4family

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4family

  1. 1. the family
  2. 2. what is a family? <ul><li>a group of related individuals who live together and cooperate as a unit </li></ul><ul><li>has long been the basic building block of human societies </li></ul>
  3. 3. varieties of the family <ul><li>family of orientation: the family in which they grew up </li></ul><ul><li>family of procreation: the family they established through procreation </li></ul>
  4. 4. varieties of the family <ul><li>In trying to understand variations in the family of different cultures, sociologists have paid the most attention to: </li></ul><ul><li>family composition </li></ul><ul><li>norm of mate selection </li></ul><ul><li>rules of residence and descent </li></ul><ul><li>rules of authority </li></ul>
  5. 5. family composition <ul><li>nuclear family : as being made up of a married couple and their younger children – this groups lives together apart from other relatives, also called conjugal family </li></ul><ul><li>extended family : includes not only the nuclear family but also grandparents, uncles, aunts and cousins, also called consanguine family </li></ul>
  6. 6. mate selection <ul><li>arranged marriages: parents choose mates for their children </li></ul><ul><li>exogamy: marrying outward; finding their partners outside their clan, tribe or village </li></ul><ul><li>endogamy: marrying within; marrying within their own clan, tribe, or village </li></ul>
  7. 7. mate selection <ul><li>monogamy: the marriage of one man to one woman </li></ul><ul><li>polygamy: having more than one spouse; may be polyandry for women or polygyny for men </li></ul><ul><li>serial monogamy: a succession of marriage, divorce and remarriage </li></ul>
  8. 8. rules of residence, descent and inheritance <ul><li>neolocal residence: establishing a home of their own, away from both families of orientation </li></ul><ul><li>patrilocal residence: requires the bride to leave her family of orientation and live with her husband in the home of his family of orientation </li></ul><ul><li>matrilocal residence: requires the young couple to live with the bride’s family of orientation </li></ul>
  9. 9. rules of residence, descent and inheritance <ul><li>patrilineal descent: they define the father’s family as a child’s close relatives </li></ul><ul><li>matrilineal descent: descent is traced through the line of the mother’s family </li></ul><ul><li>bilateral descent: tracing children’s ancestry through both sides of the family </li></ul>
  10. 10. rules of authority <ul><li>patriarchal: eldest male dominates everyone else in the family; he allocates tasks, settles disputes, and makes other important decision that affect family members </li></ul><ul><li>matriarchal: authority rests with the eldest female </li></ul><ul><li>egalitarian: authority is equally distributed between husband and wife </li></ul>
  11. 11. rules of authority <ul><li>patriarchal: eldest male dominates everyone else in the family; he allocates tasks, settles disputes, and makes other important decision that affect family members </li></ul><ul><li>matriarchal: authority rests with the eldest female </li></ul><ul><li>egalitarian: authority is equally distributed between husband and wife </li></ul><ul><li>matricentric: authority rests with the wife due to absence of the husband </li></ul>
  12. 12. stages of family life <ul><li>courtship: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Arranged marriages were common in preindustrial cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>2. With industrialization, romantic love becomes a central criterion in mate choice. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Still, our society promotes homogamy , marriage between people with the same social characteristics. </li></ul>
  13. 13. stages of family life <ul><li>settling in: </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal and real marriage . Newly married couples often have to scale down their expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Infidelity , sexual activity outside marriage, is another area where the reality of marriage does not coincide with our cultural ideal. </li></ul>
  14. 14. stages of family life <ul><li>child rearing: </li></ul><ul><li>Child rearing has changed since industrialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Children are now seen as economic liabilities rather than as assets. </li></ul>
  15. 15. stages of family life <ul><li>child rearing: </li></ul><ul><li>Child rearing has changed since industrialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Children are now seen as economic liabilities rather than as assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Marriages between the elderly usually stress companionship. Retirement and the death of a spouse disrupt families in later life. </li></ul>
  16. 16. alternative family forms <ul><li>one-parent families tend to face serious financial problems. </li></ul><ul><li>cohabitation is the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple . </li></ul><ul><li>gay and lesbian couples continue to face opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>an increasingly large number of people are voluntarily choosing temporary or permanent singlehood. </li></ul>
  17. 17. functions of the family <ul><li>Regulation of sexual activity through the incest taboo, a cultural norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain kin </li></ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>socialization </li></ul><ul><li>social placement </li></ul><ul><li>economic cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>material and emotional security </li></ul>
  18. 18. functions of the family <ul><li>Regulation of sexual activity through the incest taboo, a cultural norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain kin </li></ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>socialization </li></ul><ul><li>social placement </li></ul><ul><li>economic cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>material and emotional security </li></ul>
  19. 19. inequality and the family <ul><li>Family structure promotes inequality in several ways </li></ul><ul><li>because property is inherited through the family, it perpetuates class inequality </li></ul><ul><li>the family is generally patriarchal, perpetuating gender inequality </li></ul><ul><li>endogamous marriage also perpetuates racial and ethnic inequality economic cooperation </li></ul>

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