroleum. Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon and the second [n]-annulene ([6]-annulene), a cyclic hydrocarbon with a continuous pi bond.
  2. 2. Isolation of Benzene• Michael Faraday first isolated and identified benzene in 1825 from the oily residue derived from the production of illuminating gas, giving it the name bicarburet of hydrogen.• In 1833, Eilhard Mitscherlich produced it via the distillation of benzoic acid (from gum benzoin) and lime. Mitscherlich gave the compound the name benzin.• In 1836 the French chemist Auguste Laurent named the substance "phène"; this is the root of the word phenol, which is hydroxylated benzene, and phenyl, which is the radical formed by abstraction of a hydrogen atom (free radical H*) from benzene.• In 1845, Charles Mansfield, working under August Wilhelm von Hofmann, isolated benzene from coal tar. Four years later, Mansfield began the first industrial-scale production of benzene, based on the coal-tar method.
  3. 3. Structure of Benzene•
  4. 4. Structure of Benzene• Using X-ray diffraction, researchers discovered that all of the carbon- carbon bonds in benzene are of the same length of 140 picometres (pm).• The C–C bond lengths are greater than a double bond (135pm) but shorter than a single bond (147pm).• This intermediate distance is explained by electron delocalization: the electrons for C–C bonding are distributed equally between each of the six carbon atoms.• The molecule is planar , although many calculations predict otherwise. One representation is that the structure exists as a superposition of so-called resonance structures, rather than either form individually.• This delocalization of electrons is known as aromaticity, and gives benzene great stability.• This enhanced stability is the fundamental property of aromatic molecules that differentiates them from molecules that are non-aromatic.• To reflect the delocalized nature of the bonding, benzene is often depicted with a circle inside a hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms:
  5. 5. Substituted benzene derivatives• Many important chemicals are derived from benzene by replacing one or more of its hydrogen atoms with another functional group. Examples of simple benzene derivatives are phenol, toluene, and aniline, abbreviated PhOH, PhMe, and PhNH2, respectively.• Linking benzene rings gives biphenyl, C6H5–C6H5. Further loss of hydrogen gives "fused" aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene and anthracene. The limit of the fusion process is the hydrogen-free material graphite.• In heterocycles, carbon atoms in the benzene ring are replaced with other elements. The most important derivatives are the rings containing nitrogen. Replacing one CH with N gives the compound pyridine, C5H5N. Although benzene and pyridine are structurally related, benzene cannot be converted into pyridine. Replacement of a second CH bond with N gives, depending on the location of the second N, pyridazine, pyrimidine, and pyrazine.
  6. 6. Benzene Production• Today, most benzene comes from the petrochemical industry, with only a small fraction being produced from coal.• Four chemical processes contribute to industrial benzene production: catalytic reforming, toluene hydrodealkylation, toluene disproportionation, and steam cracking.• In the US, 50% of benzene comes from catalytic reforming and 25% from steam cracking. In Western Europe, 50% of benzene comes from steam cracking and 25% from catalytic reforming
  7. 7. Catalytic reforming• In catalytic reforming, a mixture of hydrocarbons with boiling points between 60–200 °C is blended with hydrogen gas and then exposed to a bifunctional platinum chloride or rhenium chloride catalyst at 500–525 °C and pressures ranging from 8–50 atm.• Under these conditions, aliphatic hydrocarbons form rings and lose hydrogen to become aromatic hydrocarbons. The aromatic products of the reaction are then separated from the reaction mixture (or reformate) by extraction with any one of a number of solvents, including diethylene glycol or sulfolane, and benzene is then separated from the other aromatics by distillation.• The extraction step of aromatics from the reformate is designed to produce aromatics with lowest non-aromatic components. So-called "BTX (Benzene-Toluene-Xylenes)" process consists of such extraction and distillation steps. One such widely used process from UOP was licensed to producers and called the Udex process.• Similarly to this catalytic reforming, UOP and BP commercialized a method from LPG (mainly propane and butane) to aromatics.
  8. 8. Toluene hydrodealkylation• Toluene hydrodealkylation converts toluene to benzene.• In this hydrogen-intensive process, toluene is mixed with hydrogen, then passed over a chromium, molybdenum, or platinum oxide catalyst at 500–600 °C and 40–60 atm pressure.• Under these conditions, toluene undergoes dealkylation to benzene and methane: – C6H5CH3 + H2 → C6H6 + CH4• This irreversible reaction is accompanied by an equilibrium side reaction that produces biphenyl at higher temperature: – 2 C6H6 H2 + C6H5–C6H5
  9. 9. Toluene hydrodealkylation• If the raw material stream contains much non- aromatic components (paraffins or naphthenes), those are likely decomposed to lower hydrocarbons such as methane, which increases the consumption of hydrogen.• A typical reaction yield exceeds 95%. Sometimes, xylenes and heavier aromatics are used in place of toluene, with similar efficiency.• This is often called "on-purpose" methodology to produce benzene, compared to conventional BTX (benzene-toluene-xylene) processes
  10. 10. Toluene disproportionation• Where a chemical complex has similar demands for both benzene and xylene, then toluene disproportionation (TDP) may be an attractive alternative to the toluene hydrodealkylation.• Broadly speaking 2 toluene molecules are reacted and the methyl groups rearranged from one toluene molecule to the other, yielding one benzene molecule and one xylene molecule.• Given that demand for para-xylene (p-xylene) substantially exceeds demand for other xylene isomers, a refinement of the TDP process called Selective TDP (STDP) may be used. In this process, the xylene stream exiting the TDP unit is approximately 90% paraxylene.
  11. 11. Steam cracking• Steam cracking is the process for producing ethylene and other alkenes from aliphatic hydrocarbons.• Depending on the feedstock used to produce the olefins, steam cracking can produce a benzene-rich liquid by- product called .• Pyrolysis gasoline can be blended with other hydrocarbons as a gasoline additive, or distilled (in BTX process) to separate it into its components, including benzene.
  12. 12. Benzene Reaction and properties• Electrophilic aromatic substitution is a general method of derivatizing benzene. Benzene is sufficiently nucleophilic that it undergoes substitution by acylium ions or alkyl carbocations to give substituted derivatives
  13. 13. Benzene Reaction and properties• The Friedel-Crafts acylation is a specific example of electrophilic aromatic substitution. The reaction involves the acylation of benzene (or many other aromatic rings) with an acyl chloride using a strong Lewis acid catalyst such as aluminium chloride or iron chloride which act as a halogen carrier.
  14. 14. Benzene Reaction and properties• Like the Friedel-Crafts acylation, the Friedel-Crafts alkylation involves the alkylation of benzene (and many other aromatic rings) using an alkyl halide in the presence of a strong Lewis acid catalyst.
  15. 15. Sulfonation.• The most common method involves mixing sulfuric acid with sulfate, a mixture called fuming sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid protonates the sulfate, giving the sulfur atom a permanent, rather than resonance stabilized positive formal charge. This molecule is very electrophillic and Electrophillic Aromatic Substitution then occurs.
  16. 16. Nitration• Benzene undergoes nitration with nitronium ions (NO2+) as the electrophile. Thus, warming benzene at 50-55 degrees Celsius, with a combination of concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid to produce the electrophile, gives nitrobenzene.
  17. 17. Hydrogenation (Reduction):• Benzene and derivatives convert to cyclohexane and derivatives when treated with hydrogen at 450 K and 10 atm of pressure with a finely divided nickel catalyst
  18. 18. Uses-Applications• In the 19th and early-20th centuries, benzene was used as an after-shave lotion because of its pleasant smell.• Prior to the 1920s, benzene was frequently used as an industrial solvent, especially for degreasing metal.• As a gasoline (petrol) additive, benzene increases the octane rating and reduces knocking.• Today benzene is mainly used as an intermediate to make other chemicals.• Its most widely-produced derivatives include styrene, which is used to make polymers and plastics, phenol for resins and adhesives and cyclohexane, which is used in the manufacture of Nylon.• Smaller amounts of benzene are used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, explosives, napalm and pesticides.