व्यापक पिरचालन मसौदा
हमारा संदभर् : सीईडी 22:4/टी – 11 16 06 2011
तकनीकी सिमित : अिग्न शमन िवषय सिमित, सीईडी 22
----------...
DRAFT IN
WIDE CIRCULATION
DOCUMENT DESPATCH ADVICE
Reference Date
CED 22:4/T- 11 16 06 2011
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: FIRE FIGH...
For BIS Use Only Doc: CED 22(7808)
IS 13039
Draft Indian Standard
(Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS or u...
Doc: CED 22(7808)
IS 13039
Draft Indian standard
EXTERNAL HYDRANT SYSTEMS – PROVISION AND MAINTENANCE
– CODE OF PRACTICE
(...
15.Cinema Theatres (including Preview Theatres)
16.Clay Works
17.Clock and Watch Manufacturing
18.Clubs
19.Coffee Curing &...
3.2 ORDINARY HAZARD OCCUPANCIES
1. Airport and other Transportation Terminal Building.
2. Areca nut slicing and/or Betel n...
45.Museums.
46.Oil & Leather Cloth Factories.
47.Oil Terminals/Depots other than those categorised under High hazard A
48....
10.Cotton Seed Cleaning or De-linting Factories.
11.Distilleries.
12.Duplicating and Stencil Paper Manufacturing.
13.Fire-...
hydrants/fixed monitors at all times, with all cut-off valves being kept open. Before
commissioning, the hydrant system sh...
4.12 At least one hydrant post shall be provided for every 60 m of external wall
measurement in case of Light Hazard Occup...
more than 30 m from the nearest staircase. External access staircases shall be open to
sky.
The staircases shall conform t...
The latter part of this clause shall not apply to buildings, which are essentially
open sided.
9) Exits to the access stai...
4.19 Storage of material in the open shall be protected as under:
Material Protection
Metals, Metallic
goods, Machinery
an...
NOTES –
1) In case tanks are located more than 22.5 m from the dyke walls,
one double hydrant or two single hydrants shall...
WATER CAPACITY NO. OF HYDRANTS
Upto 50 m3
Three single hydrants (or one single + one double
headed hydrants)
Above 50 m3
b...
and 5.1.4.6 is in excess of that required for the hydrant system, the pumping capacity
shall be based on the higher water ...
NATURE
OF RISK
NUMBER OF HYDRANTS
PUMP
CAPACITY
LPS/(m3
/h)
DELIVERY
PRESSURE
AT PUMP
DISCHARGE
AT RATED
CAPACITY
(kg/cm2
...
Electrically driven booster pump(s) shall in addition to the normal supply be
connected to the emergency power supply also...
NOTES -
1) In case of High Hazard (B) risks where the aggregate pumping capacity
required in terms of the above Table or o...
If the total water requirement for spray protection and hose stream protection for
storage tanks worked out as above excee...
5.1.4.5 Where the plants and other facilities are protected by medium velocity water
spray systems, tapped from hydrant se...
5.1.8 Each fire service pump shall be provided with an independent suction pipe without
any sluice or cut-off valves there...
A reliable independent filling arrangement and a level indicator shall be provided for the
priming tank and, wherever feas...
5.1.15 Pumps shall not be installed in open. The pump rooms shall normally have
brick/concrete walls and non-combustible r...
Where the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) are attached to buildings, perfect party
wall shall be constructed to segreg...
2) For High Hazard (B) occupancies, substation(s) supplying power to the
fire pump(s) shall, in addition to complying with...
Under extenuating circumstances, overhead feeders may be laid provided they do not
fall within a horizontal distance of:
A...
5.2.7 It is recommended that telltale lamps, which would continuously glow when power
is available to the fire pump(s) cir...
5.2.19 Necessary spare parts including a set of fuses shall be kept in readiness in a
glass-fronted box in the pump house....
5.3.4 FUEL SYSTEM
5.3.4.1 FUEL
There shall be kept on hand at all times sufficient fuel to run the engine on full load for...
5.6 BATTERY CHARGING
The means of charging the batteries shall be by a 2-rate trickle charger with manual
selection of boo...
6.4 Where the Fire pump(s) draw water from the reservoir under suction lift conditions
the two compartments shall be conne...
TABLE - 2
NATURE OF
RISK
CAPACITY OF STATIC STORAGE EXCLUSIVELY
RESERVED FOR HYDRANT SERVICE
1. Light Hazard Not less than...
NOTE - In case of vertically cast pipes, where the nominal diameter of the
pipes exceeds 300 mm or where the pump delivery...
points of entry and exit. As far as possible, mains shall not be laid under large open
storages, railroads and roads carry...
TABLE 3
(FOR LIGHT HAZARD OCCUPANCIES)
NO. OF HYDRANTS IN
THE WHOLE SYSTEM
SIZE OF MAINS
(mm)
% AGE OF ALL
MAINS INCLUDING...
NOTES -
1) In calculating the number of hydrants in the system, a double headed
hydrant shall be counted as two, a fixed m...
3) In the case of riser mains in storeyed buildings and in locations where it is
not feasible to lay a ring main, a termin...
fronted hose boxes of suitable design. In case of hydrants on upper floors or internal
hydrants, hosepipes and nozzles sha...
d) Ordinary rubber lined woven-jacketed hose complying with the specification of
Type B of Indian Standards IS 636 may be ...
extinguishment of a fire, a fog type or a spray type of nozzle complying with IS 2871
shall be used.
9.3 Spare nozzles to ...
11.8 The services of the pump man could be profitably utilised for the maintenance of
all fire fighting appliances (includ...
12.1.2.3 Insulation resistance of pump motor circuit shall be examined once every six
months and record of results shall b...
12.4.7 After use, hose should be thoroughly washed in clean water and then thoroughly
dried. A rack or some similar contri...
Annexe A
(List of referred Indian Standards)
IS Number Title
5:2007 Colours for ready mixed paints and enamels (Fifth
Revi...
3844:1989 Code of practice for installation and maintenance of
internal fire hydrants and hose reels on premises (First
re...
45
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  1. 1. व्यापक पिरचालन मसौदा हमारा संदभर् : सीईडी 22:4/टी – 11 16 06 2011 तकनीकी सिमित : अिग्न शमन िवषय सिमित, सीईडी 22 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ूाप्तकतार् : 1 िसिवल इंजीिनयरी िवभाग पिरषद् के रूिच रखने वाले सदःय 2 सीईडी 22 एवं सीईडी 22:4 के सभी सदःय 3 रूिच रखने वाले अन्य िनकाय महोदय (यों), िनम्निलिखत मसौदा संलग्न है : कृ पया इस मसौदे का अवलोकन करें और अपनी सम्मितयाँ यह बताते हए भेजे िक यिद यह मसौदाु ूकािशत हो तो इस पर अमल करने में आपको व्यवसाय अथवा कारोबार में क्या किठनाइयॉं आ सकती हैं । सम्मितयॉं भेजने की अंितम ितिथ 31 07 2011 सम्मित यिद कोई हो तो कृ पया अधोहःताक्षरी को उपरिलिखत पते पर संलग्न फोमेर्ट में भेजें । यिद कोई सम्मित ूाप्त नहीं होती है अथवा सम्मित में के वल भाषा संबंधी ऽुिट हई तो उपरोक्तु ूलेख को यथावत अंितम रूप दे िदया जाएगा । यिद सम्मित तकनीकी प्रकृ ित की हई तो िवषय सिमित के अध्यु क्ष के परामशर् से अथवा उनकी इच्छा पर आगे की कायर्वाही के िलए िवषय सिमित को भेजे जाने के बाद ूलेख को अंितम रूप दे िदया जाएगा । यह ूलेख भारतीय मानक ब्यूरो की वैबसाइट www.bis.org.in पर भी उपलब्ध है धन्यवाद । भवदीय (ए. के . सैनी) वैज्ञािनक `एफ’ एवं ूमुख (िसिवल इंजीिनयरी) संलग्न : उपरिलिखत ईमेल : ced@bis.org.in ूलेख संख्या शीषर्क बाहरी हाईसेन्ट िसःटम - ूावधान तथा रख-रखाव – रीित संिहतासीईडी 22 (7808) आई सी एस संख्या 13.220
  2. 2. DRAFT IN WIDE CIRCULATION DOCUMENT DESPATCH ADVICE Reference Date CED 22:4/T- 11 16 06 2011 TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: FIRE FIGHTING SECTIONAL COMMITTEE, CED 22 ADDRESSED TO : 1 Interested Members of Civil Engineering Division Council, CEDC 2. All members of CED 22 & CED 22:4 3. All others interested Dear Sir, Please find enclosed the following draft : Doc No. Title CED 22(7808) External Hydrant Systems – Provision and Maintenance – Code of Practice (First revision) ICS No. 13,220 Kindly examine the draft and forward your views stating any difficulties which you are likely to experience in your business or profession, if this is finally adopted as National Standard. Last Date for comments : 31 07 2011 Comments if any, may please be made in the format as given overleaf and mailed to the undersigned at the above address. In case no comments are received or comments received are of editorial nature, you will kindly permit us to presume your approval for the above document as finalized. However, in case of comments of technical in nature are received then it may be finalized either in consultation with the Chairman, Sectional Committee or referred to the Sectional Committee for further necessary action if so desired by the Chairman, Sectional Committee. The document is also hosted on BIS website www.bis.org.in. Thanking you, Yours faithfully, (A.K. Saini) Sc `F’ & Head (Civil Engg.) Encl: as above email : ced@bis.org.in
  3. 3. For BIS Use Only Doc: CED 22(7808) IS 13039 Draft Indian Standard (Not to be reproduced without the permission of BIS or used as an Indian Standard) EXTERNAL HYDRANT SYSTEMS – PROVISION AND MAINTENANCE – CODE OF PRACTICE (First Revision) ____________________________________________________________________ Fire Fighting Last Date for Comments Sectional Committee, CED 22 31 07 2011 FOREWORD (Formal clause shall be added later on) One of the methods for extinguishing fire in towns, cities and industrial buildings is by providing external hydrant systems. Fire hydrant systems consist of suitable of capacity reservoirs, arrangements to impart pressure to the water, means to convey the water to various locations and suitable water outlets at the required locations. In order that such system could function efficiently, it is necessary to give guidance for the provision, installation, inspection and maintenance of this system. IS 9668 : 1980 is code of practice for provision and maintenance of water supplies for extinguishing fires in towns, cities and industrial buildings and IS 13039 : 1991 covers provision and maintenance of external hydrant systems. Purpose of this revision of IS 13039 is to delete water supply requirements for medium and large scale industries from IS 9668 and bring out an up-to-date comprehensive standard for external hydrant systems in medium and large scale industries (excluding petroleum refining and petrochemical plants which are governed by statutorily regulations) including water supply requirements and those for protection of upper floors. This standard covers minimum requirements for such system. It would leave IS 9668 provisions only for water supplies for towns and cities. IS 9668 shall be revised to take care of this. Table 23 under NBC Part 4 governs requirements for small scale industries and various types of individual buildings and IS 3844 : 1989 covers provisions of internal hydrants and hose reels in individual buildings. 1
  4. 4. Doc: CED 22(7808) IS 13039 Draft Indian standard EXTERNAL HYDRANT SYSTEMS – PROVISION AND MAINTENANCE – CODE OF PRACTICE (First Revision) 1 SCOPE This standard covers provision of installation Inspection and maintenance of hydrant systems in medium and large scale industrial risks (excluding petroleum refining and petrochemical plants which are governed by statutorily regulations). 2 REFERENCES The standards listed at Annex A contain provisions which through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated at Annex A. 3 CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPANCIES Water supply, pumping capacity and other features of the hydrant system depend not only on the size of the risk but also on its fire growth and spread potentialities, the risks are to be categorised under the following classes in accordance with IS 1641, for the purpose of hydrant system design: 3.1 LIGHT HAZARD OCCUPANCIES 1. Abrasive Manufacturing Premises 2. Aerated Water Factories 3. Agarbatti Manufacturing 4. Aluminium/Zinc and Copper Factories 5. Analytical and/or Quality Control Laboratories 6. Asbestos Steam Packing & Lagging Manufacturing 7. Battery Charging/Service Station 8. Battery Manufacturing 9. Breweries 10.Brick Works 11.Canning Factories 12.Cardamom Factories 13.Cement Factories and/or Asbestos Products Manufacturing. 14.Ceramic Factories and Crockery and Stoneware Pipe Manufacturing. 2
  5. 5. 15.Cinema Theatres (including Preview Theatres) 16.Clay Works 17.Clock and Watch Manufacturing 18.Clubs 19.Coffee Curing & Roasting Premise 20.Computer installations (Main Frame) 21.Condensed Milk Factories, Milk Pasteurising Plant and Dairies. 22.Confectionery Manufacturing 23.Dwellings 24.Educational and Research Institutes 25.Electric Generating Houses (Hydro electric) 26.Electric Lamps (Incandescent & Fluorescent) and TV Picture Tube Manufacturing. 27.Electric Sub-Station/Distribution Station. 28.Electro Plating Works. 29.Electronic and/or Computer Equipments Assembling and Manufacturing 30.Empty Containers Storage Yard 31.Engineering Workshops. 32.Fruits and Vegetables Dehydrating/Drying Factories. 33.Fruit Products and Condiment Factories. 34.Glass & Glass Fibre Manufacturing. 35.Godowns and Warehouses Storing non-combustible Goods. 36.Green houses 37.Gold Thread Factories/Gilding Factories. 38.Gum and/or Glue and Gelatine Manufacturing. 39.Hospitals including X-ray and other Diagnostic Clinics. 40.Ice Candy and Ice-cream Manufacturing. 41.Ice Factories. 42.Ink (excluding Printing Ink) Factories 43.Laundries. 44.Libraries. 45.Mica Products Manufacturing. 46.Office Premises. 47.Places of worship 48.Pottery Works. 49.Poultry Farms. 50.Residential Hotels, Cafes & Restaurants. 51.Salt Crushing Factories and Refineries. 52.Stables. 53.Steel Plants (other than Gas based) 54.Sugar Candy Manufacturing. 55.Sugar Factories and Refineries. 56.Tea Blending and Tea Packing Factories 57.Umbrella Assembling Factories 58.Vermicelli Factories. 59.Water Treatment/Water Filtration Plants and Water Pump House. 3
  6. 6. 3.2 ORDINARY HAZARD OCCUPANCIES 1. Airport and other Transportation Terminal Building. 2. Areca nut slicing and/or Betel nut Factories. 3. Atta and Cereal Grinding. 4. Bakeries. 5. Beedi Factories. 6. Biscuit Factories. 7. Bobbin Factories. 8. Bookbinders, Envelopes & Paper bag Manufacturing 9. Bulk Storage 10.Cable manufacturing 11.Camphor Boiling 12.Candle Works. 13.Carbon Paper/Typewriter Ribbon Manufacturing 14.Cardboard Box Manufacturing. 15.Carpenters, Wood wool and Furniture Manufacturing 16.Carpet and Drugget Factories. 17.Cashew nut Factories. 18.Chemical Manufacturing. 19.Cigar and Cigarette Factories. 20.Coffee grinding premises 21.Coir, Factories, 22.Coir Carpets, Rugs and Tobacco, Hides and Skin Presses 23.Cold storage premises. 24.Cork products manufacturing 25.Dry Cleaning, Dyeing, Laundries. 26.Electric Generating stations (other than Hydel) 27.Enamelware Factories. 28.Filter & Wax paper Manufacturing. 29.Flour Mills. 30.Garages. 31.Garment Makers 32.Ghee Factories (other than vegetable) 33.Godowns & Warehouses (others). 34.Grain and/or Seeds Disintegrating and/or Crushing Factories. 35.Grease Manufacturing. 36.Hat and Topee Factories. 37.Hosiery, Lace, Embroidery & Thread Factories. 38.Incandescent Gas Mantle Manufacturing 39.Industrial Gas Mfg. Including halogenated hydrocarbon gases 40.Linoleum Factories. 41.Man-made Yarn/Fibre Manufacturing (Except Acrylic) 42.Manure and Fertiliser Works. (Blending, Mixing and granulating only) 43.Mercantile Occupancies (Dept. Stores, Shopping Complexes / Malls) 44.Mineral Oil Blending and Processing. 4
  7. 7. 45.Museums. 46.Oil & Leather Cloth Factories. 47.Oil Terminals/Depots other than those categorised under High hazard A 48.Oxygen Plants. 49.Plywood Manufacturing/Wood Veneering Factories. 50.Paper & Cardboard Mills. 51.Piers, Wharfs and Jetties - to be classified normally under ordinary hazard category unless extra hazardous materials are handled. 52.Plastic Goods Manufacturing. 53.Printing Press Premises. 54.Pulverising and Crushing Mills. 55.Rice Mills. 56.Rope Works. 57.Rubber Goods Manufacturing. 58.Rubber Tyres & Tubes Manufacturing 59.Shellac Factories. 60.Shopping Complexes (underground) 61.Silk Filatures and cocoon stores. 62.Spray painting 63.Soaps and Glycerine Factories. 64.Starch Factories 65.Steel Plants (Gas Based) 66.Tanneries/Leather Goods Manufacturers. 67.Tank farms other than those categorised under high hazard 'A'. 68.Textile Mills. 69.Tea Factories. 70.Telephone Exchanges. 71.Theatres and Auditoriums 72.Tobacco (Chewing) and Pan-masalla Making. 73.Tobacco Grinding and Crushing. 74.Tobacco Redrying Factories. 75.Woollen Mills. 3.3 HIGH HAZARD OCCUPANCIES 3.3.1 SUB-CATEGORY (A) 1. Aircraft Hangers 2. Aluminium/Magnesium Powder Plants 3. Bituminised Paper and/or Hessian Cloth Manufacturing including Tar Felt Manufacturing. 4. Cotton Waste Factories 5. Coal and/or Coke and/or Charcoal Ball Briquettes Manufacturing. 6. Celluloid Goods Manufacturing. 7. Cigarette Filter Manufacturing. 8. Cinema Films & T.V. Production Studios 9. Collieries. 5
  8. 8. 10.Cotton Seed Cleaning or De-linting Factories. 11.Distilleries. 12.Duplicating and Stencil Paper Manufacturing. 13.Fire-works Manufacturing. 14.Foamed Plastics Manufacturing and/or Converting Plants. 15.Grass, Hay, Fodder & Bhoosa (chaff) 16.Pressing Factories. 17.Jute mills & jute presses 18.LPG Bottling Plants (Mini)* * Bottling plants having total inventory not exceeding 100 MT of LPG and also bottling a total quantity of not exceeding 20 MT of LPG per shift of 8 hrs. 19.Match Factories. 20.Man Made Fibres (Acrylic fibres/yarn making) 21.Mattress and Pillow Making. 22.Metal or Tin Printers (where more than 50 % of floor area is occupied as Engineering Workshop; this may be taken as Ordinary Hazard Risk) 23.Oil Mills 24.Oil Extraction Plants (other than those forming part of ghee factories & oil refining factories.) 25.Oil Terminals/Depots handling flammable liquids having flash point of 32o C and below. 26.Paints & Varnish Factories. 27.Piers, Wharfs and Jetties – handling extra hazardous materials 28.Printing Ink Manufacturing. 29.Saw Mills. 30.Sponge Iron Plants. 31.Surgical Cotton Manufacturing 32.Tank Farms storing flammable liquids having flash point of 32o C and below. 33.Tarpaulin & Canvas Proofing Factories. 34.Turpentine & Rosin Distilleries. 35.Tyre Retreading and Resoling Factories. 3.3.2 SUB-CATEGORY (B) 1. Ammonia and Urea Synthesis Plants. 2. CNG Compressing and Bottling Plants 3. Explosive Factories. 4. LPG Bottling Plants (Other than Mini Plants) 5. Petrochemical Plants. 6. Petroleum Refineries. 4 HYDRANTS/FIXED MONITORS 4.1 Fire hydrants, namely, stand post type conforming to IS 908 and underground type conforming to IS 909 shall be provided. Water shall be available immediately to all 6
  9. 9. hydrants/fixed monitors at all times, with all cut-off valves being kept open. Before commissioning, the hydrant system shall be flushed thoroughly. 4.2 Connections for any purpose other than fire fighting are not permitted from the hydrant/fixed monitor/stand post or from any portion of the hydrant service. 4.3 All hydrant outlets shall be situated 1 m above ground level. 4.4 The stand posts shall be 80 mm in diameter for single headed hydrants, 100 mm for double-headed hydrants and monitors of 63 mm or 75 mm size and 150 mm stand posts for monitor of 100 mm size. It is recommended that stand posts be painted `fire red' (shade No.536 as per IS 5) and numbered for easy identification. 4.5 Permission to install hydrants below ground level can be given only where the hydrants are properly enclosed in a surface box of cast iron or masonry 750 mm square and 80 mm above ground level, the top of the hydrant outlet being not more than 80 mm below the top of the box. 4.6 Only oblique hydrants with outlets angled towards ground shall be used. The hydrant couplings shall be of gun metal/stainless steel of the instantaneous spring-lock (female) type of 63 mm diameter and valves shall be of the screw down type. NOTE - Orifice plates of suitable design may be provided for hydrants where the pressure exceeds 7 kg/cm2 . 4.7 Double-headed hydrant shall consist of two separate landing valves. 4.8 Hydrants shall be easily accessible, storage of any kind on or around the hydrant being prohibited. Where hydrants are situated in remote locations, they shall be approachable by means of paved pathways. They shall be protected by hinge cast iron covers as specified in IS 3950. 4.9 Hydrants located in situations where they are likely to be damaged by vehicular traffic shall be suitably protected on all sides against possible damage. 4.10 Hydrants shall be located bearing in mind the attendant fire hazards at the different sections of the premises to be protected and so as to give most effective service. They shall be so distributed as to provide protection for the buildings on all sides and need not necessarily be equidistant from each other. 4.11 Advantage shall be taken of convenient door and/or window openings to place hydrants so that only a minimum length of hose is required to reach the openings through which fire may be attacked. In case of continuous blank walls, suitable provision shall be made on the walls near hydrant posts for easy access inside the premises. 7
  10. 10. 4.12 At least one hydrant post shall be provided for every 60 m of external wall measurement in case of Light Hazard Occupancy, for every 45 m in case of Ordinary Hazard Occupancy and every 30 m of external wall measurement or perimeter of unit battery limit in case of High Hazard Occupancy. Measurements shall be calculated on the total length of walls of all buildings/perimeter of all battery limits to be protected except in the case of opposite buildings (other than those of High Hazard category) within 22.5 m of each other, where the measurement of the shorter opposing wall may be omitted. Further, all hydrants and monitors should be serially numbered. Notwithstanding the above, hydrants protecting utilities and miscellaneous buildings in High hazard risks may be spaced at 45 m. 4.13 Building shall be deemed to be protected by a hydrant unless such hydrant is within 15 m of the building. Where any part of a building is normally used for storage purpose or where hazardous processes are carried out, there shall be two single or one double headed hydrant within 15 m of the building, the layout being such that two jets of water can be played simultaneously on the highest point of the roof. In case of Buildings/Plants occupied for High Hazard process or storages, the above-specified distance may be increased to 22.5 m. In case of buildings having roofs other than RCC, it is advisable to provide hydrants at the roof level along with access staircases in order to fight the fire by breaking open the roofs, if necessary. 4.14 Hydrant heads shall be positioned at distances not less than 2 m from the face of the building or edge of the storage plot to be protected except in the case of high hazard occupancies wherein the hydrant heads shall be located not less than 7.5 m from the face of the building, edge of the storage plot or from the plant battery limits. 4.15 In case where, owing to the size or layout of the building, or building being divided by internal walls, any point within the building is at a distance of more than 45 m from an external fire hydrant, an internal hydrant system shall be provided so that no portion of the floor is more than 45 m from an external hydrant or 30 m from an internal hydrant. In case of large switchyards, where it is not feasible to lay internal hydrants, alternate hydrants may be replaced by monitors of suitable size. NOTE - Distance of 45 m indicated above shall be increased to 60 m for light hazard occupancies and reduced to 30 m for high hazard occupancies. 4.16 In case of storeyed buildings, satisfactory access shall be provided to all parts of each floor by means of incombustible internal or external staircases. Normally, a minimum of two such staircases will be needed per compartment, but in case the area of the compartment exceeds 2,000 sq. m, an additional staircase shall be provided for every additional 1,500 sq. m or part thereof. On the other hand, if a compartment has a floor area of less than 500 sq. m, one access staircase shall be acceptable. The access staircases shall be so located that, as far as possible, no part of each floor is 8
  11. 11. more than 30 m from the nearest staircase. External access staircases shall be open to sky. The staircases shall conform to the following: Internal staircases shall be so located that atleast one of its enclosing walls is an external wall of the building. A door opening shall be provided in this external wall at ground floor level. The enclosing walls shall be of brick work atleast 230 mm thick or reinforced concrete atleast 100 mm thick carried through and atleast 450 mm above the roof of the building, unless the roof is of jack arch or reinforced concrete construction in which case the walls need be carried upto the roof only. Every opening from the staircase to any portion of the building or to a roof used as a floor shall be fitted with a single fireproof door. NOTES - 1) The above will not apply to buildings, the upper floors of which are occupied by offices, air washer plants, rest rooms, cloak rooms, canteen and the like. 2) In case of staircases for storeyed TG hall/boiler house/mill bay of power plants, the staircases shall be distributed as far as possible along four sides of the building. The number of staircases shall be such that no part of such floor is more than 45 m from the nearest staircase. 3) External staircases without side covering need not have openings at each floor level protected by single fireproof doors. 4) There shall be no equipment within 2 m of the staircases and/or its landings. 5) Staircases shall be not less than 750 mm clear width with treads not less than and risers not more than 200 mm and under most circumstances shall the staircase have an inclination of more than 60 degrees to the horizontal. 6) Iron rung ladders or spiral staircases shall not be acceptable. 7) In case of staircases for storeyed TG hall/boiler house/mill bay of power plants, at least 50 % of the number of staircases thus arrived at shall conform to 4.1.15.1, 4.1.15.2 and 4.1.15.3. The remaining staircases shall be preferably located along the periphery of the building, but need not necessarily be separated as per regulations. 8) In the case of enclosed staircases, all windows therein falling within 3 m of any other openings in the building shall be protected by wired glass in steel framework conversely, in the case of open-sided staircases, window and door openings of the building falling within 3 m of the staircase shall be protected by wired glass in steel framework and single fireproof door respectively 9
  12. 12. The latter part of this clause shall not apply to buildings, which are essentially open sided. 9) Exits to the access staircases shall always be kept open during working hours. During non-working hours, the exits may be locked from the staircase side only. Locks of all exits shall have one master key, which shall be available either at the main gate, or any other prominent and easily accessible location known to the fire fighting personnel. Alternatively, the key shall be kept in a glass-fronted box or in the hose box on the staircase landing. 10) A hydrant shall be provided on every floor landing which shall not be less than 1.5 m x 1 m. The mains feeding the landing hydrants shall be provided with a cut-off valve at ground level (also see Note 4 under 7.5.10 and 7.7.3.3) 4.17 MONITORS 4.17.1 Tall columns, structure, towers and equipment where it may not be possible to provide access staircases with hydrants on landing thereof, will be considered as protected by hydrants at ground level, provided they are less than 15 m in height. When the height exceeds 15 m, the concerned hydrants shall be replaced by monitors. Branch pipe/nozzle of monitor shall be of gun metal/ stainless steel. 4.17.2 Alternate hydrants for protection of loading unloading bays, rail/truck gantries shall be replaced by water/foam monitors. 4.18 PROTECTION OF BASEMENTS Staircases/ramps shall provide access to all parts of the basement directly from the outside of the building at ground level. The number and location of the staircases/ramps shall be such that no part of the basement is more than 45 m from the nearest staircase/ramp. It is recommended that the staircase/ramp be provided with emergency lighting facilities. Where maintenance of illumination depends upon changing from one energy source to another, there shall be no appreciable interruption of illumination during changeover. Where emergency lighting is provided by means of electric generator, a delay of not more than 10 seconds shall be permitted for changeover. Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to maintain proper illumination for a period of one- and-a-half hours in the event of lighting failures. The emergency lighting system shall be so arranged as to provide sufficient illumination automatically in the event of any interruption of normal lighting. One landing valve shall be provided for each staircase/ramp at each basement level in addition to the provision of a hydrant at the ground level. Proper drainage facility shall be provided to drain the fire-fighting water out of the basement. 10
  13. 13. 4.19 Storage of material in the open shall be protected as under: Material Protection Metals, Metallic goods, Machinery and other non- hazardous storage One single hydrant for every 60 m of storage periphery located beyond 2 m but within 15 m of storage area. Coal or Coke One single hydrant for every 45 m of storage periphery located beyond 2 m but within 15 m of storage area. Other storages One double hydrant for every 45 m of the storage periphery located beyond 2 m, but within 22.5 m of storage area. NOTES – 1) In the case of open storage areas of bamboo, bagasse, grass/hay and timber, at least 50 % of hydrant shall be replaced by fixed monitors having nozzle bore of 38 mm diameter if the individual stack height is more than 6 m and total storage exceeds 5,000 tonnes. 2) Where hydrant/monitors located along one longer side of a storage area are more than 90 m from those along the other longer side, moniitors having jets of longer reach may be accepted. 4.20 Hydrants for the protection of combustible/flammable liquid storage tanks shall be located beyond 15 m, but within 35 m of tank shell as specified below : DIAMETER OF TANK NO. OF HYDRANTS Tanks upto 10 m dia. One double headed or two single headed hydrants. Tanks above 10 m but upto 20 m dia. Two double headed or four single headed hydrants. Tanks above 20 m dia. Three double headed or six single headed hydrants. 11
  14. 14. NOTES – 1) In case tanks are located more than 22.5 m from the dyke walls, one double hydrant or two single hydrants shall be replaced by a 38 mm monitor. (Every alternate monitor should be a foam monitor and a minimum of one such foam monitor should be provided) 2) For the tanks located more than 45 m from the dyke walls, in addition to the monitor(s), the tanks shall be protected by Fixed Foam/Medium Velocity Water Spray System (Manual/Automatic) 3) Hydrants/Monitors shall not be installed within dyked enclosures nor can the hydrant main pass through it. 4) Floating roof storage tanks and floating-cum-fixed storage tanks exceeding 30 m in diameter and fixed roof storage tanks containing products having flash point below 32o C shall be protected by supplementary medium velocity water spray system or fixed/semi fixed foam system (either automatic or manually operated). In case of foam system, there shall be additional protection by water spray system in the form of a ring along the top edge of the vertical face of the tank. 5) Insulated tanks shall also be provided with M.V. Water Spray Protection. 6) No water spray protection is required for ammonia spheres/tanks. 7) Cryogenic storage tanks and double walled tanks shall be treated on par with the insulated tanks. However, metallic roof of the double walled tanks (RCC or otherwise) will need to be protected with M.V. Water Spray System (mandatory) at a rate of 3 lpm/m2 for the roof portion only. 8) Adequate provision shall be made to promptly and effectively dispose off all liquids from the fire areas during operation of fire protection systems in such areas. 4.21 For protection of spheres/bullets, hydrants/monitors shall be located beyond 15 m but within 35 m of the shell of the spheres/bullets. The number of hydrants/monitors shall be governed by the water capacity of the bullets/spheres as specified hereunder: 12
  15. 15. WATER CAPACITY NO. OF HYDRANTS Upto 50 m3 Three single hydrants (or one single + one double headed hydrants) Above 50 m3 but upto 150 m3 One monitor + two single (or one double headed hydrants) Above 150 m3 Two monitors + four single hydrants (or two double headed hydrants) NOTES – 1) Supplementary protection of bullets/spheres by medium velocity water spray system (either automatic or manually operated) is a must. 2) Hydrant/monitor shall not be installed within dyked/-fenced enclosures nor can hydrant mains pass through such enclosures. 5 PUMPS 5.1 General 5.1.1 Pumps conforming to IS 12469 shall be exclusively used for fire fighting purposes and shall be: a) Electric Motor or Steam Turbine driven centrifugal pumps, or b) Compression Ignition Engine driven centrifugal pumps, or c) Vertical Turbine Submersible pumps. 5.1.2 Pumps shall be direct-coupled, except in the case of engine-driven Vertical Turbine Pumps wherein gear drives conforming to approval standard of Factory Mutual system or right angled gear drive class no. 1338 shall be used. Belt-driven pumps shall not be accepted. 5.1.3 Parts of pumps like impeller, shaft sleeve, wearing ring etc. shall be of non- corrosive metal preferably of brass or bronze or stainless steel. Where seawater is used or where the quality of water necessitates the use of special metals/alloys, the use of such metals or alloys shall be insisted. 5.1.4 The capacity of the pump(s) would depend on whether or not tapping(s) for water spray and/or foam protection for tanks/spheres/bullets/plants/other facilities is (are) taken from the hydrant service. In case there is no tapping from the hydrant service, the capacity of the pump shall be as per 5.1.4.1 hereunder. However, where the water demand for water sprays and/or foam protection as per 5.1.4.2, 5.1.4.3, 5.1.4.4, 5.1.4.5 13
  16. 16. and 5.1.4.6 is in excess of that required for the hydrant system, the pumping capacity shall be based on the higher water demand. 5.1.4.1 The capacity for hydrant service shall be determined by the class of occupancy and size of installation as per Table 1 hereunder: TABLE – 1 NATURE OF RISK NUMBER OF HYDRANTS PUMP CAPACITY LPS/(m3 /h) DELIVERY PRESSURE AT PUMP DISCHARGE AT RATED CAPACITY (kg/cm2 ) 1 Light Hazard i) Not exceeding 20 27 (96) 5.6* ii) Exceeding 20 but not exceeding 55 38 (137) 7 iii) Exceeding 55 but not exceeding 100 47 (171) 7 iv) Exceeding 100 ** 47 (171) plus 47 (171) for every additional 125 hydrants or part thereof. 7/8.8 NOTES – *The pump delivery pressure will need to be 7 kg/cm2 if the highest floor of the risk is at a height exceeding 15 m above the surrounding ground level. **Where the systems are hydraulically designed, the total pumping capacity need not be greater than 190 (683) irrespective of the number of hydrant points. 14
  17. 17. NATURE OF RISK NUMBER OF HYDRANTS PUMP CAPACITY LPS/(m3 /h) DELIVERY PRESSURE AT PUMP DISCHARGE AT RATED CAPACITY (kg/cm2 ) 2 Ordinary Hazard i) Not exceeding 20 38 (137) 7 ii) Exceeding 20 but not exceeding 55 47 (171) 7 iii) Exceeding 55 but not exceeding 100 76 (273) 7 iv)Exceeding 100 ** 76 (273) plus 76 (273) for every additional 125 hydrants or part thereof. 7/8.8 **NOTES - 1) In case of new systems where the number of hydrants is expected to be between 100 and 150; and where further extension of the system beyond 150 hydrants is not anticipated, a single pump of 410 m3 /h capacity at 7/8.8 Kg/cm2 may be permitted. Likewise in case of old installations where the system is extended beyond 100 hydrants but not exceeding 150 hydrants; and where further extension beyond 150 hydrants is not anticipated, an additional pump of 171 m3 /h at 7 Kg/cm2 may be permitted. 2) Where the systems are hydraulically designed, the total pumping capacity need not be greater than 302 (1092) irrespective of the number of hydrant points. 3) Where situation warrants, higher capacity pumps not exceeding 410 m3 /h and 88 m head may be acceptable. 4) In order to achieve the minimum pressure of 3.5 Kg/cm2 at higher elevation, booster pump(s) with a capacity of 137 m3 /h, having requisite rated head may be acceptable. The booster pump shall be regarded as a pressure-compensating device only. A higher capacity booster pump may be stipulated where considered necessary. Booster pump shall be located at ground level only. 15
  18. 18. Electrically driven booster pump(s) shall in addition to the normal supply be connected to the emergency power supply also. NATURE OF RISK NUMBER OF HYDRANTS PUMP CAPACITY LPS/(m3 /h) DELIVERY PRESSURE AT PUMP DISCHARGE AT RATED CAPACITY (kg/cm2 ) 3 High Hazard (A) i) Not exceeding 20 47 (171) 7 ii) Exceeding 20 but not exceeding 55 76 (273) 7/8.8 iii) Exceeding 55 but not exceeding 100 114 (410) 7/8.8 iv) Exceeding 100 114 (410) plus 114 (410) for every add- itional 125 hydrants or part thereof. 7/8.8/10.5 High Hazard (B) i) Not exceeding 20 Two of 47 (171) 7 ii) Exceeding 20 but not exceeding 55 Two of 76 (273) 7/8.8 iii) Exceeding 55 but not exceeding 100 Two of 114 (410) 7/8.8 x) **Exceeding 100 Two of 114 (410) plus One of 114 (410) for every add- itional 200 hydrants or part thereof. 7/8.8/10.5 ** This provision will apply only in cases where the hydrant service has been hydraulically designed 16
  19. 19. NOTES - 1) In case of High Hazard (B) risks where the aggregate pumping capacity required in terms of the above Table or of rules 5.1.4.2, 5.1.4.3, 5.1.4.4, 5.1.4.5 and 5.1.4.6 hereunder exceeds 1,640 m3 /h, larger capacity pumps are acceptable provided the capacity of the largest pump does not exceed 25 % of the aggregate installed pumping capacity is disrupted when any pump is in- operative. 2) In case of High Hazard occupancies, the pump delivery pressure shall be 7 Kg/cm2 if the highest floor of the risk is at a height exceeding 15 m above the surrounding ground level. 3) In case of Oil Refineries, Petrochemical complexes or other risks where double headed hydrants are used throughout the risk so that the total number of hydrants (counting a double headed hydrant as two hydrants) is about double the number of hydrants required as per the general requirements of this Manual, a double headed hydrant may be regarded as a single hydrant only. 5.1.4.2 Where storage tanks containing flammable liquids are protected by a medium velocity water spray system tapped from the hydrant service, the water requirements of the spray system shall be calculated for tanks located in a common dyke within a distance of 15 m (or the diameter of the larger tank which have the largest aggregate shell surface area at a rate of 10 litres /minute/m2 of tank shell surface area except where the system has been designed to comply with mandatory protection in which case the rate of flow can be reduced to 3 lpm/m2 ). Even in the case of tanks located in separate dykes, the shell surface area of all tanks located within a distance of 15 m (or the diameter of the larger tank if the same is more than 15m) shall be aggregated and the water demand of such cluster of tanks shall be calculated at the rate of flow indicated in the foregoing clause. The water requirement of the spray system worked out as above shall then be loaded for supplementary hose stream protection as under: Where the largest tank in a dyke has a diameter Water requirement i) Upto 10 m 1,150 LPM ii) More than 10 m and upto 20 m 2,250 LPM iii) Over 20 m 3,400 LPM 17
  20. 20. If the total water requirement for spray protection and hose stream protection for storage tanks worked out as above exceeds the requirements of the hydrant service as per Table 1, the pumping capacity shall be equivalent to the former. 5.1.4.3 Where storage tanks are protected by a fixed foam system connected to the hydrant service, water requirement for the foam system shall be equivalent to that required by the largest protected tank at a rate of 5 litres/minute/m2 of liquid surface area for fixed roof tanks and 12.2 lpm/m2 of rim seal area in case of floating roof tanks. Other conditions regarding supplementary hose stream protection, pumping capacity etc., would remain the same as for water spray protection. 5.1.4.4 Where spheres/bullets are protected by a medium velocity water spray system tapped from pressurised hydrant service, water requirements of the spray system shall be determined as under: Taking into consideration the configuration of bullets/sphere, the one which has the largest number of other bullets/spheres within R +15 m of the centre thereof shall be selected. The water demand shall then be worked out at the rate of 10 L/min/m2 of the aggregate shell surface area of the bullet/spheres concerned and all bullets/spheres within R + 15 m of the centre thereof. Water application may be reduced to 5 LPM/m2 where the bullets/Spheres coated with approved passive materials providing fire resistance of at least 2 hours. The water requirement of the spray system worked out as above shall then be loaded for supplementary hose stream protection as under: Water capacity of Bullets/ Spheres (m3 ) Supplementary hose stream protection (LPM) Upto and including 50 m3 1,750 Above 50 m3 and upto 150 m3 2,250 Above 150 m3 4,500 If the total water requirement for spray protection and hose steam protection for spheres/bullets worked out as above exceeds the requirements of the hydrant service as per Table 1, the pumping capacity shall be equivalent to the former. Note - For design criteria of medium velocity water spray system reference shall be made to IS 15325. 18
  21. 21. 5.1.4.5 Where the plants and other facilities are protected by medium velocity water spray systems, tapped from hydrant service, water requirement of the spray system shall be determined as per rules for water spray systems. Water requirements of the spray systems worked out as above shall then be loaded by requirements for supplementary hose stream protection which shall be limited to capacity of individual hydrant pump required had there been no spray protection with a maximum of 4500 LPM. If the total water requirement for spray protection and hose stream protection worked out as above exceeds the requirements of the hydrant service as per Table 1, the pumping capacity shall be equivalent to the former. 5.1.4.6 Where transformers are protected by high velocity water spray system tapped from hydrant system, water requirements of the spray system shall be determined as per rules for water spray system. Water requirement of the spray system worked out as above shall then be loaded by 1,750 LPM for supplementary hose stream protection. If the total water requirement for spray protection and hose stream protection worked out as above exceeds the requirements of the hydrant service as per Table 1, the pumping capacity shall be equivalent to the former. 5.1.4.7 Where plants and other facilities are protected by sprinkler system tapped from the pressurised hydrant service, water requirement of the sprinkler system shall be determined as per the rules for sprinkler system. If the total water requirement for sprinkler system exceeds the requirement of the hydrant service as per Table 1, the pumping capacity shall be equivalent to the former. 5.1.5 Pumps shall be capable of furnishing not less than 150 % of rated capacity at a head not less than 65 % of the rated head. The shut-off head shall not exceed 120 % of rated head in the case of horizontal pumps and 140 % in the case of vertical turbine type pumps. 5.1.6 Each pump shall be provided with a plate giving, the delivery head, capacity and the number of revolutions per minute. 5.1.7 In case of electrically driven pumps it is recommended that compression ignition engine driven stationary pump of similar capacity be installed as a standby and vice versa. However, where the hydrant service consists of more than one pump, not more than half the total number (total number + 1 in case of odd number) of pumps shall have prime movers of one type. Notwithstanding the above, if power to motorised fire pumps is obtained from two sources, one of which is a captive generating plant located in a block either 6 m away from all surrounding buildings, more than half the total number of pumps may be of the electrically driven type. 19
  22. 22. 5.1.8 Each fire service pump shall be provided with an independent suction pipe without any sluice or cut-off valves therein, unless the pump is situated below the level of the water supply in which case sluice or cut-off valves would be essential. Where the water supply has fibrous or equally objectionable matter in suspension or mud and/or sand liable to cause accumulation in the installation, suction pipe(s) shall be installed in a jack well fed through a culvert from the main water supply. At the supply end of the culvert, a sluice or gate valve shall be provided. NOTE - The suction pipe shall be connected to the pump inlet through an eccentric reducer to avoid air pockets. 5.1.9 The diameter of the suction pipe shall be such that the rate of flow of water through it does not exceed 90 m/minute when the pump is delivering at its rated discharge. If, however, the pump is situated below the level of its water supply, the diameter of the suction pipe/header shall be based upon a rate of flow not exceeding 120 m/minute. 5.1.10 Where the pump is to operate under suction lift conditions, the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) available at site shall be 0.50 m in excess of the actual value required at 150 % of the duty point as per the manufacturer’s curve of the pump. For the purpose of the above, NPSH available at site shall be computed by deducting the sum of the static lift (measured from the ‘low water level’ upto the centre line of the pump) and friction loss in the suction pipe and fittings from atmospheric pressure. 5.1.11 Fire Pumps in High Hazard (B) category occupancies shall be provided with positive suction and automatic starting devices capable of sequential starting of the pumps. The pumps shall be connected to audible alarm such as hooter or a siren located in a prominent place outside the pump house. Where there is a central fire station in the premises, additional alarm point shall also be provided in the fire station. The pumping arrangement shall incorporate Jockey Pumps to take care of system losses. The capacity of the Jockey Pumps shall neither be more than 5 % of the installed pumping capacity nor less than 3 % thereof (with a minimum of 10.8 m3 /hr.) unless the aggregate installed pumping capacity is in excess of 820 m3 /hr, in which case the capacity of the Jockey Pump (s) shall be not less than 25 m3 /hr plus 1 % of the installed pumping capacity in excess of 820 m3 /hr. Installation of Jockey Pumps helps to prevent hydraulic surges. 5.1.12 In the case of Light, Ordinary and High Hazard (A) category occupancies, when the pump is above the level of its water supply, there shall be a foot valve and a `priming' arrangement, the latter consisting of a tank (having a capacity at least three times that of the suction pipe from the pump to the foot valve subject to a minimum of 1000 litres) connected to the delivery side of the pump by a metal pipe having a minimum internal diameter of 100 mm with a stop valve and a non return valve therein of the same size. 20
  23. 23. A reliable independent filling arrangement and a level indicator shall be provided for the priming tank and, wherever feasible, a continuous overflow arrangement shall be provided in order to ensure that the tank is always full. It is recommended that for pumps taking suction from a stored water supply, a vortex plate shall be installed at entrance to the suction pipe. Wherever circumstances permit, the pumps shall preferably be fixed below the level of the water supply (positive suction). If the pumps are automatic in action, they shall necessarily be so fixed. However, if the priming arrangements are such as to ensure that the suction pipe shall be automatically maintained full of water notwithstanding a serious leakage there from (the pump being automatically brought into action to replenish the priming tank should the latter be drawn upon at a greater rate than the rate at which it is fed from any other source), positive suction may not be insisted. In such cases, the capacity of the priming tank need not exceed 450 litres and the diameter of the priming pipe need not exceed 50 mm. Jockey Pump(s) shall, nevertheless, be provided in systems where the main pumps are automatic in action. NOTES - 1) A pump shall be considered as having positive suction only if the quantity of water in the reservoir above the low water level or the top of the pump casing, whichever is higher is equivalent to the requirements of Table 2. 2) Pumps are not permitted normally to have partly positive (flooded) suction and partly negative suction. But under special circumstances such arrangement may be permitted where at least 80% of water level would enable positive suction and remaining 20% negative suction. In all such cases priming tank also shall be provided. 5.1.13 Each pump shall be provided with a non-return valve and a sluice valve on the delivery side, the sluice valve being installed on the upstream side of the non-return valve. A pressure gauge shall also be provided between the pump and the non-return valve. The size of the non-return valve and cut off (sluice) valve shall not be less than the size of the initial delivery pipe and, in no case, less than the delivery outlet of the pump. Butterfly Valves can create turbulence adversely affecting the pump performance no Butterfly valve shall be installed on the suction side. 5.1.14 When the premises are also protected by sprinkler installation having elevated tank(s) as one of the main sources of water supply, and where the arrangement for filling the tank(s) is taken from the hydrant service, the connection shall be taken directly from the pump to the top of the tank (through a stop valve) and not through the hydrant mains. (See fig. below) 21
  24. 24. 5.1.15 Pumps shall not be installed in open. The pump rooms shall normally have brick/concrete walls and non-combustible roof, with adequate lighting, ventilation and drainage arrangements. The pump room shall be so located as to be both easily accessible and where any falling masonry and the like from other buildings occasioned by fire or otherwise, cannot damage the pump room. Normally, pump rooms shall be located 6 m away from all surrounding buildings and overhead structures. Where this is not feasible the sides of the pump room falling within 6 m of the surrounding buildings shall be blank masonry walls of 355 mm thickness and the roof of the pump room shall be of RCC. Likewise, when the pump room is attached to a building a perfect party wall shall be constructed between the pump room and the attached building, the roof of the pump room shall be of RCC construction at least 100 mm thick and access to the pump room shall be from the outside. In no case shall the pump from be sited within a building occupied for any other purpose. NOTE - For High Hazard (B) occupancies, in addition to the above provisions, the pump room shall be located 30 m clear of all equipment where flammable fluids having flash point below 65o C are handled and/or stored and 15 m clear of pipes/pipe racks (carrying other than water.). 5.2 ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN PUMPS 5.2.1 The sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s)-supplying power to the fire pump(s) shall be of incombustible construction and shall be located at least 6 m away from all surrounding buildings. Where this is not feasible, all door and window openings of the surrounding buildings within 6 m of the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) shall be protected by single fireproof doors and 6 mm thick wired glasses in steel framework respectively. Like-wise, roof eaves, if any, of the surrounding buildings falling within 6 m of the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) shall be cut and wall raised as a parapet. The above provisions shall also apply when the sub-station(s) and D.G. house(s) are within 6 m of each other. 22
  25. 25. Where the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) are attached to buildings, perfect party wall shall be constructed to segregate the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) from the attached buildings and where the attached building is storeyed, the roof of the sub- station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) shall be of R.C.C. construction of at least 100 mm thickness. Transformer cubicles inside these sub-stations shall be separated from H.T. and L.T. cubicles and from each other by blank walls of bricks/stone/concrete blocks of 355 mm thickness or of R.C.C of 200 mm with door openings, if any therein, protected by single fireproof doors. The sub-station(s) and D.G. house(s) shall also be separated from each other as above. Transformers installed outdoors, which are supplying power to fire Pump(s), shall also be located at least 6 m away from all surrounding buildings (including sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s). Where this is not feasible all door and window openings of the building(s) [including sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s).] within 6 m of the transformer shall be protected by single fireproof doors and 6mm thick wired glasses in steel framework respectively. Likewise, roof eaves of the building(s) falling within 6 m of the transformer shall be cut and wall raised as a parapet. Baffle walls of bricks/stone/concrete blocks of 355 mm thickness or of R.C.C. of 200 mm thickness shall be constructed between two transformers and these walls shall be extended horizontally 600 mm beyond the extremities of the transformers and vertically 600 mm above the highest point of the transformers. NOTES – 1) Where oil capacity of the individual transformer is larger than 5,000 litres separating walls must be provided in between the transformers and a clear distance as per the following table shall be maintained between the transformers and the substation: OIL CAPACITY OF INDIVIDUAL TRANSFORMER CLEAR SEPARATING DISTANCE (m) 5,000 to 10,000 litres 8.0 Above 10,000 upto 20,000 litres 10.0 Above 20,000 upto 30,000 litres 12.5 Over 30,000 litres 15 23
  26. 26. 2) For High Hazard (B) occupancies, substation(s) supplying power to the fire pump(s) shall, in addition to complying with the above provisions, be located 30 m clear of all equipment where flammable fluids having flash point below 65o C are handled and/or stored 5.2.2 Electric supply feeder (s) to sub-station(s) supplying power to fire pump shall, consist of armoured cables buried underground which shall not pass under any building or permanent structures. If the feeders are laid inside an underground cable duct/ gallery, they shall be placed in a corner of the duct/gallery and shall be isolated from other cables in the duct/gallery by means of fire bricks/sand packing/other suitable passive protection of at least ½ an hour fire rating. Under extenuating circumstances, where it is not feasible to lay the feeders underground, overhead feeders may be laid provided they do not fall within a horizontal distance of: A) 15 m of any process buildings/plant or tanks containing flammable liquids. or B) 6 m of any other building or tanks containing non-flammable liquids or of storage in open. NOTE - in case of high hazard (B) occupancies, all substations (except main receiving station in the route of the electrical supply to the fire pump (s) which receive power by overhead feeders shall be provided with two sets of feeders which, apart from conforming with the above distance provisions, shall be run along two different routes in such a way that failure of more than one route due to a single mishap would be a remote possibility. 5.2.3 A direct feeder without any tapping shall be laid from the sub-station to the pump house. The feeder shall consist of an armoured cable buried underground and shall not pass under any building or permanent structure. The cable run inside the substation from the breaker up to its point of burial or entry into cable duct/gallery shall be provided with suitable passive protection of at least ½ an hour fire rating. If the feeder is laid inside an underground cable duct/gallery, it shall be placed in a corner of the duct/gallery and shall be isolated from other cables in the duct/gallery by means of fire bricks/sand packing/other suitable passive protection of at least ½ an hour fire rating. 24
  27. 27. Under extenuating circumstances, overhead feeders may be laid provided they do not fall within a horizontal distance of: A) 15 m of any process buildings/plant or tanks containing flammable liquids. or B) 6 m of any other building or tanks containing non-flammable liquids or of storage in open. NOTE - In case of High Hazard `B' occupancies if the feeder to the fire pump (s) is not buried underground, two sets of feeder shall be provided which shall: A) Conform to the above distance provisions B) Be run along two different routes in such a way that failure of more than one route due to a single mishap would be a remote possibility. 5.2.4 Sufficient spare power shall always be available to drive pumping set(s) at all times throughout the year. 5.2.5 The electric supply to the pumping set(s) shall be entirely independent of all other equipment in the premises i.e. even when the power throughout the entire premises is switched off, the supply to the pump shall continue to be available un-interrupted. This can be achieved by taking the connection for the pump(s) from the incoming side of the main L.T. breaker. However, in cases where two or more transformers and/or sources of supply are connected to a common bus bar the connection may be taken through the bus bars. (See figures below) 5.2.6 The fire pump circuit shall be protected at the origin by an automatic circuit breaker so set as to permit the motor to be overloaded during an emergency to the maximum limit permissible by the manufacturers. Further, the under voltage release/`no volt’ coil of the circuit breaker shall be removed. NOTE - Where cable lengths are long enough to warrant back-up protection, such a protection may be provided. 25
  28. 28. 5.2.7 It is recommended that telltale lamps, which would continuously glow when power is available to the fire pump(s) circuit, be provided and fixed in a prominent position, both in the substation and in the pump room. 5.2.8 Where there is more than one source of power for the operation of pumping set(s) every electrical circuit shall be so designed as to ensure that when necessary, the set(s) will continue to operate without the manual operation of an emergency switch. 5.2.9 The pumping set(s) shall be securely mounted on a robust bedplate, if of the horizontal type, and shall be free from vibration at all variations of load. 5.2.10 The motor shall be of continuous rating type and its rating shall be at least equivalent to the horsepower required to drive the pump at 150 % of its rated discharge. (See 7.4.1.5) 5.2.11 The motor shall be of totally enclosed type or drip proof type, the latter having their air inlets and outlets protected with meshed wire panels to exclude rodents, reptiles and insects. 5.2.12 The motors shall be wound for Class B insulation and the windings shall be vacuum impregnated with heat and moisture resisting varnish and preferably glass fibre insulated to withstand tropical conditions. 5.2.13 Motors wound for high tension supplies shall have a suitable fixed warming resistance to maintain the motor windings in a dry condition at all times. The resistance shall be connected to the lighting or other equivalent circuit. 5.2.14 Heating apparatus shall also be provided, for medium tension motors where they are located below ground level, in order to maintain the motor windings in a dry condition. Adequate drainage arrangements shall also be provided in the pump house in such cases. 5.2.15 The incoming cable to the fire pump room shall terminate in an isolating switch fuse unit incorporating HRC fuses and provided with a distribution system where necessary. 5.2.16 The starting switchgear for the fire pumps shall incorporate an ammeter with a clear indication of the motor full load current. Remote controlled starting arrangements are also acceptable. 5.2.17 Cables for motors and switchgear shall be armoured type 5.2.18 It is recommended that equipment throughout be painted fire red and suitably marked for identification. 26
  29. 29. 5.2.19 Necessary spare parts including a set of fuses shall be kept in readiness in a glass-fronted box in the pump house. 5.3 COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE DRIVEN PUMPS 5.3.1 PUMP ROOM The Pump Room shall be artificially heated, if necessary, to maintain the temperature of the room above 10 o C. Adequate ventilation shall be provided for the air required for aspiration and to limit the temperature rise in the room to 10 o C above the ambient temperature when the engine is on full load. 5.3.2 ENGINE 5.3.2.1 The Engine shall be: a) Able to accept full load within 15 s from the receipt of the signal to start. b) Capable of operating continuously on full load at the site elevation for a period of six hours. c) Provided with an adjustable governor to control the engine speed within 10% of its rated speed under any condition of load upto the full load rating. The governor shall be set to maintain rated pump speed at maximum pump load. d) Provided with an in-built tachometer to indicate R.P.M. of the engine. 5.3.2.2 Any manual device fitted to the Engine that could prevent the engine starting shall return automatically to the normal position. 5.3.2.3 Engines, after correction for altitude and ambient temperature, shall have bare engine horsepower rating equivalent to the higher of the following two values a) 20 % in excess of the maximum brake horsepower required to drive the pump at its duty point. b) The brake horsepower required driving the pump at 150 % of its rated discharge. 5.3.3 ENGINE SHUT-DOWN MECHANISM This shall be manually operated and return automatically to the starting position after use. 27
  30. 30. 5.3.4 FUEL SYSTEM 5.3.4.1 FUEL There shall be kept on hand at all times sufficient fuel to run the engine on full load for six hours, in addition to that in the engine fuel tank. 5.3.4.2 FUEL TANK The fuel tank shall be of welded steel. The tank shall be fitted with an indicator showing the level of the fuel in the tank. The capacity of the tank shall be sufficient to allow the engine to run on full load for: CLASS OF HAZARD CAPACITY (hours) Light Hazard 2 Ordinary Hazard 4 High Hazard (A) 6 High Hazard (B) 8 NOTE - where there is more than one compression ignition engine driven pump set there shall be a separate fuel tank and fuel feed pipe for each engine. 5.3.4.3 FUEL FEED PIPES Any valve in the fuel feed pipe between the fuel tank and the engine shall be placed adjacent to the tank and it shall be locked in the open position. Pipe joints shall not be soldered and plastic tubing shall not be used. 5.4 STARTING MECHANISM Provision shall be made for two separate methods of engine starting viz: a) Automatic starting by means of a battery powered electric starter motor. The battery capacity shall be adequate for ten consecutive starts without recharging with a cold engine under full compression. b) Manual starting NOTE - The starter motor used for automatic starting may also be used for manual starting provided there are separate batteries for manual starting. 28
  31. 31. 5.6 BATTERY CHARGING The means of charging the batteries shall be by a 2-rate trickle charger with manual selection of boost charge and the batteries shall be charged in position. Equipment shall be provided to enable the state of charge of the batteries to be determined. 5.7 ENGINE EXERCISING The test shall be for a period of at least five minutes each day. 6 WATER SUPPLY 6.1 Water for the hydrant services shall be stored in an easily accessible surface/underground lined reservoir or above ground tanks of steel concrete or masonry. The effective capacity of the reservoir above the low water level (defined hereunder), or above the top of the pump casing (in case of flooded suction) for the various classes of occupancies and size of hydrant installations shall be as indicated in the Table 1. NOTES – 1) The low water level is a point atleast three times the diameter of the suction pipe above the draw-off point. (See figs.4, 5 and 6). In cases where requirements of low water level cannot be complied with orifice plate can be installed at entrance of the suction pipe. 2) Large natural reservoirs with water capacity exceeding 10 times the aggregate water requirements of all Fire Pumps there from may be left un-lined. 6.2 Reservoirs of and over 2,25,000 litres capacity shall be in two interconnected equal compartments to facilitates cleaning and repairs. The fore bay supplying water to the thermal power station fed by canals from perennial water sources like rivers, rivulets, dams etc. may be accepted as firewater reservoir provided the availability of 2 hours pumping capacity is ensured. The cooling water pond (s) may also be accepted as firewater reservoir provided the availability of 2 hours pumping capacity is ensured. Cooling water basins shall not be acceptable as equivalent to cooling water ponds. 6.3 The size of the firewater sump shall be such that the smaller side is at least equivalent to six times the diameter of the largest suction pipe. The suction pipe (s) shall be located along the central longitudinal axis of the sump and the positioning of the pipes shall be such that no pipe is within a distance of twice its own diameter from another suction pipe or from the wall of the sump. 29
  32. 32. 6.4 Where the Fire pump(s) draw water from the reservoir under suction lift conditions the two compartments shall be connected to a common sump through sluice or gate valves. 6.5 In case of dual purpose reservoirs catering to fire water and general water requirements the general water pumps shall draw their supply from a separate sump which shall be connected only to the fire water sump, the interconnection being so located that the effective quantity (as defined above) of water available in the reservoir for fire water requirements below the level of the interconnection is atleast equivalent to the quantities indicated in Table2. Incoming mains shall be connected to Fire water Compartments and only overflow of fire water compartments should go to process. 6.6 Where the reservoir provides positive suction for the fire pump(s) tapping shall be taken from both the compartments and shall be connected through sluice valves to a common suction header. The pumps, in turn, shall draw their suction from the common header through sluice valves. In case of dual purpose reservoirs catering to fire water and general water requirements, the tapping for the general water pumps shall be taken at a higher level such that the capacity of the reservoir between the low water level as defined heretofore (or the top of the fire pump casing in case it is higher than the low water level) and the general water tapping is at least equivalent to the requirements indicated in Table 2. 30
  33. 33. TABLE - 2 NATURE OF RISK CAPACITY OF STATIC STORAGE EXCLUSIVELY RESERVED FOR HYDRANT SERVICE 1. Light Hazard Not less than 01 hour’s aggregate pumping capacity with a minimum of 1,35,000 litres. 2. Ordinary Hazard Not less than 2 hour’s aggregate pumping capacity. 3. High Hazard (A) Not less than 3 hour’s aggregate pumping capacity 4. High Hazard (B) Not less than 4 hour's aggregate pumping capacity NOTES – 1) The capacity of the reservoir for ordinary and high hazard class occupancies may be reduced by the quantum of inflow [of one hour in case of ordinary hazard, 90 minutes in case of high hazard (A) and two hours in case of high hazard (B) occupancies), from a reliable sources (other than town's main), but in no case shall the reservoir capacity be less than 70 % of that mentioned above. 2) In case of light hazard class occupancies the minimum capacity of the reservoir shall be increased to 2,25,000 litres if the highest floor of the building is more than 15 m above the surrounding ground level. 7 MAINS 7.1 The hydrants mains shall normally be laid underground or in masonry culverts with removable covers of incombustible construction according to the provisions given in IS 5822 and shall be of any one of the following types: a) Cast Iron double flanged pipes conforming to the following standards: Type of Pipes Class of Pipes Indian Standard Horizontally Cast Iron Pipes B IS 7181 Vertically Cast Iron Pipes A S 1537 Centrifugally Cast (Spun) Iron Pipes A IS 1536 Centrifugally Cast (Spun) Ductile Iron Pipes A IS 8329 31
  34. 34. NOTE - In case of vertically cast pipes, where the nominal diameter of the pipes exceeds 300 mm or where the pump delivery pressure exceeds 7 kg/ cm2 , Class `B' pipes would be necessary. b) Centrifugally Cast (Spun) Iron Class `A’ Pipes with Tyton Joints – (Rubber gasketed) c) Wrought or mild steel pipes (galvanised or un-galvanised) of ‘Medium’ grade conforming to IS 1239 or IS 3589 having welded joints and coated and wrapped as per IS 10221. (MS pipes may be allowed for extension of existing systems which are laid with CI pipes) Haliday Testing for Wrapping and Coating is essential. Holiday Testing may preferably be carried by flexible and detachable ring probe, which will enable the entire 360o of the surface of the pipe to be scanned. At least 10 % of all the welded joints shall be radiographically tested and half of the joints radiographed shall be the ‘field joints’. d) Un-plasticized PVC ‘Class 4’ pipes conforming to IS 4985 and HDPE pipes conforming to IS 4984 are permitted for use in Light Hazard Occupancies for underground mains only. 7.2 Underground Mains shall be laid such that the top of the pipe is not less than one metre below the ground level and masonry or equivalent supports shall be provided at regular intervals. In case of poor soil conditions, it may be necessary to provide continuous masonry or equivalent supports. 7.3 Mains above ground shall be medium grade wrought or mild steel (galvanised or un- galvanised) conforming to IS 1239 or IS 3589 with welded, threaded or flanged joints, adequately supported at regular intervals on masonry or RCC stools or pedestals (not on pipe racks). The spacing of supports shall be 3.5 m for 80, 100 and 125 mm diameter pipes, 5 m for 150, 200 and 250 mm diameter pipes and 7 m for above 250 mm diameter pipes. Pipes shall be run at least 6 m away from the face of the buildings and open storage areas in case of Light and Ordinary Hazard Occupancies and 15 m. in case of High Hazard Occupancies In case of practical difficulties in maintaining the stipulated distance from the face of the building in case of above ground over head mains, warranted under demanding circumstances in specific areas, for example between Boiler House and TG Building and between Transformer and T.G. Building in thermal power plants, the same may be permitted provided the mains installed in such areas form part of sub-ring only. 7.4 Mains shall not be laid under buildings. Where, however, circumstances necessitate laying of mains under buildings, the portion of mains falling under the buildings shall be laid in masonry trenches with removable covers and cut-off valves shall be provided at 32
  35. 35. points of entry and exit. As far as possible, mains shall not be laid under large open storages, railroads and roads carrying heavy traffic. 7.5 The mains shall not traverse ground that is not under the control of the owner of the installation nor under a public roadway. 7.6 The system shall be capable of withstanding for two hours a pressure equivalent to 150 % of the maximum working pressure. While hydro-testing. Inclusion of cut-off valves in the mains to be tested should be avoided. 7.7 All boltholes in flanges shall be drilled. The drilling of each flange shall be in accordance with the relevant Indian Standards. 7.8 Flanges shall be faced and have jointing of rubber insertion or asbestos compound. 7.9 Fittings installed underground shall be of cast iron `heavy' grade conforming to IS 1538 whereas those installed above ground shall normally be of `Medium' grade wrought steel or mild steel conforming to IS 1239 Part 2 or malleable iron fittings conforming to IS 1879. 7.10 Mild steel stand post may be accepted even in cases where underground mains are of Cast iron. 7.11 It is recommended to provide semi-circular RCC pipes for cast iron pipes at road crossings. 7.12 Mains shall be laid in rings (excepting as specified to NOTE 4 below) and the size of the initial pipe shall not, in any case, be less than the internal diameter of the delivery outlet of the pump. 33
  36. 36. TABLE 3 (FOR LIGHT HAZARD OCCUPANCIES) NO. OF HYDRANTS IN THE WHOLE SYSTEM SIZE OF MAINS (mm) % AGE OF ALL MAINS INCLUDING TERMINAL MAINS AND RISERS * 1 to 20 100 100 % 21 to 55 125 110 45 % 55 % 56 to 100 125 100 60 % 40 % TABLE 3 A (FOR ORDINARY HAZARD OCCUPANCIES) NO. OF HYDRANTS IN THE WHOLE SYSTEM SIZE OF MAINS (mm) % AGE OF ALL MAINS INCLUDING TERMINAL MAINS AND RISERS * 01 to 05 100 100 % 06 to 20 125 100 40 % 60 % 21 to 55 150 125 100 20 % 35 % 45 % 56 to 100 150 125 100 25 % 40 % 35 % Exceeding 100 See NOTE– 3 (a) and 3 (b) hereunder * 80 mm diameter terminal and/or riser mains shall be taken as 100 mm diameter mains for this purpose. 34
  37. 37. NOTES - 1) In calculating the number of hydrants in the system, a double headed hydrant shall be counted as two, a fixed monitor of 63 mm size having nozzle bore of 32 mm shall be counted as three, a fixed monitor of 75 mm size having nozzle bore of 38 mm shall be counted as four and a fixed monitor of 100 mm size having nozzle bore of 45 mm as six hydrant points. In case of risks, where double headed hydrants are used throughout the system, a double headed hydrant may be regarded as a single hydrant only. For High Hazard occupancies, the hydrant system shall be hydraulically so designed that when half the aggregate pumping capacity is being discharged at the farthest/hydraulically most remote point and the other half in the most vulnerable area enroute, a minimum running pressure of 5.25 kg/ cm2 is available at the former point and the rate of flow of water does not exceed 5 m/s anywhere in the system. In case the hydraulically most remote point happens to be ordinary hazard risk, pressure requirement at this point can be restricted to 3.5 kg/cm2 . However pressure available at the high hazard area immediately preceding the ordinary/light hazard area must be 5.25 kg/ cm2 . In case the hydraulically most remote point is the area fed by other systems tapped from hydrant system, the entire aggregate pumping capacity shall be considered as being discharged at this point at a minimum running pressure of 5.25 kg/cm2 and the hydrant system shall be so designed that the rate of flow of water does not exceed 5 m/s anywhere in the system. 2) For Light and Ordinary Hazard Occupancies having more than 55 points, either of the following methods may be followed: a) The hydrant service be constituted of single or more than one inter- connected hydrant systems, each with its individual pump set according to Table 2 and water supplies equivalent to the aggregate requirements of the number of pump sets installed. b) A single hydrant system may be installed provided, it is hydraulically designed (where the highest hydrant is located more than 20 m above ground level, pre calculated systems shall not be accepted) as per the parameters indicated in NOTE 2 above, except that minimum running pressure shall be 3.5 kg/ cm2 . (minimum diameter of the pipe used in the ring mains shall however not be less than 100 mm). 35
  38. 38. 3) In the case of riser mains in storeyed buildings and in locations where it is not feasible to lay a ring main, a terminal main may be provided, but in no case shall the number of hydrants on such terminal mains exceed 5. A terminal main of 80 mm diameter shall not feed more than one hydrant that having a diameter of 100 mm shall not feed more than two hydrants that having a diameter of 125 mm shall not feed more than three hydrants and a main of 150 mm shall not feed more than five hydrants. 4) Cut-off (Isolating) valves are necessary to obtain the best possible pressure at the seat of fire as they enable a damaged portion of the installation to be isolated whilst full pressure is available throughout the remainder. These valves are distributed according to the general layout of the installation. 5) Cut-off valves shall conform to IS 780 / IS 14846, Class 2 . 6) In case of system having working pressure in excess of 7 kg/cm2 PN- 1.6 rating would be necessary for valves conforming to IS 780 and Class 3 for those conforming to IS 14846. Cast Steel valves of class 150 are, however, acceptable irrespective of the working pressure of the system. 7) Other types of valves like rising spindle valves may also be used. 8) Butterfly valves can be accepted subject to the condition that the valves of diameter exceeding 150 mm shall necessary be of gear operated. 7.13 All cut-off valves shall be of the right-hand type and enclosed in properly constructed surface box, at least 1 m2 in area so as to allow for broken joints being easily remade. The top of the surface box shall be 80 mm above ground level, except where it is locate on a road. Valve wheels shall have an arrowhead engraved or cast thereon showing direction for turning `open' and `close'. 7.14 It is recommended that the position of the surface box be indicated by an iron plate painted `fire red' with distinct lettering. Such plates shall also show the `open' and `close' direction as cast or indicated on the valves and the serial no. of the sluice valve. 7.15 In case of installations in earthquake prone zones, flexible couplings shall be used for jointing purposes. 8 HOSE PIPES 8.1 In the case of yard hydrants, hose pipes and nozzles shall be installed either in central hose stations which shall be of the type which enables the condition and quantity of hose, nozzles, etc. to be checked over at a glance and ensures that other useful equipment is ready at hand in the event of a fire or near each hydrant in glass 36
  39. 39. fronted hose boxes of suitable design. In case of hydrants on upper floors or internal hydrants, hosepipes and nozzles shall necessarily be installed near each hydrant in glass fronted hose boxes of suitable design. NOTE - Locations and number of hose stations will depend upon several factors such as fire loads, accessibility and positions of watch posts. Prior approval of the Committee shall, therefore, be obtained regarding locations of the hose stations before they are constructed. 8.2 Requirements of Hose Pipes 8.2.1 If hose is kept in central hose stations, for each of the first ten hydrants in the compound of the premises (a double headed hydrant counting as two except where they are provided as a standard practice throughout the system), two lengths of hose 15 m each and an additional 15 m length for each hydrant in excess of ten, shall be provided. NOTE - In case of system having more than 55 hydrant outlets, the total number of hose lengths required may be limited to 55 plus 20 percent of the number of hydrant outlets in excess of 55. Where a fire engine is maintained on the premises manned by a whole time fire brigade, the number of hose, pipes required (including those on the engine) would be 55 plus 10 percent of the number of outlets in excess of 55. 8.2.2 If hose is kept in hose boxes alongside hydrants, each box shall contain two lengths of 15 m each. 8.2.3 For use with each hydrant on staircase landing or with each internal hydrant, two lengths of hose 7.5 m shall be provided. In case of basement hydrants, two lengths of hose 15 m shall be provided. 8.3 Requirement of Hose Pipes in T.G. Hall/Boiller House/Mill Bay in Thermal Power Plants For use with each hydrant on staircase landing two lengths of hoses 15 m each and a nozzle with attached branch pipe shall be provided in hose box alongside each landing valve. 8.4 All hoses shall be of 63 mm diameter of either of the following types: a) Unlined flax canvas complying with Indian Standard IS 4927. b) Rubber lined woven-jacketed complying with Type A (Reinforced Rubber lined) of Indian Standards IS 636. c) Controlled Percolation type complying with Indian Standards IS 8423. 37
  40. 40. d) Ordinary rubber lined woven-jacketed hose complying with the specification of Type B of Indian Standards IS 636 may be permitted to be used in lieu of the above upto a maximum of 50 % of the total hose requirements of the hydrant system. 8.5 All couplings shall be of the instantaneous spring-lock type and the nozzles shall be of not less than 16 mm in diameter, nor more than 25 mm in diameter except in case of high hazard occupancies where the maximum nozzle diameter may be 32 mm. All couplings, branch pipes and nozzles shall be of gunmetal or stainless steel and shall otherwise comply with IS 903. 8.6 Hose shall be attached to the coupling in such a way that each half of the coupling shall have two 5 mm diameter holes drilled in the tail. The hose shall be first fixed to the tail of the coupling with copper rivets then served or bound with 1.5 mm galvanised mild steel or copper wire for a length of 50 mm which shall extend to the outer ends of the grooving on the coupling tail. Over the galvanised mild steel or copper wire a leather or equally protective band shall be bound with four strands of 1.12 mm galvanised mild steel or copper wire at each end of the band. The protective band shall be carried beyond the tail of the coupling to prevent leaking. Copper wire, if used, shall be softened before being used. Couplings attached to the hose otherwise than by copper rivets shall not be accepted. 8.7 Spare hose to the extent of 10 percent of the above requirements, with a minimum quantity of 30 m shall be always kept readily available. Such spare hose shall be in 15 m lengths, readily attached to couplings. 8.8 It is recommended that a system of marking and numbering hose be arranged so that the various lengths are easily recognisable. 8.9 In central hose stations and hose boxes a tin containing a set of spare rubber rings packed in French chalk shall be kept. 8.10 Central hose stations and hose boxes shall be so arranged that hose is not exposed to the sunrays. 8.11 All central hose stations or hose boxes, when provided with locks shall have one master key which shall be available either at the main gate or any other prominent and easily accessible location known to the fire fighting personnel. 9 REQUIREMENTS OF NOZZLES 9.1 The number of nozzles to be provided shall be equivalent to half the number of hose pipes installed on the premises. 9.2 In locations where a jet of water directed from a normal type nozzle is likely to cause more harm than good or where a gentle spray of water is essential for the 38
  41. 41. extinguishment of a fire, a fog type or a spray type of nozzle complying with IS 2871 shall be used. 9.3 Spare nozzles to the extent of 10 % of the above requirements, with a minimum of two, shall always be kept readily available. 10 FOAM COMPOUND Foam systems shall conform to IS 12835. The stock of foam compound to be maintained shall be equivalent to at least two times the requirement of the tank needing maximum quantity of foam. Foam Compound shall be chemically neutral (PH 6.5 to 7.5). 11 FIRE FIGHTING PERSONNEL 11.1 A squad consisting of watch and ward personnel, fire pump men and departmental supervisors and/or operatives trained in the operation of the fire service shall be maintained on the premises round the clock. The number of personnel constituting the squad shall necessarily depend upon the size of the risk, but in no case shall less than eight trained persons be available at any time during the day or night. Minimum number of trained persons required may be further reduced to six in case of automatic pressurised hydrant systems. 11.2 Squad leaders shall be trained by government recognised institution and their usefulness would be considerably enhanced if they reside on the premises. 11.3 Squad personnel shall be provided with clothing and equipment including helmets confirming to IS 2745 or IS 2925, belts and boots preferably gun boots. 11.4 A muster roll showing the duties allocated to each member of the brigade shall be prepared and copies supplied to each squad leader as well as pasted in convenient places throughout the premises, so as to be quickly available for reference in case of emergency. 11.5 Practice drills shall take place weekly and wet drills shall be carried out at intervals of not more than a fort-night 11.6 During wet drills, hydrants (including those of upper floors), hose pipes and nozzles, shall be taken into use in rotation, so that the efficacy of these appliances would be automatically checked and any defects observed, set right. 11.7 A Register counter signed by fire marshal and works Manager shall be kept showing Information such as names and designations of the persons attending the drill, type of drill dry or wet, serial nos of hydrants operated, duration of operation of pumps, defects observed if any, date purchased, date brought into use, date cut (if reduced in length), is useful. 39
  42. 42. 11.8 The services of the pump man could be profitably utilised for the maintenance of all fire fighting appliances (including hand appliances. He shall also be thoroughly conversant with the locations of all appliances, particularly of hydrant cut-off valves so that in an eventuality he can be of assistance to the factory’s fire brigade or the Town’s fire brigade. 11.9 Keys of all doors in the factory premises shall always be available at the main gate. 11.10 It is recommended that fire pump room(s) and the main gate(s) of all factory premises be connected to all manufacturing sections through the internal telephone system. Telephones interlinked to this system may also be put up in proper cubicles at convenient locations near godown ranges and other strategic points. This would effect saving of valuable time in an emergency to alert the fire fighting personnel and the pump man. 12 MAINTENANCE 12.1 Pumps 12.1.1 General 12.1.1.1 A trained pump man shall be available on all shifts and at all hours of the day and night to operate the pumps as and when required. 12.1.1.2 Pump sets shall be run for at least five minutes every day. 12.1.1.3 The level of water in the priming tank shall be checked daily to ensure that the foot valve of the pump is not leaking. 12.1.1.4 All pump glands shall be maintained in efficient working condition and the packing renewed as required to maintain efficiency. 12.1.1.5 Suction and delivery valves shall be examined once every six months, particularly where sand or other objectionable matter is liable to be drawn through the pump suction. 12.1.1.6 All working parts shall be kept clean and lightly oiled. Any necessary repairs shall be put in hand and carried out immediately. 12.1.2 Electrically Driven Pumps 12.1.2.1 The bearing grease cup shall be checked once every week and refilled with fresh grease, if necessary. 12.1.2.2 Starter contacts shall be cleaned once every week. 40
  43. 43. 12.1.2.3 Insulation resistance of pump motor circuit shall be examined once every six months and record of results shall be maintained. 12.2 Mains 12.2.1 Hydrant mains shall be tested once a fortnight with a pump delivering at its maximum pressure, with all hydrant valves closed and, thereafter, a running test with two or more hose lines each 30 m long operating shall be carried out. 12.2.2 All cut-off valves shall be operated and oiled, if necessary, once a month. 12.2.3 Cut-off valves shall be thoroughly overhauled annually to remove sludge and other foreign matter collected in the valve seating. 12.3 Hydrants 12.3.1 All hydrants shall be examined systematically once a week to ensure that valves and spring catches are maintained in good condition and all brass parts are polished. 12.3.2 Spare washers shall be kept for hydrant valve seats. 12.3.3 It is recommended that the painting of standpoints be carried out annually. 12.4 Hose Pipes and Nozzles 12.4.1 All hose boxes/hose stations shall be inspected externally once every week to ensure that the equipment installed therein is intact. Further, the hose boxes/hose stations shall be cleaned internally and externally once a month. 12.4.2 When the hose gets worn out at the tail end of the coupling(s), it is permissible to cut the end(s) of the hose. However should the lengths of the hose after cutting(s) fall below 90 percent of its original, the hose shall be discarded. 12.4.3 A Hose Register shall be kept showing Information such as date purchased, date brought into use, date cut (if reduced in length), is useful. 12.4.4 Any hose becoming inefficient through use, neglect or from any other cause, shall be discarded. 12.4.5 Fire protection hose shall not be used for purposes other than fire protection and drill. Cheap hose for watering paths, washing out or filling boilers, etc. shall not be mixed with fire protection hose but kept in an entirely separate place. 12.4.6 It is recommended that hose couplings and branch pipes be polished once a fortnight. 41
  44. 44. 12.4.7 After use, hose should be thoroughly washed in clean water and then thoroughly dried. A rack or some similar contrivance atleast 10 m high should be provided so that, after cleaning, hose may be suspended to drain and dry evenly. This is to be done in the shade and not in the sunshine so that the hose is evenly dried inside and out. Care should be exercised that it is not removed until it is thoroughly dry in all places. The hose should be then thoroughly brushed with a hard bristle or wire brush, and re-rolled, care being taken to choose a dry and clean place whereon to roll it. Hose should then be replaced in the boxes or hose stations. Care should be taken after washing that the hose does not touch the ground, where it might be soiled. Hose should be rolled up evenly and carefully, the female or spring coupling end being in the centre. In this manner the spring clips, when grasped one in each hand, form a `reel’ and the hose can be quickly run out in the event of fire. Or alternatively the hose should be doubled in the centre of its length and rolled up evenly from the fold. Both the Male and Female couplings will then be on the outside of the roll. This permits the nozzle being attached to the hose while being stored in readiness for use, and the hose runs out without twisting. 13 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN WHERE THE INSTALLATION IS FOR ANY REASON TEMPORARILY INOPERATIVE 13.1 If any component of the hydrant system is to be replaced for any reason whatsoever, the entire system shall not be rendered inoperative but the particular section only shall be isolated by closing the necessary cut-off valves. If, however, it is not possible to complete the replacement before nightfall, the cut-off valves shall not be left closed overnight. Instead, blank flanges shall be provided at the point where the component has been removed so that the entire system, other than the component, which has been removed, would remain operative through the night. 13.2 Only one compartment of the reservoir shall be emptied out at a time of cleaning or repair work. 13.3 If the foot valve of the suction line is removed for cleaning/repairs, it shall, as far as practicable, be replaced before nightfall. 13.4 If the pump is expected to be inoperative for more than 72 hours, every effort shall be made to connect the service water supply to the hydrant system for the duration the pump is inoperative. 13.5 If the hydrant service is to be extended, the extended portion shall be first laid and, thereafter, the connection between the existing system and the extension shall be carried out expeditiously, so that the entire system is not left inoperative overnight 42
  45. 45. Annexe A (List of referred Indian Standards) IS Number Title 5:2007 Colours for ready mixed paints and enamels (Fifth Revision) 636:1988 Non percolating flexible fire fighting delivery hose (Third revision) 780:1984 Specification for Sluice valves for water works purposes(50mm to 300mm size) (sixth revision) 903:1993 Specification for fire hose delivery couplings, branch pipe, nozzles and nozzle spanner (Fourth revision) 908:1975 Specification for Fire Hydrant Stand post type (second revision) 909:1992 Specification for underground fire hydrant Sluice valve type (Third revision) 1239 Part 1:2004 Steel tubes, tubulars and other wrought steel fittings – Specification : Part 1 Steel Tubes (Sixth Revision) 1239 Part 2:1992 Mild steel tubes, tubulars and other wrought steel fittings Part 2 Mild steel tubulars and other wrought steel pipe fittings (Fourth revision) 1536:2001 Centrifugally cast (spun) iron pressure pipes for water gas and sewage (Fourth revision) 1537:1976 Vertically cast iron pressure pipes for water, gas and sewage (First revision) 1538:1993 Cast iron fittings for pressure pipes for water, gas and sewage (Third revision) 1641: 1988 Code of practice for fire safety of buildings(general): general principles of fire grading and classification (First revision) 2745:1983 Specification for Non-metal helmet for firemen and civil defence personnel (Second revision) 2871:1983 Specification for branch pipe, universal for fire fighting purposes (First Revision) 43
  46. 46. 3844:1989 Code of practice for installation and maintenance of internal fire hydrants and hose reels on premises (First revision) 3589:2001 Steel pipes for water and sewage (168.3 to 2 540mm outside diameter) – Specification (Third revision) 3950:1979 Specification for Surface boxes for sluice valves (first revision) 4927:1992 Unlined flax canvas hose for fire fighting – Specification (First revision) 4984:1995 Specification for high density polyethylene pipes for potable water supplies (Fourth revision) 4985:2000 Unplasticized PVC Pipes for potable water supplies – Specification (Third revision) 5290:1993 Specification for landing valves (Third revision) 5822:1994 Code of practice for laying of electrically welded steel pipes for water supply ( Second revision) 7181:1986 Horizontally cast iron double flanged pipes for water, gas and sewage (First revision) 8329:2000 Centrifugally cast (spun) ductile iron pressure pipes for water, gas and sewage (Third revision) 8423:1994 Specification for controlled percolating hose for fire fighting (First revision) 10221:1982 Code of practice for coating and wrapping of underground mild steel pipelines 12469:1988 Specification for Pumps for fire fighting system 12835:1989 Code of practice for design and installation of fixed fire extinguishing system :Part 1 Low expansion foam 14846:2000 Sluice valves for water works purposes (50 to 1200 mm size) - Specification 15325:2003 Design and installation of fixed automatic high and medium velocity water spray system – Code of Practice 44
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