Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
1 Comment
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 3. socialization here, we briefly examine the roles of both nature and nurture and several theories of just how they influence our development
  2. 4. nature & nurture <ul><li>John Locke, a philosopher, proposed that the mind of a child was like a tabula rasa – blank slate – people become what they were taught to be </li></ul><ul><li>for other social scientists, to explain human behavior, they looked to nature – what people inherit </li></ul>
  3. 5. theories of personality development <ul><li>behaviorism : it focuses on outer, observable behavior, the heart of which is conditioning – the process where associations are formed between stimuli (from the environment) and responses (from the individual) </li></ul>
  4. 6. theories of personality development <ul><li>classical conditioning: a previously neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that already evokes a certain response, so that eventually the previously neutral stimulus comes by itself to elicit that response </li></ul><ul><li>operant conditioning: a positive reinforcer (reward) or negative reinforcer (punishment) is used to cause the subject to behave in a certain way </li></ul>
  5. 7. theories of personality development <ul><li>social learning theory: individuals do not learn behaviors response by response, instead, they may observe a whole sequence or pattern of responses and imitate that pattern </li></ul>
  6. 8. theories of personality development <ul><li>cultural determinism: was explicitly drawn from the environmental perspective; while conceding the influence of biological heritage on personality development, cultural determinists, most of whom are anthropologists, consider cultural factors to be of over-riding importance </li></ul><ul><li>it holds that culture largely defines what characteristics are rewarded and acquired by members of a society </li></ul>
  7. 9. theories of personality development <ul><li>cultural determinism: example by anthropologist Clyde Kluckhohn: </li></ul><ul><li>Some years ago, I met in New York City a young man who did not speak a word of English and was obviously American, for his parents had gone from Indiana to China as missionaries. Orphaned in infancy, he was reared by a Chinese family in a remote village. All who met him found him more Chinese than American. The facts of his blue eyes and light hair were less impressive than a Chinese style of gait, Chinese arm and hand movements, Chinese facial expression, and Chinese modes of thought. </li></ul>
  8. 10. theories of personality development <ul><li>psychosexual development: sigmund freud believed that biology lays out a certain course of human development and that each child everywhere goes through particular stages. </li></ul>
  9. 11. theories of personality development <ul><li>psychosexual development: according to freud, personality is made up of the id, the ego and the superego </li></ul><ul><li>id: consists of the desires all humans are born with, which freud saw as essentially sexual desire </li></ul><ul><li>ego: operates in accordance with the reality principle; it is rational and logical, able to deal with the environment realistically </li></ul><ul><li>superego: it is much the same as what is traditionally called conscience </li></ul>
  10. 12. theories of personality development <ul><li>psychosexual development: in freud’s view, an individual’s personality depends on how the id gets along in the early stages of a person’s life: </li></ul><ul><li>oral stage (birth to about one year old) </li></ul><ul><li>anal stage (one to three years old) </li></ul><ul><li>phallic stage (three to six years old) </li></ul><ul><li>latency period (six to ten years old) </li></ul><ul><li>genital stage (adolescence) </li></ul>
  11. 13. theories of personality development <ul><li>oral stage: infant is at the mercy of id, because the ego and superego have not emerged, and seeks pleasure through oral activities such as sucking </li></ul><ul><li>if the infant’s drive for oral pleasure is overindulged or frustrated, as an adult he or she may be excessively interested in oral pleasures, such as eating, drinking, smoking or oral sex </li></ul>
  12. 14. theories of personality development <ul><li>anal stage: ego emerges and becomes more influential as the child begins to control its environment through walking, talking and so on </li></ul><ul><li>if toilet training is overly strict, when the child grows up he or she may be either extremely messy and wasteful or overly concerned with order, cleanliness and possessions </li></ul>
  13. 15. theories of personality development <ul><li>phallic stage: the child feels sexual love for the opposite-sex parent, learns that this desire must be suppressed, and identifies with the same ex-parent; oedipus complex of boys and electra complex of girls </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to develop an adequate superego is one possible outcome; anxiety or confusion about masculinity or femininity may also result </li></ul>
  14. 16. theories of personality development <ul><li>latency period: the id quiets down, the superego becomes stronger and the child cultivates relationships with people outside his or her family </li></ul><ul><li>the adult may be withdrawn or extremely individualistic if he or she had many problems in this stage </li></ul>
  15. 17. theories of personality development <ul><li>genital stage: the habits of cleanliness, modesty, and sympathy give way to pleasure in disorder, exhibitionism, and aggressiveness but gradually the adolescent learns to cope with these problems </li></ul><ul><li>frustrations may cause difficulties in getting along with the opposite sex, in marriage or in parenting </li></ul>
  16. 18. theories of personality development <ul><li>cognitive development: swiss psychologist jean piaget argued that there is an inherent structure to the human mind that determines what can be learned and when; stages of cognitive development are: </li></ul><ul><li>sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2) </li></ul><ul><li>preoperational stage (age 2 to 7) </li></ul><ul><li>concrete operational stage (age 7 to 12) </li></ul><ul><li>formal operational stage (age 12 to 15) </li></ul>
  17. 19. theories of personality development <ul><li>moral development: lawrence kohlberg assumed that children’s sense of right and wrong evolves from within themselves rather than from society’s attempts to stamp its moral values on their minds </li></ul>
  18. 20. theories of personality development <ul><li>moral development: illustration: </li></ul><ul><li>A woman was dying from cancer. Only one drug might save her. The druggist who discovered it was charging Php 100,000.00 for a small dose, ten times what the drug had cost him to make. The dying woman’s husband went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could raise only Php 50,000.00. He begged the druggist to give him credit for the rest or else sell the medicine cheaper. The druggist refused. The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug. Should he have done that? </li></ul>
  19. 21. theories of personality development <ul><li>levels of moral development: </li></ul><ul><li>preconventional morality </li></ul><ul><li>conventional morality </li></ul><ul><li>proconventional </li></ul>
  20. 22. theories of personality development <ul><li>symbolic interactionism: emphasize the harmonious relationship between the individual and society as the foundation of personality development; charles horton cooley viewed the society as a group of individuals helping each other to develop their personalities </li></ul>
  21. 23. theories of personality development <ul><li>symbolic interactionism: the core of personality is the concept of oneself, the self-image – looking-glass self, i.e., if we have a positive image, seeing ourselves as intelligent or respectable, it is because others have treated us as such </li></ul>
  22. 24. theories of personality development <ul><li>symbolic interactionism: george herbert mead assumed that the development of a self-concept is made possible by symbolic interaction – by interaction with others through symbols like language and gestures; mead emphasized the significance of getting “under the skin” of others by taking their roles </li></ul>
  23. 25. theories of personality development <ul><li>symbolic interactionism: there is a concept of the me and i; those who live in a tightly controlled state or have been raised by overprotective parents tend to develop a more powerful me than i </li></ul>
  24. 26. agents of socialization <ul><li>family </li></ul><ul><li>school </li></ul><ul><li>peer group </li></ul><ul><li>mass media </li></ul>
  25. 27. AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>The Family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it has the greatest impact on socialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>infants are totally dependent on others, and the responsibility typically falls on parents and other family members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the family also gives children a social position in terms of race, religion, ethnicity, and class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The School </li></ul><ul><ul><li>schooling enlarges children’s social worlds to include people with backgrounds different from their own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they learn the importance that society attaches to race and gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>school is also most children’s first experience with bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>children learn to form relationship on their own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peer groups also offer the chance to discuss interests that adults may not share </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Mass Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mass media have an enormous effect on our attitudes and behavior </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. adult socialization <ul><li>the socialization process does not stop at the end of childhood; it continues with the emergence of adulthood and stops only when the person dies </li></ul>
  27. 29. adult socialization <ul><li>anticipatory socialization: involves learning a role that is to be assumed in the future </li></ul><ul><li>developmental socialization : involves learning roles that are already acquired, much like receiving on-the-job training </li></ul><ul><li>resocialization: forces the individual to abandon his or her old self and to develop a new self in its place </li></ul>
  28. 30. adult socialization <ul><li>adult life cycle: erik erikson found three stages in adult life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>early adulthood (age 20 to 40): conflict between enjoying intimacy and suffering isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>middle adulthood (age 40 to 60): conflict between generativity and stagnation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>late adulthood (age 60 till death): conflict between achieving integrity and sinking in despair </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. SOCIALIZATION AND THE LIFE COURSE <ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adulthood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early Adulthood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Adulthood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old Age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dying </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>Resocialization  radically altering one’s personality through deliberate manipulation of the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Total institutions – a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Social interaction  process by which people act and react in relation to others. Effects of Extreme Isolation results in children who are physically and mentally underdeveloped. So extreme isolation illustrates how exposures to humans and social groups are necessary for us to learn our place in society and develop ourselves. </li></ul>