Eutrophication teddy, veli, alex kanov

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  • 叶春丰富内容
  • Eutrophication teddy, veli, alex kanov

    1. 1. Eutrophication Teodora Shaleva Velislava Mincheva Alexander Kanov 10/8
    2. 2. What is Eutrophication? <ul><li>Process in which an ecosystem becomes enriched with nutrients; </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropogenic eutrophication has caused a great loss of biodiversity; </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly seen in marine habitats; </li></ul><ul><li>Causes growth of algal/bacterial populations; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This large biomass excludes light from the water; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes deoxygenation of the water, killing fish and other animals; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In terrestrial systems: nutrients increase the productivity of competitive plant species and exclude less competitive species, which causes a decrease in species richness; </li></ul><ul><li>Main agents: compounds that include phosphorus and nitrogen; (2) </li></ul>
    3. 3. What are Algal Booms? <ul><li>Fertilizers (used in farming) run-off into water – cause increase in nutrient level; </li></ul><ul><li>As a result phytoplankton grow and reproduce more rapidly, resulting in algal blooms; </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disturb ecosystem functioning; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May use all oxygen leaving none for other marine life; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death of aquatic organisms; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Block sunlight from photosynthesis; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some produce toxins – food chain problems; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(1) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>http://soer.justice.tas.gov.au/2003/image/527/algal%20blooms/p-algal_bloom_orielton-m.jpg
    4. 4. What problems does it cause the ecosystem? <ul><li>Causes macrophyte invasions and algal and cyanobacterial (blue-green) blooms; </li></ul><ul><li>Macrophyte invasions prevent the growth of other aquatic plants; </li></ul><ul><li>Lower the ecological integrity of an ecosystem – only the more tolerant animal species can survive; </li></ul><ul><li>When the cells of cyanobacteria are ruptured they release toxic substances into the water, which kills a lot of animals; </li></ul><ul><li>(3) </li></ul>
    5. 5. What problems does it cause for people? <ul><li>Algal and cyanobacterial blooms have unpleasant odors – problem in urban areas; </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an ideal breeding habitat for mosquito larvae; </li></ul><ul><li>Of the cyanotoxins, the cyclic peptides are a great concern for people because of the risk of exposure to low concentrations of the toxins in drinking water supplies; </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic exposure to low doses can promote the growth of liver and other tumors; </li></ul><ul><li>The existence of large areas of macrophytes can prevent access to waterways; </li></ul><ul><li>(3) </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Economic Impacts: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the costs of water treatment in order to avoid taste, odor and cyanotoxin problems; </li></ul><ul><li>Blooms can clog filters and increase maintenance costs; </li></ul><ul><li>Human and animal health impacts have direct economic impacts; </li></ul><ul><li>(3) </li></ul>http://www.macalester.edu/environmentalstudies/threerivers/studentprojects/ENVI_133_Spr_08/Phosphorus/eutrophication.gif
    7. 7. What can be done to prevent it? <ul><li>A body of water is monitored in order to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prevent the occurrence of eutrophication; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>give early warning to public health authorities; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring should be done at least once a week; </li></ul><ul><li>(4) </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the use of chemical fertilizers near a water body; </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/pollution/eutrophication.jpg
    8. 8. What about after it occurs? <ul><li>Attempts to limit further eutrophication by stripping of phosphorus from waste water and control of nitrogen fertilizer applications in sensitive zones; </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of nutrients from an ecosystem is a really difficult and expensive process; </li></ul><ul><li>(2) </li></ul><ul><li>Macrophytes may need to e sprayed or brought under control by different treatment processes – also very expensive; </li></ul><ul><li>(3) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Example #1: The Gulf of Mexico (a.k.a. Mississippi River) Dead Zone <ul><li>Location: Mouth of the Mississippi River </li></ul>http://www.ers.usda.gov/amberwaves/november03/findings/images/photo_deadzone.jpg http://minnesota.publicradio.org/collections/special/columns/updraft/content_root/dead_zone_summer_web.jpg
    10. 10. <ul><li>Not the only dead zone in the world, but one of the largest; </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by nutrient enrichment (esp. nitrogen and phosphorus) from the Mississippi River; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faming states upstream the river contribute these chemicals through fertilizers, soil erosion, animal wastes, and sewage; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Algae growth becomes unlimited due to this human intervention since these nutrients can no longer be depleted as necessary in the soil by plants; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Algal blooms developed, the food chain is altered, dissolved oxygen in the area is depleted; (5) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Proof that the cause is farming is the seasonal fluctuation of the size of the actual dead zone; (5) </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Resulting eutrophication decreases biomass and biodiversity: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Massive fish kills in the Gulf of Mexico have been linked to the hypoxic water of the dead zone; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seafood industry in the region has already suffered and will suffer even more greatly from the worsening of the situation; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using less fertilizers in the farmland; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not letting animal wastes enter the Mississippi waterways; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Septic systems and sewage treatment facilities; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting the discharge of nutrients, organic matter, and chemicals from industries in the area; </li></ul></ul></ul>(5) (5)
    12. 12. Example #2: Baltic Sea <ul><li>Location: Baltic Sea; </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounding countries: Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Sweden; (7) </li></ul>http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Baltic_Sea_map.png http://lepo.it.da.ut.ee/~olli/eutr/ednaFig4.jpg
    13. 13. <ul><li>Another major dead zone, probably the largest; (7) </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient enrichment this time comes from municipal wastewater as well as agriculture; much of the nitrogen is airborne; (6)(7) </li></ul><ul><li>HELCOM policies: lower nutrient discharges, lower emissions of oxygen-consuming substances, treatment of wastewater, reduction in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; (8) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Works Cited <ul><li>(1) “Water Pollution Guide”. Water-Pollution.org . 2003-2008. June 6, 2010 < http :// www . water - pollution . org . uk /eutrophication. html >. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) “Eutriphication”. Openlearn. June 6, 2010 < http :// openlearn . open . ac . uk / mod / resource / view . php ? id =171975 >. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) “Eutrophication”. Dwa.gov.za . June 6, 2010 < http://www.dwa.gov.za/iwqs/eutrophication/NEMP/02Eutrophication.pdf >. </li></ul><ul><li>(4) “Eutrophication and Health”. Ec.europa.eu. 2002. June 6, 2010 < http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-nitrates/pdf/eutrophication.pdf >. </li></ul><ul><li>(5) “The Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone”. Serc.carleton.edu. Oct. 6, 2008. June 6, 2010 < http :// serc . carleton . edu / microbelife / topics / deadzone / >. </li></ul><ul><li>(6) “ Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea”. Environment.fi. 11/12/2009. June 6, 2010 < http:// www.environment.fi/default.asp?contentid =170275&lan=en >. </li></ul><ul><li>(7) “The Baltic Sea…”. Helium.com. 2002-2010. June 6, 2010 < http://www.helium.com/items/1369623-worlds-largest-dead-zone-baltic-sea >. </li></ul><ul><li>(8) “About HELCOM”. Helcom.fi. June 6, 2010 < http:// www.helcom.fi/helcom/en_GB/aboutus / >. </li></ul>

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