Biomagnification victoria,sylvia,violetta


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Biomagnification victoria,sylvia,violetta

  1. 1. Biomagnification
  2. 2. Biomagnification vs Bioaccumulation <ul><li>What is bioaccumulation? </li></ul><ul><li>- collecting of substances in an organism or part of it; higher concentration in the organism than in the surrounding environment; </li></ul><ul><li>What is biomagnification? - increase of concentration of the pollutant from low to high levels of a food chain; predator-prey relationships; </li></ul><ul><li>Difference - environment vs. food chain; - biomagnification results from bioaccumulation; </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why do we care? <ul><li>Effects of biomagnification and bioaccumulation on the organisms: - hard to metabolize => problems in the functions of the organism’s organs; - passed to the next generations, causing mutations and higher death rates; </li></ul><ul><li>- human health; </li></ul>
  4. 4. Accumulative substances <ul><li>Types of substances that bioaccumulate: Pesticides (HCB, DDT, aldrin, mirex), Industrial chemicals and unintended byproducts (PCB), Flame-retardant chemicals, Unintended byproducts (dioxins and furans); </li></ul><ul><li>Types of substances that don’t bioaccumulate; the substances metabolized or excrete as wastes; (ex. carbohydrates, fatty acids); </li></ul>
  5. 5. PCB <ul><li>Polychlorinated Biphenyls </li></ul><ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li> very stable man-made compounds </li></ul><ul><li> consist of carbon, hydrogen and chlorine atoms </li></ul><ul><li> there can exist 209 different PCBs according to the combination of the atoms </li></ul><ul><li> 1970s – banned </li></ul><ul><li> still present in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Where was it used? </li></ul><ul><li> in the past in electrical equipments, surface coatings, ink, paints, etc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. PCB <ul><li>How can it be released into the environment? </li></ul><ul><li> when wastes that contain PCBs are kept in landfills </li></ul><ul><li> can burn in high temperatures and in such a way release dangerous materials; they are not very soluble in water and hardly evaporate </li></ul><ul><li>Where can it be found? </li></ul><ul><li> in rivers or lakes – on the sediments </li></ul><ul><li> if in the air – may reach the ground by rainfalls or snow </li></ul><ul><li> mainly found within the food chain (in the fatty tissues of the animals) => can reach to humans through their food </li></ul><ul><li> can be broken down by the sunlight or certain types of organisms that live under water </li></ul>
  7. 7. PCB <ul><li>Impact on environment </li></ul><ul><li> exposed to the compound by eating particular food (like fish and meat); babies by the intake of breast milk; small amounts present in the air </li></ul><ul><li> when entering the body the organism may turn it to another compound and become a waste product </li></ul><ul><li> depending on the amount of PCB in humans, it can lead to risk of cancer, decrease fertility, very dangerous for pregnant women and the baby </li></ul><ul><li> health risks (rashes, infections and others) </li></ul><ul><li>Possible solution </li></ul><ul><li> Many countries had either totally banned or decreased the use of PCBs radically </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lake Baikal <ul><li>1997 – Russian and Japanese scientists found PCB’s in the Lake Baikal; </li></ul><ul><li>In the fish => seriously toxic levels in the Baikal seal; feeds on fish; </li></ul>
  9. 9. MERCURY <ul><li>Hg is a highly toxic element found naturally and also as a contaminant </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic effects </li></ul><ul><li>Depend on the chemical form and how it was exposed </li></ul><ul><li>methylmercury – most toxic – damages the immune system, the nervous system, the enzyme system. Exceptionally damaging for embryos </li></ul><ul><li>elemental mercury – not that dangerous – causes tremors and gingivitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Salt HgCl2 – causes kidney failure – not likely to be found in nature </li></ul>
  10. 10. Exposure and Sources <ul><li>Exposure to methylmercury – by ingestion (especially fish and birds) </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to elemental mercury – when the thermometer breaks. Also there are high concentrations near a gold mine </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of mercury: </li></ul><ul><li>Alkali and metal procession </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical and all kinds of waste </li></ul><ul><li>Gold mining </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric deposition – once let in the atmosphere it can circulate for years </li></ul><ul><li>volcanoes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Threads to people and wildlife <ul><li>Methylmercury accumulates mostly in fish because of the covalent bond to protein sulfhydryl groups </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury biomagnification harms the aquatic systems at a greater rate </li></ul><ul><li>By eating contaminated seafood people can be poisoned </li></ul><ul><li>The FISH contamination problem is a serious thread both to people and to the wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury causes deformities to developing animals </li></ul>
  12. 12. Examples of Consequences <ul><li>Everglades – juvenile great egrets behavior is affected </li></ul><ul><li>San Francisco Bay – diving ducks are affected </li></ul><ul><li>Case from Minamata, Japan – birds couldn’t fly, people were greatly poisoned </li></ul><ul><li>Places where it is more abundant: </li></ul><ul><li>=> Carson River, Nevada </li></ul><ul><li>Mississippi River </li></ul><ul><li>Northeast and North central US </li></ul><ul><li>Florida Everglades </li></ul><ul><li>Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Atlantic Ocean </li></ul>
  13. 13. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;Bioaccumulation.&quot; USGS . N.p., 14 Dec. 2006. Web. 15 June 2010.      <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Bioaccumulation.&quot; EXTOXNET . Oregon State U n iversity, Sept. 1993. Web. 8 June      2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification.&quot; Marietta College . N.p., 2 Apr. 2002.      Web. 8 June 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Litter and Pollution.&quot; Chintimini Wildlife Rehabilitation Center . 1999.      Web. 15 June 2010. <      LivingWithWild/Litter.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mercury in the Environment”. USGS research. 19 February 2009. 15 June 2010. < >. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Scientific Facts on Mercury”. UNEP. 5.10.2009. 15 June 2010. < >. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Scientific Facts on PCBs Polychlorinated Biphenyls.&quot; GreenFacts - Facts on Health and the Environment . 5 Oct. 2009. Web. 08 June 2010. <>. </li></ul>