Air pollution katya and stoyan

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Air pollution katya and stoyan

  1. 1. Air Pollution Ekaterina Shaleva Stoyan Kolev 10/8
  2. 2. What is Air Pollution? <ul><li>The presence of chemicals in the atmosphere, which are not a normal part of it [1] </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, it is contaminated air [1] </li></ul><ul><li>The main sources of air pollution are ground-level ozone, particulate matter (PM), nitrogen and sulphur oxides [5] </li></ul>http://www.freewebs.com/airawareness/Factory1.jpg
  3. 3. What is ground-level ozone? <ul><li>Ozone(O3) is a gas, which forms a layer that protects the Earth from ultraviolet rays [5] </li></ul><ul><li>When ground level is created, it becomes a major air pollutant [2] </li></ul><ul><li>Sources - not emitted directly into the air; [2] </li></ul><ul><li>Health Effects- coughing, irritation of the airways, discomfort when breathing, premature aging of the lungs, increased risk of respiratory infections [2] </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Effects- on plants and ecosystems- damaging leaves, reducing forest growth and crop yields, making plants more susceptible to certain diseases [5] </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Effects- tourism suffers, increased cost for health care services [3] </li></ul>http://www.greenfacts.org/en/ozone-o3/index.htm#3
  4. 4. What is particulate matter? <ul><li>The sum of all liquid and solid particles in the air [5] </li></ul><ul><li>PM10- big coarse particles (up to 10 micrometers in size), cause less severe health problems [4] </li></ul><ul><li>PM2.5-small fine particles (up to 2.5 micrometers in size), worse health effects [4] </li></ul><ul><li>Sources - any activity which involves burning of materials-forest fires, crushing and grinding rocks, processing metals [5] </li></ul><ul><li>Health Effects- coughing, wheezing, aggravated asthma, lung damage [4] </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Effects- decreases visibility, harms crops and plants [5] </li></ul>http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/aaqs/pm/hair-slide3-1-450px.gif
  5. 5. What are Nitrogen Oxides? <ul><li>Group of gases composed of nitrogen and oxygen [6] </li></ul><ul><li>Most common are nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas [6] </li></ul><ul><li>Sources - motor vehicle exhaust, burning of coal, cigarette smoking, etc. [6] </li></ul><ul><li>Health Effects- headache, fatigue, dizziness, difficult breathing, throat spasms, collapse, death [6] </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Effects- NO2 helps form acid rain, contributes to global warming, hampers the growth of plants, with VOC forms ground- level ozone [7] </li></ul>
  6. 6. What are sulphur oxides? <ul><li>Most common is sulphur dioxide, which together with NO2 is one of the main chemicals that cause acid rain [8] </li></ul><ul><li>Sources- mostly from power station and oil refineries, but also from volcanoes, forest fires [8] </li></ul><ul><li>Health Effects- respiratory problems, aggravation of existing cardiovascular diseases [9] </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Effects –damage crops, forests, acidify soils and water bodies [8] </li></ul>http://www.treehugger.com/erupting-volcano.jpg
  7. 7. Bulgaria’s Air Quality <ul><li>Bulgaria has the most polluted air in the European Union [10] </li></ul><ul><li>Main pollutants- industrial development, deforestation, large number of old vehicles, coal-fired heating in smaller towns [10][11] </li></ul><ul><li>Sofia and Plovdiv experience the worst air pollution as well as the town of Pernik, which has pollution twice the permitted level (high number of metallurgy plants) [10][12] </li></ul><ul><li>Actions- member of various international environmental agreements- Air Pollution- Sulfur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Ozone Layer Protection, etc; imposes EU standards on vehicles and industry [10][11] </li></ul>http://dariknews.bg/uploads/news_images/200810/photo_verybig_299899.jpg
  8. 8. Ex ample #1: Norilsk, Russia <ul><li>World’s largest smelting complex for heavy metals causes extreme air pollution in a 60 km radius [ 13] </li></ul><ul><li>Metals in the air: nickel 500 tons per year , copper 500 tons per year , cobalt, lead, selenium [13] </li></ul><ul><li>Other gasses: sulfur dioxide 2 million tons per year, phenols, hydrogen sulfide [13] </li></ul>http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/40189000/gif/_40189950_norilsk_nickel2_map416.gif http://www.spoutnitsi.net/IMG/jpg/ARKTIKA_Norilsk_2002_468.jpg
  9. 9. <ul><li>Effects on people: </li></ul><ul><li>-Life expectancy- 10 years smaller than anywhere in Russia; </li></ul><ul><li>-respiratory diseases; ear, nose, throat diseases; </li></ul><ul><li>-pregnancy and birth problems; </li></ul><ul><li>-lung cancer due to sulfur dioxide; </li></ul><ul><li>-responsible for about 20 percent of adult mortality and about 30 percent of adolescent mortality [13] </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><li>Norilsk Nickel ahs spent $5mil Overhauling of dust & gas recovery & removal systems and plans to decrease sulfur dioxide emissions by 500% until 2015 [13] </li></ul>
  10. 10. Example #2: London, England <ul><li>Issue: Traffic, Factories produce PM10s [15] </li></ul><ul><li>Air Pollution: PM10s (particles smaller than 10 microns) [14] </li></ul>http://www.london-touristguide.com/images/london-europe-big.gif http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Environment/Pix/columnists/2010/2/23/1266942591039/Air-pollution--The-Houses-001.jpg
  11. 11. <ul><li>Effects on people: </li></ul><ul><li>-PM10s- small enough to be inhaled in the deepest parts of the lungs, main cause for lung diseases and heart attacks [14] </li></ul><ul><li>-accounted for the death of 3000 Londoners annually [15] </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><li>Boris Johnson, London mayor is in the process of issuing a ban on all taxis over 10 years old, which will probably reduce the crisis by half [15] </li></ul>
  12. 12. Works Cited <ul><li>“ Air Pollution- Criteria pollutants”. Science.jrank.org . 2010. June 7, 2010 < http :// science . jrank . org / pages /154/ Air - Pollution . html > [1] </li></ul><ul><li>“ Health risks of Ozone Pollution”. Cleanairtrust.org . 1999. June 7 2010 < http ://www.cleanairtrust.org/ozone.htm l > [2] </li></ul><ul><li>“ Econimic & Environmental Impacts of Ground Level Ozone”. Valleyairnow.com. June 7, 2010 < http://www.valleyairnow.com/economicimpact.html > [3] </li></ul><ul><li>“ What is particulate matter”. Airinfonow.com . June 7, 2010 < http://www.airinfonow.com/html/ed_particulate.html > [4] </li></ul><ul><li>Greenfacts.org. 2001-2009. June 7, 2010 < http:// www.greenfacts.org/en/index.htm > [ 5] </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nitrogen Oxides”. Toxtown . June 7, 2010 < http :// toxtown . nlm . nih . gov / text _ version / chemicals . php ? id =19 > [ 6] </li></ul><ul><li>Tucker, Tyler.“Nitrogen Oxide & The Environment”. Belleville.k12.wi.us . 2005. June 7, 2010 < http ://www.belleville.k12.wi.us/bhs/health/environment/nitrogen_oxide.htm > [7] </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sulphur dioxide”. Environment Agency . 2010. June 7, 2010 < http :// www . environment - agency . gov . uk / business / topics / pollution /433. aspx > [8] </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>“ Sulphur Dioxide”. Ace.mmu.ac.uk . 2010. June 7, 2010 < http :// www . ace . mmu . ac . uk / eae / acid _ rain / older / Sulphur _ Dioxide . html > [9] </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bulgarian air…”. Eubusiness.com . 2010. June 7, 2010 < http :// www . eubusiness . com / news - eu /1236337323.03/ > [10] </li></ul><ul><li>“ Environment of Bulgaria”. Mapofworld.com . 2009. June 7, 2010 < http://www.mapsofworld.com/bulgaria/environment.html > [11] </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bulgaria Suffers…”. balkaninsight.com . 2007. June 7, 2010 < http :// www . balkaninsight . com / en / main / news /26238/ > [12] </li></ul><ul><li>“ Norilsk, Russia”. Worstpolluted.org . 2010. June 7, 2010 < http://www.worstpolluted.org/projects_reports/display/43 > [13] </li></ul><ul><li>“ Particulate…”. Gbuapcd.org . June 7, 2010 < http://www.gbuapcd.org/pm10.htm > [ 14] </li></ul><ul><li>Ft.com . 2010. June 6, 2010 < http ://www.ft.com/cms/s/e947eef0-6f71-11df-9f43-00144feabdc0,Authorised=false.html?_i_location=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ft.com%2Fcms%2Fs%2F0%2Fe947eef0-6f71-11df-9f43-00144feabdc0.html&_i_ referer = > [15] </li></ul>

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